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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2994 matches for " Nicole; "
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From Sméagol to Gollum: Mechanical Stress and Bone Remodelling  [PDF]
Nicole Pace
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2018.84018
Abstract: This imaginary transformation from Sméagol to Gollum is a dramatization of the illusive repercussions of mechanical stress affecting bone. This paper presents the main ideas of mechanical stress and bone remodelling from a novel’s perspective. The object of this study is to provide evidence for new ways to explore bone’s functional adaptation to mechanical stress made through the copious interpretation and integration of new and existing literature. It tackles the underlying biology of bone cells and how they detect and react to strain stimuli. The different types of mechanical demands in daily activities are sifted through and any misconceptions found fallible in literature are refined. A personal experience of a stress fracture is reviewed to parallel the implications that lead to the incident with the findings on the link between mechanical stress and bone remodelling. Some factors regarding age, gender and ethnicity and the interplay with mechanical stress influencing bone remodelling are considered. Brief overviews of three new medical novelties in bone healing are outlined, hoping that these interventions of proper medical techniques can be a change for the better: one from Gollum to Sméagol rather than vice versa.
The Influence of Implicit Achievement Motive and Graphological Variables on Learning Variables  [PDF]
Nicole Gruber, Ludwig Kreuzpointner
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.612145
Abstract: There are several methods of implicit measurement. A very valid and wide spread assessment of motives by using the technique of projection is picture story exercises (PSE). Graphology, as theory of inferences on personality and motives by analyzing handwriting, is another one. The presented study examines the commons of the both measurement methods and their prediction of achievement behaviour. So, the achievement motive of 189 students was assessed using the PSE of Heckhausen (1963) and afterwards their handwriting was scored by a categorical system of Ploog (2013). Achievement related behaviour was operatively analyzed with self-reported learning time, learning behaviour and task-choice performance. It is shown that implicit motives measured by PSE are related with the criteria of task-choice performance. It is shown that both implicit motives measured by PSE and graphological variables deliver information about learning variables.
The Use of Low Molecular Weight Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Medical Patients: How Much Are We Adherent to the Guidelines?  [PDF]
Lamia AlHajri, Nicole Gebran
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2015.54012
Abstract: Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication seen during or after hospitalization that manifests as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). PE is considered the commonest preventable cause of death during and/or after hospitalization. Thus, pharmacological and mechanical methods are used to prevent VTE in hospitalized patients. Despite the availability of guidelines for VTE prophylaxis, it is crucial to assess the adherence and adaptation of the institution to these guidelines. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate adherence to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 VTE prophylaxis guidelines in hospitalized medical patients in a tertiary care hospital in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: An observational prospective design was utilized in this study. To achieve the purpose, primary and secondary end points were identified to be the core of the investigation. The primary end points were: the incidence of bleeding, VTE, and cardiovascular events. While the secondary end points were: dose and indication validity for prophylaxis, VTE and bleeding risk assessments, adverse drug events (ADE) other than bleeding, appropriate monitoring when on low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and the presence of contraindication at the time of prescribing LMWH. Results: 16 patients (20%) out of the total 80 met one or more of the primary end points. The vast majority of patients (81.25%) developed bleeding, while VTE was seen in one case only during hospitalization. 11 patients (13.75%) received LMWH while a contraindication was present. 15 patients (18.75%) who were prescribed LMWH had an International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) bleeding risk score of ≥7. However, 5 out of 13 patients (38.46%) who developed bleeding had a bleeding score of ≥7, and the relationship between bleeding score of ≥7 and the development of bleeding was statistically significant (p = 0.047). When investigating the doses that were utilized, 40% were prescribed an inappropriate dose. Conclusion: Various factors played a role in the inappropriateness of VTE prophylaxis such as; poor adherence to VTE guidelines, inappropriate dosing and monitoring, and not evaluating the bleeding risk. Hence, to be able to achieve effective VTE prophylaxis, these factors need to be addressed through adherence to and adaptation of the ACCP 2012 VTE prophylaxis guidelines.
An Assessment of WiMax Security  [PDF]
Sanjay P. Ahuja, Nicole Collier
Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.22020
Abstract: For a broadband wireless standard such as WiMax, security is important and must be addressed. This is to ensure wide acceptance both from the perspective of the end users and the service providers. In order to com-pete with existing broadband cable or DSL services, the WiMax network must offer comparable security. We discuss the WiMax security mechanisms for authentication, encryption, and availability. We also discuss potential threats to WiMax security. This paper will also discuss how and why these threats play an impor-tant role in the adaptability of WiMax.
Effects of vegetation differences in relocated Utah prairie dog release sites  [PDF]
Rachel Curtis, Shandra Nicole Frey
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55A006

Utah prairie dogs have been extirpated in 90% of their historical range. Because most of the population occurs on private land, this threatened species is continually in conflict with land-owners due to burrowing. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources has been relocating Utah prairie dogs from private to public land since the 1970s, but relocations have been largely unsuccessful due to high mortality. Utah prairie dogs were relocated in 2010 and 2011 from the golf course in Cedar City, Utah to two prepared sites near Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. Vegetation transects were established at each site to determine if there was a correlation between site vegetation composition and structure, and Utah prairie dog survival at relocation sites. The vegetation at the two sites was significantly different. One site had significantly less grass cover, more invasive plant cover, and rockier soils. The sites also had different soil structures and long-term Utah prairie dog retention rates. Newly established burrows were clustered rather than randomly distributed. Utah prairie dogs appeared to avoid placing burrows in areas with tall vegetation and rocky soils. More research is needed to determine how site selection determines longterm retention and colonization of a relocation site.

Bordetella holmesii: Comparison of Two Isolates from Blood and a Respiratory Sample  [PDF]
Valérie Bouchez, Nicole Guiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.32020

Interest in Bordetella holmesii is increasing, but very little is known about this bacterium, which can be isolated from both blood and respiratory samples. In this study, we compared a B. holmesii isolate from the blood sample of an adult with bacteremia with another isolate from a nasopharyngeal swab from an adult with whooping cough syndrome. Genetic analysis was carried out, targeting relevant genes, and virulence properties were studied in cellular and animal models. Our genomic analysis provided no evidence of traits specific to either blood or respiratory isolates of B. holmesii. Neither isolate was cytotoxic to human tracheal epithelial cells. Both isolates were only weakly invasive and they did not persist within epithelial cells for less than 48 h.

Anticipated Inversion and Visibility Conditions over Glacier Bay with a Changing Climate  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65048
Abstract: A RCP4.5 simulation from the Community Earth System Model was downscaled by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, inline coupled with chemistry, to examine how climate change may affect inversions and visibility in Glacier Bay in the presence of cruise-ship visitations. Mean downscaled climate conditions for the tourist seasons for 2006-2012 were compared with downscaled conditions for 2026-2032 with identical cruise-ship entries and operating conditions thereby isolating pollutant retention and visibility differences caused by atmospheric climate change. Notable changes in future temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind-speed occurred for large areas of Southeast Alaska and the Gulf of Alaska, although the anticipated differences were less pronounced in Glacier Bay due to the presence of the large glaciers and ice fields. While increased sensible heat and water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer contributed to on average 4.5 h reduced inversion duration in Glacier Bay, the on average 0.23 m·s-1 reduced wind speeds increased inversion frequency by 4% on average. The future on average wetter conditions and altered precipitation patterns in Glacier Bay affected the removal of gases and particulate matter emitted by cruise ships locally or advected from areas outside the park. Season-spatial averaged visibility in Glacier Bay remained the same. However, visibility was degraded in the future scenario later in the season and slightly improved during spring. The warmer conditions contributed to decreased visibility indirectly by tieing up less NO2 in PAN and increasing biogenic NOx emissions. The wetter conditions contributed to reduced visibility in the last third of the tourist season.
Impacts of Cruise-Ship Entry Quotas on Visibility and Air Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611109
Abstract: Managers at Glacier Bay National Park must annually determine the allowable number of cruise-ship entries into the park. This decision considers how differences in visitor volume may affect park resources. This study quantified the impacts to air quality and visibility under different ship quotas using simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry. Results of the simulation assuming two entries per day for May 15 to September 15, 2008 (QTA; 248 ship entries representing a 35% increase) were compared to those of the 2008 cruise-ship activity (REF; 184) during that timeframe. A simulation without anthropogenic emissions (CLN) served to assess the overall impacts of cruise-ship emissions on visibility and air quality in Glacier Bay. Compared to REF, the increased entry quotas shifted chemical regimes and aerosol composition, depending upon thermodynamical conditions, and ambient concentrations. On days with notable regime shifts, sulfur-dioxide concentrations deceased while ammonium-sulfate aerosol concentrations increased. The increased quotas also altered the fine-to-coarse aerosol ratios in both directions despite constant ratio of fine-to-coarse aerosol emissions. In Glacier Bay, the days with worst visibility coincided with high relative humidity, although this relationship varied by scenario. On the 20% worst days, mean visibility was slightly better in CLN (mean haze index over Glacier Bay waters = 2.9 dv) than in REF ( = 3.1 dv). While increased emissions in QTA reduced mean visibility by 0.1 dv, the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile of haze indices remained identical to those in REF. Best (worst) visibility occurred on the same days in REF and QTA due to emission impacts, but on different days than in CLN because relative humidity solely governed visibility in CLN. While calm wind played no role for visibility in CLN, wind speed gained similar importance for visibility as relative humidity in REF and QTA. Overall, increasing ship quotas would only marginally affect air quality and visibility as compared to REF, although even small changes in these parameters need careful consideration in the context of conserving the values of Glacier Bay.
On the Limits to Manage Air-Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.712151
Abstract: In Glacier Bay National Park, about 95% of the visitors come on board of cruise ships. The National Park Service has the mandate to manage park resources like air quality and visibility, while ensuring visitation. To understand the impact of cruise-ship emissions on the overall concentrations in Glacier Bay, emission-source contribution ratios (ESCR) and the interaction of pollutant from local and/or distant sources were determined using results from four WRF/Chem simulations of the 2008 tourist season (May 15 to September 15). These simulations only differed by the emissions considered: Biogenic emissions only (CLN), biogenic plus activity-based cruise-ship emissions (REF), biogenic plus all anthropogenic emissions except cruise-ship emissions (RETRO), and all aforementioned emissions (ALL). In general, ESCRs differed among pollutants. Interaction between pollutants from cruise-ship emissions and species from other sources including those advected into the bay decreased towards the top of the atmospheric boundary layer. Pollutants from different sources interacted strongest (lowest) in the west arm of the fjord where ships berthed for glacier viewing (in areas of the bay without cruise-ship travel). Pollutant interaction both enhanced/reduced NO2 concentrations by 10% (4 - 8 ppt absolute). Except for ozone, cruise-ship emissions on average governed air quality in the bay. On days with cruise-ship visits, they contributed between 60% and 80% of the bay-wide daily mean SO2 and NO2 concentrations below 1 km height. On days without visits, cruise-ship contributions still reached 40% due to previous visits. Highest cruise-ship ESCRs occurred during stagnant weather conditions. Despite the fact that all coarse particulate matter was due to anthropogenic sources, worst visibility conditions were due to meteorology. The results suggest limits as well as windows for managing air quality and visibility in Glacier Bay.
Powering Renewable Programs: The Utility Perspective  [PDF]
Nicole Griffin, Athens Gomes Silaban
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2016.54013
Abstract: In order to make renewable energy projects successful, there are many factors that utilities need to consider. These include policy drivers, assessing what renewable technologies it will employ, identifying the rates and pricing incentives that could be made available, and how customers can be better engaged. Utilities have created renewable programs with varying degrees of customer participation: some have taken the initiative to provide customers with 100% renewable generated power, others rely exclusively on customers to participate to meet renewable energy goals and the last alternative is a blend of both in which utilities offer customers the option to purchase renewable power matches or install and generate their own renewable power. Overall, the economics of solar and wind technologies are trending in the upward direction—the costs of the technologies are decreasing and the yields are getting higher. Better still, predictive modeling, energy storage and the plethora of research in this area will only make the prospects of integrating renewables more viable.
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