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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6335 matches for " Nicolas Schermann "
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Evaluation of Evolution and Diversity of Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties Cultivated under Contrasted Environmental and Farmers’ Selection Pressures: A Phenotypical Approach  [PDF]
Estelle Serpolay-Besson, Simon Giuliano, Nicolas Schermann, Véronique Chable
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42014

OPVs (open pollinated varieties) of cross pollinated crops are genetically heterogeneous and therefore likely to evolve over generations, under natural and human selection, which gives them a strong potential for organic and low input farming. OPVs of maize were cultivated and selected by different farmers in France and Italy for 2 generations. The third year, they were phenotypically evaluated for evolution, adaptation and level of diversity (estimated with Nei index) across evolution in a combined on farm and on station experimentation. The results showed that the varieties evolved and even adapted over 2 generations only (especially on maturity traits) but conserved their identity (no evolution of ear morphological traits). They all conserved their diversity, which demonstrated the pertinence of farmers’ selection (it is not a bottleneck). These results suggested that the genetically heterogeneous nature of OPVs is an asset for farmers because they can adapt these varieties to specific local conditions and production objectives. Therefore, farmer OPVs should receive more support through social and regulatory recognition, as well as further interest from research.

Phenotypic Changes in Different Spinach Varieties Grown and Selected under Organic Conditions
Estelle Serpolay,Nicolas Schermann,Julie Dawson,Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren,Isabelle Goldringer,Véronique Chable
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3091616
Abstract: Organic and low-input agriculture needs flexible varieties that can buffer environmental stress and adapt to the needs of farmers. We implemented an experiment to investigate the evolutionary capacities of a sample of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) population varieties for a number of phenotypic traits. Three farmers cultivated, selected and multiplied one or several populations over two years on their farms. The third year, the versions of the varieties cultivated and selected by the different farmers were compared to the original seed lots they had been given. After two cycles of cultivation and on-farm mass selection, all the observed varieties showed significant phenotypic changes (differences between the original version and the version cultivated by farmers) for morphological and phenological traits. When the divergence among versions within varieties was studied, the results show that the varieties conserved their identity, except for one variety, which evolved in such a way that it may now be considered two different varieties. The heterogeneity of the population varieties was assessed in comparison with a commercial F1 hybrid used as control, and we found no specific differences in phenotypic diversity between the hybrid and population varieties. The phenotypic changes shown by the population varieties in response to on-farm cultivation and selection could be useful for the development of specific adaptation. These results call into question the current European seed legislation and the requirements of phenotypic stability for conservation varieties.
Sensibilidade e aleitamento materno em díades com recém-nascidos de risco
Alfaya, Cristiane;Schermann, Ligia;
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-294X2005000200015
Abstract: the purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the kinds of infant's feeding (breastfeeding, complement and mixed) and the mother-infant interactional behaviors. the participants included 20 dyads of pre-term infant (group i) who had needed intensive care, 14 dyads of full-term infant (group ii) who had needed intensive care, and 24 dyads of full-term health infants (group iii). the risk was considered by the neonatal intensive care needed. the mother-infant interaction was filmed at face-to-face situation and evaluated through mother-infant interaction protocol (schermann et al. 1994) to assess the maternal behaviors, the infant behaviors and the dyads behaviors. results showed that maternal sensitivity was very different between groups (p = 0.039); group iii (control group) had a better maternal sensitivity. therefore maternal sensitivity is better in mothers of full-term health infants, than in mothers of pre-term infant and full-term infant who had needed intensive care. breastfeeding is an important factor to promote a better maternal sensitivity.
Avalia o neuropsicológica do idoso
Luciana Schermann Azambuja
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Envelhecimento Humano , 2007,
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a metodologia empregada na avalia o neuropsicológica de idosos e suas contribui es, priorizando aqueles aspectos de interesse dos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial geriatras, psicólogos, psiquiatras, neurologistas. Fonte dos dados: revis o da literatura sobre o tema proposto nos últimos anos e incluídas referências de livros-texto e manuais dos testes imprescindíveis para a compreens o do exame neuropsicológico. Síntese dos dados: o exame neuropsicológico n o se limita à aplica o de testes psicométricos e neuropsicológicos organizados em baterias, mas objetiva, também, avaliar a rela o desses achados com a patologia neurológica e/ou comportamental e em estabelecer a possível área cerebral envolvida. Conclus o: o resultado final deve fornecer um perfil neuropsicológico do paciente, que, combinado à avalia o dos aspectos neurológicos/clínicos, psicológicos e sociais, permitirá auxiliar no seu diagnóstico.
Corrosion behavior of Ti and TI6Al4V in citrate buffers containing fluoride ions
Schmidt, Anelise Marlene;Azambuja, Denise Schermann;
Materials Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14392010000100011
Abstract: the effect of fluoride ions concentration on the electrochemical behavior of ti grade 2 and ti6al4v in citrate buffers was studied. open circuit potential (ocp) measurements and voltammetric studies of the samples in the fluoride containing citrate buffers revealed a dissolution process when the ph falls below 5.0 and the naf content is higher than 0.01 m. however, in citrate ph 7.6 the materials showed a passive behavior even in 0.1 m naf. some micrographs of ti grade 2 obtained after longer immersion times in citrate ph 5.0 with 0.01 m naf showed a surface attack. eis (electrochemical impedance sprectroscopy) data obtained at the ocp revealed that the film resistance decreases when the immersion time is increased in ph 5.0 containing 0.1 m naf. in the citrate ph 7.6 the eis data indicated a two-layer model of an oxide film consisting of a more compact inner layer and a porous outer layer. on the other hand, the eis results in citrate ph 4.0 change significantly when the fluoride ions concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.05 m. the electrochemical data revealed that the corrosion behavior of ti grade 2 and ti6al4v in the citrate buffers depends on the ph, the fluoride content and the exposure time.
Electrochemical behavior of Ti and Ti6Al4V in aqueous solutions of citric acid containing halides
Schmidt, Anelise Marlene;Azambuja, Denise Schermann;
Materials Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14392006000400008
Abstract: this paper reports on an investigation of the electrochemical behavior of ti grade 2 and ti6al4v alloy in aqueous citric acid solutions with ph 2.0 containing halide ions. voltammetric studies of ti and the alloy in citric acid, with and without chloride ions, indicate that the ti and ti alloy presented a passive behavior in the test solutions used. pitting was observed at 3.0 and 2.5 v/sce for ti and ti6al4v, respectively, when bromide ions were added to the solution. in solutions containing fluoride ions, dissolution of the film occurred at potentials close to - 1.0 v/sce in both electrodes. the iodide ions oxidized on the passive oxide film at potentials close to 1.0 v/sce. eis results of the materials in citric acid solutions containing chloride ions revealed that the film's resistance increased as the applied potential rose from 0 to 1.0 v. in bromide-containing solutions, breakdown of the film was confirmed at potentials above 2.0 v/sce in both electrodes. these results suggest film reformation for ti and the alloy in solutions containing fluoride at potentials within the passive region.
Prevalência e fatores associados à ades?o de crian?as na terapia antirretroviral em três centros urbanos do sul do Brasil
Trombini,Eliana Silva; Schermann,Lígia Braun;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232010000200018
Abstract: this study verified the prevalence and associated factors to the adhesion of children in highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), in three urban centers in southern brazil: passo fundo, canoas and cachoeira do sul. the population of the study consisted of 44 children, between 18 months to 13 years old, in haart. data was collected by applying a socio-demographic questionnaire with the caregivers, aiming to know the children's sex, age, schooling, treatment type and clinical state, as well as the caregiver's income, age and schooling. adhesion was considered when the effectiveness of the haart was at least 95% of the prescribed regimen. the design of the study was analytical and transversal. data analysis was performed by descriptive analysis (frequency, percentage) and bivariate analysis (chi-square test), crossing the outcome variable (adhesion to haart) and the independent variables (sociodemographic, clinical state, treatment type, caregiver's age and schooling). the results showed 82% of adhesion in the studied children. the bivariate analysis did not point out significant associations between adhesion and independent variables. a possible linear tendency to increase the adhesion as a function of the improvement of the physical state was observed.
O impacto da depress o materna nas intera es iniciais
Brum, Evanisa Helena Maio,Schermann, Lígia
Psico , 2006,
Abstract: O presente estudo objetiva examinar quest es teóricas a respeito da depress o materna nas intera es iniciais para o desenvolvimento infantil, os estudos apontam para a ocorrência de desordens comportamentais, afetivas, cognitivas e sociais, bem como altera es da atividade cerebral. Salienta-se algumas formas de interven o precoce para dirimir a probabilidade de conseqüências adversas para o desenvolvimento infantil.
Enumerating the Prime Alternating Knots, Part I
Ortho Smith,John Schermann,Stuart Rankin
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: This is the first in a series of four papers wherein we enumerate all prime alternating knots and links. In this first paper, we introduce four operators on knots and show that, when used according to very simple rules on the prime alternating knots of n crossings, the set of all prime alternating knots of n+1 crossings is obtained. The second paper (Part II) explains how to actually implement the operators in an efficient manner, although that is in a sense secondary to introduction of a complete invariant for prime alternating knots, called the master array of a prime alternating knot. The third paper in the series establishes a method for enumerating the prime alternating links. It is shown that one may choose any prime alternating link diagram of a given minimal crossing size and by applications of just two operators (namely T and OTS) to the selected seed link, one obtains all prime alternating link diagrams of the desired minimal crossing size. The fourth paper introduces the analogue of the master array for prime alternating links.
Enumerating the Prime Alternating Knots, Part II
Ortho Smith,John Schermann,Stuart Rankin
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: This is the second of a part series devoted to enumerating prime alternating knots and links. In Part I, we introduced four operators on knots and showed that if these operators are applied to the set of all prime alternating knots of n crossings, the set of all prime alternating knots of n+1 crossings is obtained. In this paper, we explain how to actually implement the operators in an efficient manner. This relies on a complete invariant that we have introduced, called the master array for a prime alternating knot. By December 1, 1999, we had successfully run an early implementation of the algorithms described in Part II on the UWO Compaq ES-40 48 node beowulf cluster to produce the 40,619,385 prime alternating knots of 19 crossings. At that time, we did not utilize memory very efficiently, and we were not able to continue further, since the number of prime alternating knots is increasing roughly by a factor of 5 with each increase in crossing size at these levels. We have subsequently made very big improvements both in memory utilization and in the amount of work that must be done.
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