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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3375 matches for " Nicola Witton "
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The keele curriculum model: A contemporary framework for designing an inter-professional technology enhanced nursing curriculum  [PDF]
Melanie Humphreys, Ian Wood, Carol D. Johnson, Pauline N. Walsh, Nicola Witton, Julie Green, Sarah Corkhill
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.34048
Abstract:

This paper outlines a curriculum model for contemporary programme design for the purpose of embedding educational innovation and technology within an inter-professional nursing curriculum. It has been developed from work within the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Keele University during the re-write of both the nursing and midwifery curriculum. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) require approval of all recordable programmes every five years and as such the school took this review as an opportunity to explore the curriculum model currently in use and develop an approach that would facilitate the professional requirements of the programme alongside the embedding of innovative learning and teaching methodologies. The model springs from extensive application of contemporary pedagogy underpinning adult learning, and forces consideration of cognitive alignment within a multi-modal delivery framework [1]. The model builds upon the early work of Fowler and Mayes [2] and later work of Bird [3] who explored the antecedents and underpinning theory for success within online learning experiences. This model has greater reach; having strategic fit for acontemporary “technology enhanced learning” application within further and higher education [4], whilst ensuring the achievement of given professional standards [5].

New Insights into the Skull of Istiodactylus latidens (Ornithocheiroidea, Pterodactyloidea)
Mark P. Witton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033170
Abstract: The skull of the Cretaceous pterosaur Istiodactylus latidens, a historically important species best known for its broad muzzle of interlocking, lancet-shaped teeth, is almost completely known from the broken remains of several individuals, but the length of its jaws remains elusive. Estimates of I.?latidens jaw length have been exclusively based on the incomplete skull of NHMUK R3877 and, perhaps erroneously, reconstructed by assuming continuation of its broken skull pieces as preserved in situ. Here, an overlooked jaw fragment of NHMUK R3877 is redescribed and used to revise the skull reconstruction of I.?latidens. The new reconstruction suggests a much shorter skull than previously supposed, along with a relatively tall orbital region and proportionally slender maxilla, a feature documented in the early 20th century but ignored by all skull reconstructions of this species. These features indicate that the skull of I.?latidens is particularly distinctive amongst istiodactylids and suggests greater disparity between I.?latidens and I. sinensis than previously appreciated. A cladistic analysis of istiodactylid pterosaurs incorporating new predicted I.?latidens skull metrics suggests Istiodactylidae is constrained to five species (Liaoxipterus brachyognathus, Lonchengpterus zhoai, Nurhachius ignaciobritoi, Istiodactylus latidens and Istiodactylus sinensis) defined by their distinctive dentition, but excludes the putative istiodactylids Haopterus gracilis and Hongshanopterus lacustris. Istiodactylus latidens, I. sinensis and Li. brachyognathus form an unresolved clade of derived istiodactylids, and the similarity of comparable remains of I. sinensis and Li. brachyognathus suggest further work into their taxonomy and classification is required. The new skull model of I.?latidens agrees with the scavenging habits proposed for these pterosaurs, with much of their cranial anatomy converging on that of habitually scavenging birds.
Determining sensitivity to rapamycin and its analogues in breast cancer patients
Caroline J Witton
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr985
Abstract: Rapamycin itself has poor aqueous solubility and is not stable, and so several analogues (CCI-779, RAD001 and AP23573) have been developed that are being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment. These new drugs can potentially be used for the treatment of breast cancer once those patients who will respond to the drug can be identified. In this review I summarize two recent papers that provide insight into the determinants of sensitivity to rapamycin and the potential synergism with conventional chemotherapies.Study of breast cancer cell lines has suggested that cells that express the active (phosphorylated) form of AKT are sensitive to rapamycin treatment [3], as are those that are oestrogen receptor (ER) positive, lack PTEN, or over-express HER2 [4]. This result has been recapitulated in breast cancer patients, with Chan [4] reporting this year that patients who responded to CC1-779 in a clinical trial had lost PTEN expression and/or had HER2 over-expression. Although that trial was small, including only 109 patients, none of the 32 who were HER2 negative showed any significant response to treatment.Two recent papers published in Clinical Cancer Research [5,6] have tackled the subject of targeting mTOR with rapamycin in breast cancer. Zhou and coworkers [5] examined 165 primary breast cancers with antibodies directed against HER2 and phosphorylated forms of AKT, mTOR and 4E-BP1 (a downstream target of mTOR). They compared staining in the primary breast tumours with that seen in normal breast epithelium, fibroadenoma, intraductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. They found that phosphorylation levels of all three molecules generally increased during the transition from normal epithelium to invasive disease. None of the fibroadenomas expressed phosphorylated forms of the markers. Few of the normal breast samples expressed phosphorylated AKT (two out of eight with low expression) and phosphorylated mTOR (one out of eight with high expression), and none
巨型翼龙中的飞行效率和长距离旅行
Michael HABIB,Mark WITTON
地球学报 , 2010, DOI: 10.3975/cagsb.2010.s1.16
Abstract: Azhdarchidpterosaursincludethelargestknownflyinganimals,withthelargestspeciesreachingapotentialmassofover250kg.Priorworksuggeststhatseveralfeaturesofazhdarchidanatomycouldbeassociatedwithasoaring-dominatedlifestyle,includinglargesize,burst-flappingadaptedpectoralgirdleandproximalforelimb,moderatetohighwingaspectratio,andexceptionalpneumaticity.
A Reappraisal of Azhdarchid Pterosaur Functional Morphology and Paleoecology
Mark P. Witton, Darren Naish
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002271
Abstract: Azhdarchid pterosaurs were among the most widespread and successful of pterosaur clades, but their paleoecology remains controversial. Morphological features common to all azhdarchids include a long, shallow rostrum; elongate, cylindrical cervical vertebrae that formed a long and unusually inflexible neck; and proportionally short wings with an abbreviated fourth phalanx. While azhdarchids have been imagined as vulture-like scavengers, sediment probers, swimmers, waders, aerial predators, or stork-like generalists, most recent authors have regarded them as skim-feeders, trawling their lower jaws through water during flight and seizing aquatic prey from the water's surface. Although apparently widely accepted, the skim-feeding model lacks critical support from anatomy and functional morphology. Azhdarchids lack the many cranial specialisations exhibited by extant skim-feeding birds, most notably the laterally compressed lower jaw and shock absorbing apparatus required for this feeding style. Well-preserved azhdarchid skulls are rare, but their rostra and lower jaws appear to have been sub-triangular in cross-section, and thus dissimilar to those of skim-feeders and sediment probers. Taphonomic data indicates that azhdarchids predominately inhabited inland settings, and azhdarchid morphology indicates that they were poorly suited for all proposed lifestyles bar wading and terrestrial foraging. However, azhdarchid footprints show that their feet were relatively small, padded and slender, and thus not well suited for wading. We argue that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Proficient terrestrial abilities and a relatively inflexible neck are in agreement with this interpretation.
''Loucura do baseado'' revisitada: maconha e psicose
Witton John,Murray Robin M
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2004,
Abstract:
The Effects of Demand Characteristics on Research Participant Behaviours in Non-Laboratory Settings: A Systematic Review
Jim McCambridge, Marijn de Bruin, John Witton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039116
Abstract: Background The concept of demand characteristics, which involves research participants being aware of what the researcher is investigating, is well known and widely used within psychology, particularly in laboratory-based studies. Studies of this phenomenon may make a useful contribution to broader consideration of the effects of taking part in research on participant behaviour. This systematic review seeks to summarise data from studies of the effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviours in non-laboratory settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. These had to be purposely designed to evaluate possible effects of demand characteristics on at least one behavioural outcome under the autonomous control of the participants and use longitudinal study designs. Only 7 studies were included, 6 providing observational data and 1 experimental study, with 5 studies involving examination of possible effects on health behaviours. Although studies provided some evidence of effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviour, heterogeneous operationalisation of the construct, the limited number of studies and poor quality of study designs made synthesis and interpretation of study findings challenging. Conclusions/Significance Although widely accepted as important in psychology, there have been few dedicated studies of the effects of demand characteristics on research participant behaviours outside laboratory settings. This body of literature does not currently contribute to the wider study of research participation effects. A systematic review of data from laboratory-based studies is needed, as are high-quality primary studies in non-laboratory settings. We suggest that unqualified use of the term demand characteristics should be abandoned.
On the Size and Flight Diversity of Giant Pterosaurs, the Use of Birds as Pterosaur Analogues and Comments on Pterosaur Flightlessness
Mark P. Witton,Michael B. Habib
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013982
Abstract: The size and flight mechanics of giant pterosaurs have received considerable research interest for the last century but are confused by conflicting interpretations of pterosaur biology and flight capabilities. Avian biomechanical parameters have often been applied to pterosaurs in such research but, due to considerable differences in avian and pterosaur anatomy, have lead to systematic errors interpreting pterosaur flight mechanics. Such assumptions have lead to assertions that giant pterosaurs were extremely lightweight to facilitate flight or, if more realistic masses are assumed, were flightless. Reappraisal of the proportions, scaling and morphology of giant pterosaur fossils suggests that bird and pterosaur wing structure, gross anatomy and launch kinematics are too different to be considered mechanically interchangeable. Conclusions assuming such interchangeability—including those indicating that giant pterosaurs were flightless—are found to be based on inaccurate and poorly supported assumptions of structural scaling and launch kinematics. Pterosaur bone strength and flap-gliding performance demonstrate that giant pterosaur anatomy was capable of generating sufficient lift and thrust for powered flight as well as resisting flight loading stresses. The retention of flight characteristics across giant pterosaur skeletons and their considerable robustness compared to similarly-massed terrestrial animals suggest that giant pterosaurs were not flightless. Moreover, the term ‘giant pterosaur’ includes at least two radically different forms with very distinct palaeoecological signatures and, accordingly, all but the most basic sweeping conclusions about giant pterosaur flight should be treated with caution. Reappraisal of giant pterosaur material also reveals that the size of the largest pterosaurs, previously suggested to have wingspans up to 13 m and masses up to 544 kg, have been overestimated. Scaling of fragmentary giant pterosaur remains have been misled by distorted fossils or used inappropriate scaling techniques, indicating that 10–11 m wingspans and masses of 200–250 kg are the most reliable upper estimates of known pterosaur size.
巨型翼龙类能够飞行吗?
Mark P. WITTON,Michael B. HABIB
地球学报 , 2010, DOI: 10.3975/cagsb.2010.s1.38
Abstract: Manypterodactyloidshadwingspansthatvastlyexceedthoseofanyotherflyinganimals,livingorextinct.Ornithocheiroidsandneoazhdarchidanswereparticularlylargepterosaursthatregularlyattainedwingspansover4m.Certainmembersofthesegroups–PteranodontiaandAzhdarchidae–attainedthelargestwingspansofanypterosaurs,makingthemthelargestflyinganimalsknown.
History as Contemporary History in the Thinking of Benedetto Croce  [PDF]
Nicola Conati
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51007
Abstract: In this brief consideration of mine, trying to remain as faithful as possible to the texts taken into exam, I will first try to introduce the concept of history as contemporary history in the thinking of Benedetto Croce, whereas the second part of the reasoning will point toward proving and meditating on how such concept crosses the whole philosophical system of the Italian intellectual. What does contemporary history mean according to Benedetto Croce? Why is the spirit of the historian fundamental in the description of this concept? What kind of connection exists between story and contemporary history? What does pathology of history mean? How does the concept of contemporary history relate to that of awareness, of finished and thinking? These are but a few of the questions to which I tried to find an answer with this essay.
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