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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144609 matches for " Niko B Kohls "
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Ambient Assistive Technologies (AAT): socio-technology as a powerful tool for facing the inevitable sociodemographic challenges?
Astrid M Schülke, Herbert Plischke, Niko B Kohls
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-5-8
Abstract: Results of an earlier survey revealed that the elderly perceived their current lighting situation as satisfactory, whereas interviewers assessed in-house lighting as too dark and risk-laden. The overall results of ALADIN showed a significant increase in well-being from the baseline final testing with the new adaptive lighting system.Positive results for wellbeing and life quality suggest that the outcome effects may be attributed to the introduction of technology as well as to social contacts arising from participating in the study. The technological guidance of the study supervisors, in particular, may have produced a strong social reactivity effect that was first observed in the famous Hawthorne experiments in the 1930s. As older adults seem to benefit both from meaningful social contacts as well as assistive technologies, the question arises how assistive technology can be socially embedded to be able to maximize positive health effects. Therefore ethical guidelines for development and use of new assistive technologies for handicapped/older persons have to be developed and should be discussed with regard to their applicability in the context of AAT.In most developed Western societies two long-term socio-demographic trends are becoming gradually more visible: First, the birth rate is below that which is necessary to retain a sustainable population. Second, individual life expectancy is steadily increasing due to improvements in medical science and health care. Even though the speed and course of demographic change, and social and economic contexts may vary throughout different parts of the world, the aging of the population has already become a global trend in many Western societies that will gradually have profound impact upon the life circumstances of many individuals [1]. Thus, governments will have to find culturally and ethically sustainable ways to deal with an aging and shrinking population and the economic consequences.According to the Congressional Resear
Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers – A validation study
Büssing Arndt,Walach Harald,Kohls Niko,Zimmermann Fred
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-7-1
Abstract: Background The concept of `mindfulness′ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach′s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers′ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness′ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance′ and `presence′ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies.
Dialectics of mindfulness: implications for western medicine
Sebastian Sauer, Siobhan Lynch, Harald Walach, Niko Kohls
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-6-10
Abstract: In the last two to three decades, the concept of mindfulness has received increasing attention, particularly in the health sciences. Mindfulness is about being aware of actual experiences from one moment to the next with gentle acceptance [1-3]. This concept has been proposed to contribute to the coping and recovery process in many health conditions.Both clinical as well as basic science researchers have devoted a significant amount of study to this topic [4]. Moreover, with rapidly mounting evidence regarding the therapeutic capacities of mindfulness practice, medical professionals are increasingly incorporating such techniques into their clinical repertoire. Probably the best known and evaluated mindfulness-based treatment is the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) that is used in many clinical settings in the US and Canada and evermore, in Europe [4].Yet, integrating mindfulness into existing therapeutic concepts may challenge medical professionals' usual practices for number of reasons. First and foremost, mindfulness approaches do not aim at symptom reduction. Fundamentally, mindfulness is not intended to explicitly eradicate pain, distress, or unwanted emotions. However, philosophically and practically, medical professionals endeavor to reduce suffering. If mindfulness does not aim at reducing symptoms, then how can it be helpful? In this essay, we argue that while mindfulness is not meant to actively reduce symptoms, it may passively modify their impact by changing an individual's perceptions and mindset. Mindfulness is a set of practices, if not a "way of being" that may incur salutogenic (i.e., health-promoting) effects. This may lead to a misconception of what mindfulness is, and how it works. We believe that some of the apparently contradictory aspects of mindfulness can be best understood by taking a dialectical approach. It is not a new idea to explain psychological health-related processes through the use of paradoxical or dialectical approaches
Opposite Drug Prescription and Cost Trajectories following Integrative and Conventional Care for Pain – A Case-Control Study
Tobias Sundberg, Max Petzold, Niko Kohls, Torkel Falkenberg
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096717
Abstract: Objectives Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. Methods In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). Results After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC.
Measuring Mindfulness: A Rasch Analysis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory
Sebastian Sauer,Harald Walach,Martin Offenb?cher,Siobhan Lynch,Niko Kohls
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2040693
Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14) using a Rasch model approach in a cross-sectional design. The scale was administered to N = 130 British patients with different psychosomatic conditions. The scale failed to show clear one-factoriality and item 13 did not fit the Rasch model. A two-factorial solution without item 13, however, appeared to fit well. The scale seemed to work equally well in different subgroups such as patients with or without mindfulness practice. However, some limitations of the validity of both the one-factorial and the two-factorial version of the scale were observed. Sizeable floor and ceiling effects limit the diagnostical use of the instrument. In summary, the study demonstrates that the two-factorial version of the FMI-13 shows acceptable approximation to Rasch requirements, but is in need of further improvement. The one-factorial solution did not fit well, and cannot be recommended for further use.
Mind-Body Practices in Integrative Medicine
Harald Walach,Marie-Louise Gander Ferrari,Sebastian Sauer,Niko Kohls
Religions , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rel3010050
Abstract: Mind-Body practices have become increasingly popular as components of psychotherapeutic and behavior medicine interventions. They comprise an array of different methods and techniques that use some sort of mental-behavioral training and involve the modulation of states of consciousness in order to influence bodily processes towards greater health, well-being and better functioning. Mind-body practices may thus be interpreted as the salutogenetic mirror image of psychosomatic medicine, where psychophysiological and health consequences of specific psychological states are studied, such as stress arousal, psychological trauma or depression. This contribution examines the empirical evidence of the most common mind-body techniques with regard to their salutogenetic potential. We concisely discuss some aspects of the mind-body problem, before we consider some historical aspects and achievements of psychosomatic medicine. We then turn to some prominent mind-body practices and their application, as well as the empirical database for them.
Invarianten zusammenh?ngender Gruppen und die Cohen-Macaulay Eigenschaft
Martin Kohls
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: For G=SL_n or GL_n we construct representations V such that the invariant ring K[V]^G is not Cohen-Macaulay.
On the depth of invariant rings of infinite groups
Martin Kohls
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.jalgebra.2009.01.019
Abstract: Let K be an algebraically closed field. For a finitely generated graded K algebra R, let cmdef R := dim R - depth R denote the Cohen-Macaulay-defect of R. Let G be a linear algebraic group over K that is reductive but not linearly reductive. We show that there exists a faithful rational representation V of G (which we will give explicitly) such that cmdef K[\sum_i=1^k V]^G >= k-2 for all k. We give refinements in the case G = SL2.
Konstruktion von Invariantenringen ohne die Cohen-Macaulay Eigenschaft
Martin Kohls
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We give examples of Non-Cohen-Macaulay invariant rings.
Ueber die Tiefe von Invariantenringen unendlicher Gruppen
Martin Kohls
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Let K be an algebraically closed field. For a graded K-Algebra R, we write cmdef R:=dim R -depth R. We show that for each reductive group G (over K) which is not linearly reductive, there exists a faithful G-module V such that cmdef K[\sum_i=1^k V]^G >= k-2 for all k. We will give such a V explicitly.
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