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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461830 matches for " Nii A. Addo "
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First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, William K. Ampofo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Naomi Nartey, Gloria I. Mensah, Samuel O. Addo, Kofi Bonney, Justice Kumi, Adukwei Hesse, Nii A. Addo, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62013
Abstract: Background: To better understand the extent of the magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in Ghana, a baseline study was conducted to establish the national prevalence of the dual infection. The study aimed to determine the most prevalent HIV serotype (HIV-1 or HIV-2) in TB patients (new and old cases); genotype mycobacterial species causing TB/HIV co-infection and determine their drug susceptibility patterns. Methods: Sputum and dried blood samples were collected from 503 TB patients from 67 health facilities nationwide between December 2007 and November 2008. All samples were processed for mycobacterial and HIV testing using conventional and molecular methods. Results: A total of 517 paired sputum samples were received from 517 patients. A total 503 patients [335 (66.6%) males; 168 (33.4%) females] had at least one culture positive sample. Majority (93.0%) of the patients were new cases while 7.0% were old cases. All 503 TB isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Of 503 blood samples, 74 were positive for HIV (14.7%), comprising 71 (14.1%) and 3 (0.6%) for HIV-1 and HIV-1 & 2 respectively; none was positive for HIV-2 alone. The seroprevalence of HIV in newly diagnosed TB patients and those already on treatment, was 69/468 (14.7%) and 5/35 (14.3%) respectively (p > 0.05). Differentiation of isolates from TB/HIV co-infected patients showed that 70/74 (94.6%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4/74 (5.4%) were Mycobacterium africanum. Monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 4/74 (5.4%) and 1/74 (1.4%) respectively; resistance to both drugs (multi-drug resistant-MDR) was not observed. Sixty nine (93.2%) isolates were susceptible to both drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients was 14.7%. TB/HIV was common among the sexually active age group (25 - 34 years). Majority of the TB isolates were M. tuberculosis which were susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV-1 was the common serotype infecting TB patients in Ghana.
First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Hypertensive Target Organ Damage in Ghanaian Civil Servants with Hypertension
Juliet Addo, Liam Smeeth, David A. Leon
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006672
Abstract: Background Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged≥25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke. Results Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5%) had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP)≥180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP<140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001). Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men. Conclusions The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population.
Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades
Juliet Addo,Liam Smeeth,David A. Leon
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6010200
Abstract: The number of smokers in developing countries is expected to increase as markets in high income countries begin to decline and multinational tobacco companies shift their marketing efforts to lower income countries. We determined the prevalence and distribution of smoking in a cross-sectional study of 1,015 urban civil servants in Accra, Ghana (82.7% participation rate) in 2006. The results were compared to the findings from a previous study in 1976 of civil servants in Accra to estimate the changes in smoking patterns over a 30 year period. In our 2006 study, the smoking prevalence rate was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.8-8.9) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.006-1.4) in men and women respectively. These figures were dramatically lower than the rates of 32% and 5.9% reported for men and women respectively in the previous study. Knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking may have contributed to the lower rates.
Clinical evaluation of pearl millet conophor weaning mix as supplementary food for Nigerian children
Akeredolu, I. A.;Addo, A. A.;Akeredolu, O. A.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000500004
Abstract: the purpose of this study was to formulate a weaning diet from pearl millet-conophor nut flour that would promote growth. for per, bv, npu and td values, casein diet was the most superior while millet-conophor diet and soy-ogi diet compared favourably with each other. for the clinical measurements of the experimental rats on the soy -ogi diet and millet-conophor diet, apart from the urinary urea level of the group on millet conophor diet which was much higher than soy-ogi, there was no difference in any of the other parameters measured. it was therefore, concluded that the millet-conophor, diet was favourably well with the soy-ogi.
Influence of Drying Temperature and Storage Duration on Fissuring and Milling Quality of Jasmine 85 Rice Variety
JO Akowuah, A Addo, A Bart-Plange
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2012,
Abstract: Moisture and temperature gradients induce the development of fissures during drying of paddy kernels. This affects the milling quality of the paddy and eventually reduces the head rice yield. To this effect, a study was conducted to investigate the influence of drying temperature and storage duration on the cracking behaviour and head rice yield of a local rice variety - Jasmine 85. Freshly harvested paddy samples were thin layer dried in a tunnel dryer with varying drying temperatures (45°C, 50°C, 55°C) as treatments and direct sun drying as control. The drying experiment was performed under three replications using a completely randomised design. Samples after drying were stored for three months in sealed plastic bags at room temperature (28°C). Percentage fissures and head rice yield at each drying treatment was determined using a grain scope and a Satake grading machine respectively after the storage period. The highest head rice yield (76.3%) and the least fissure rate (10%) were attained at the control temperature. This was followed by the 45°C and 50°C treatments which gave head rice yields of 70.8%, and 69.8%, with fissure rates of 13% and 16% respectively. The least head rice yield (64.7%) and the highest fissure rate of 29% were observed at 55°C. There was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between head rice yields obtained at 55°C and the control experiment. However, there was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between head rice yield obtained at 45°C, 50°C and the control temperature. It is evident from this study that, Jasmine 85 can be dried by using a mechanical dryer at higher temperatures of 45°C and 50°C without affecting its milling qualities.
Drying Characteristics Of Cap And Stem Of Mushroom
A Addo, A Bart-Plange, DM Boakye
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2009,
Abstract: Thin-layer drying of cap and stem of mushroom was studied at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C. Drying took place in the falling rate period, and the drying behaviour was adequately described by the Page’s equation. The activation energy values of cap and stem were determined to be 26.96 and 26.85 kJ/mol, respectively. The computed values of frequency factor ko for cap and stem were 4174 and 6247h -1, respectively. The higher ko value for stem implied lower resistance to diffusion of moisture and therefore resulted in less drying time for stem at similar moisture content.
Friction coefficient of maize, cowpea and groundnuts on different structural surfaces
A Bart-Plange, A Addo, J Aveyire, E Tutu
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2007,
Abstract: The coefficient of friction of food grains and seeds which are necessary for the design of equipment for handling, transport, processing and storage of ‘mamaba', ‘asetenapa' and ‘chinese' varieties of maize, cowpea and groundnut respectively have been evaluated as a function of grain moisture content varying from 10% to 28% (wb). In this moisture range, the coefficient of friction increased from 0.223 to 0.674. There was an increase in the coefficient of friction from 0.223 to 0.453 for ‘asetenapa' variety, 0.260 to 0.522 for ‘mamaba' variety and 0.288 to 0.577 for ‘chinese' variety on rubber surface in the moisture content range of 10% to 28% (wb). Also on galvanized steel at the moisture content range of 10% to 28 %( wb), the coefficient of friction increased for ‘asetenapa' variety from 0.259 to 0.498, ‘mamaba' variety from 0.284 to 0.558 and ‘chinese' variety from 0.309 to 0.619 and on plywood, ‘asetenapa' variety had coefficient of friction increasing from 0.279 to 0.579, ‘mamaba' variety 0.311 to 0.624 and for ‘chinese' variety from 0.356 to 0.674. ‘Chinese' variety of groundnuts had the highest coefficient of friction on all the three surfaces studied with values ranging between 0.288 and 0.674 as against values of 0.223 to 0.579 for ‘asetenapa' variety which had the lowest values. Moisture effects on the coefficient of friction for the products studied were highly significant at 1%. From the study it can be said that product specification is necessary in the selection of materials for the construction of handling systems, dryers and silos. Journal of Science and Technology(Ghana) Vol. 27 (1) 2007: pp. 142-149
Effect of different threshing cylinders on soybean quality
A Addo, A Bart-Plange, RA Asuboah, K Dzisi
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2004,
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of spike-tooth and rasp-bar threshing cylinders on soybean quality. “Anidaso” variety at 10% moisture content (m.c.) wet basis was used as test sample. Four cylinder speeds (316, 376, 500 and 620 rpm) were selected with a replication. The results from this experiment showed that the lowest seed-coat damage of 5.36% was obtained with the spike- tooth cylinder at 316 rpm as against 7.17% at the same speed for the rasp-bar cylinder. Rasp-bar cylinder gave the lowest split loss of 0.68% as against 1.64% for spike-tooth at 376 and 316 rpm respectively. For undamaged whole bean, the respective highest values were 90.63 and 90.99% for rasp-bar and spike-tooth, respectively, at 316 rpm. The germination loss was lowest at rasp-bar threshing cylinder speed of 316 rpm. Better results were achieved at the lowest cylinder speed in both cases. In general, spike-tooth cylinder gave better results compared to the rasp-bar cylinder in soybean threshing at 10% m.c. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.24(2) 2004: 121-125
Options for types of dental health personnel to Train for Ghana
M.E Addo, P Batchelor, A Sheiham
Ghana Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objectives - To explore the degree of agreement on issues surrounding the proposals for dental health personnel requirements among key oral health personalities who are central to determining policy on oral health personnel requirements for Ghana and to make recommendations to assist in the future development of dental health personnel requirements. Design - A review of the literature, published documents and in-depth semi-structured interviews. Setting – Dental health service in Ghana Participants - Key oral health personalities who are central to determining policy on oral health personnel requirements for Ghana Results - There was a lack of consensus regarding key aspects of planning personnel requirements including the numbers and the kinds of professionals complementary to dentistry (PCDs) to develop, who should be responsible for their training, and which people to admit as trainees of PCDs. Conclusion - Greater discussion between the various agencies involved should take place to help ensure consensus on the overall policy objectives.
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