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Linkage Between In-Stream Total Phosphorus and Land Cover in Chugoku District, Japan: An Ann Approach
Bahman Jabbarian Amiri, K. P. Sudheer, Nicola Fohrer
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10098-012-0003-6
Abstract: Development of any area often leads to more intensive land use and increase in the generation of pollutants. Modeling these changes is critical to evaluate emerging changes in land use and their effect on stream water quality. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of spatial patterns in land use and population density on the water quality of streams, in case of data scarcity, in the Chugoku district of Japan. The study employed artificial neural network (ANN) technique to assess the relationship between the total phosphorous (TP) in river water and the land use in 21 river basins in the district, and the model was able to reasonably estimate the TP in the stream water. Uncertainty analysis of ANN estimates was performed using the Monte Carlo framework, and the results indicated that the ANN model predictions are statistically similar to the characteristics of the measured TP values. It was observed that any reduction in forested area or increase in agricultural land in the watersheds may cause the increase of TP concentration in the stream. Therefore, appropriate watershed management practices should be followed before making any land use change in the Chugoku district.
Comparing model sensitivities of different landscapes using the ecohydrological SWAT model
B. Schmalz ,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Lowland areas are characterised by specific properties, such as flat topography, low hydraulic gradients, shallow groundwater, and high potential for water retention in peatland and lakes. The investigated mesoscale catchments St r, Treene and Kielstau are located in Northern Germany within lowland areas. Covering areas from 50 to 517 km2, these rural catchments have sandy, loamy and peaty soils and are drained in high fraction by open ditches and tile drainage. Using the river basin model SWAT, sensitivity analyses were carried out through an automatic routine that is based on the Latin-Hypercube (LH) and a One-factor-At-a-Time (OAT) sampling. The objective of this study is to investigate how specific landscape features influence the model behaviour. There are two research questions: a) What are the most sensitive parameters in the studied lowland catchments? b) What differences occur between these landscape features in comparison to mountainous or low mountain range catchments? The results show that groundwater and soil parameters were found to be most sensitive in the studied lowland catchments and they turned out to be the most influential factors on simulated water discharge. The most sensitive parameter was the threshold water level in shallow aquifer for baseflow (GWQMN). In contrast, many studies of mountainous or low mountain range catchments show that the most sensitive parameters were the surface runoff parameters.
Application of the Bayesian calibration methodology for the parameter estimation in CoupModel
Y. Conrad ,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: This study provides results for the optimization strategy of highly parameterized models, especially with a high number of unknown input parameters and joint problems in terms of sufficient parameter space. Consequently, the uncertainty in model parameterization and measurements must be considered when highly variable nitrogen losses, e.g. N leaching, are to be predicted. The Bayesian calibration methodology was used to investigate the parameter uncertainty of the process-based CoupModel. Bayesian methods link prior probability distributions of input parameters to likelihood estimates of the simulation results by comparison with measured values. The uncertainty in the updated posterior parameters can be used to conduct an uncertainty analysis of the model output. A number of 24 model variables were optimized during 20 000 simulations to find the "optimum" value for each parameter. The likelihood was computed by comparing simulation results with observed values of 23 output variables including soil water contents, soil temperatures, groundwater level, soil mineral nitrogen, nitrate concentrations below the root zone, denitrification and harvested carbon from grassland plots in Northern Germany for the period 1997–2002. The posterior parameter space was sampled with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to obtain plot-specific posterior parameter distributions for each system. Posterior distributions of the parameters narrowed down in the accepted runs, thus uncertainty decreased. Results from the single-plot optimization showed a plausible reproduction of soil temperatures, soil water contents and water tensions in different soil depths for both systems. The model performed better for these abiotic system properties compared to the results for harvested carbon and soil mineral nitrogen dynamics. The high variability in modeled nitrogen leaching showed that the soil nitrogen conditions are highly uncertain associated with low modeling efficiencies. Simulated nitrate leaching was compared to more general, site-specific estimations, indicating a higher leaching during the seepage periods for both simulated grassland systems.
SRTM DEM levels over papyrus swamp vegetation – a correction approach
G. Petersen, I. Lebed,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The SRTM DEM, a digital elevation model based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of February 2000 is a source of elevation data with nearly worldwide coverage. It has proven its usefulness in various regions but problems persist for densely vegetated areas where, caused by the organic matter and water content of the vegetation, the radar signal is reflected at some level between the vegetation canopy and the ground level. This level varies with different types and densities of vegetation cover and has so far not been assessed for papyrus areas. The paper describes the approach and establishment of a correction factor for a pilot area in the Sudd swamps of southern Sudan based on comparison of SRTM reference levels and ground control points collected during field surveys between 2004 and 2006. Results show a correction factor between the sensed and the real surface of 4.66 m and a average penetration depth of the radar signal into the dense papyrus vegetation of 0.34 m.
A rule-based modelling concept to simulate hydromorphological measures – a tool for the design of programmes of measures for the EU Water Framework Directive
B. Schmalz, F. Tavares,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: The achievement of a good water quality in all water bodies until 2015 is legally regulated since December 2000 for all European Union member states by the European Water Framework Directive (EU, 2000). The aim of this project is to detect nutrient entry pathways and to assess the dominating hydrological processes in complex mesoscale catchments. The investigated Treene catchment is located in Northern Germany as a part of a lowland area. Sandy, loamy and peat soils are characteristic for this area. Land use is dominated by agriculture and pasture. Drainage changed the natural water balance. In a nested approach we examined two catchment areas: a) Treene catchment 517 km2, b) Kielstau catchment 50 km2. The nested approach assists to improve the process understanding by using data of different scales. Therefore these catchments serve not only as an example but the results are transferable to other lowland catchment areas. In a first step the river basin scale model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Arnold et al., 1998) was used successfully to model the water balance. Furthermore the water quality was analysed to distinguish the impact of point and diffuse sources. The results show that the tributaries in the Kielstau catchment contribute high amounts of nutrients, mainly nitrate and ammonium. For the parameters nitrate, ammonium and phosphorus it was observed as a tendency that the annual loads were increasing along the river profile of the Kielstau.
SEPAL – a simple GIS-based tool to estimate sediment pathways in lowland catchments
J. Kiesel, B. Schmalz,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Even though soil loss in the lowlands imposes not as much a restriction on land use and agricultural productivity as in erosion affected mountainous areas, the input of fine sediment into the rivers and streams is a concern due to water quality issues and substrate siltation. Drains, river banks and agricultural fields are the three main sources of fine sediment in lowland regions. For a successful implementation of measures to decrease sediment input a well-founded knowledge of the individual entry pathways is essential. To assess the importance of possible entry pathways, a GIS based methodology (SEPAL) has been established combining the ABAG, a river bank erosion formula and a regression approach to include the contributions of drains. SEPAL has been applied on a study catchment in Northern Germany. The results show that 15% of the sediment input into the river comes from agricultural drains, 71% from river banks and 14% from adjacent fields. A comparison of the results with field-mapping and -sampling shows that the approach is plausible. The calculated total annual sediment input is 616 t yr 1, while the measured suspended sediment load is 636 t yr 1. It can be concluded that the methodology is suitable for estimating sediment entry pathways and annual sediment loads in lowland catchments as a base for modelling projects and further investigations. However, further work is necessary for gaining sound knowledge about uncertainties and especially about the processes forcing sediment input from drains.
Assessment of nutrient entry pathways and dominating hydrological processes in lowland catchments
G. Petersen, J. A. Abeya,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: An assessment to describe and quantify the extent of changes in the channel and lagoon system of the Sudd was carried out using Landsat satellite images of 1973, 1979, 1997 and 2002. Using supervised classification and visual interpretation after referencing the images, the water bodies for a representative area between Bor and Shambe (a stretch of 150 km) were delineated. The resulting files were compared to establish and quantify changes in-between the years and as well compared to Lake Victoria outflow data to assess a likely correlation which was found for the largely water level dependent lagoon system. Changes in the channel system were interpreted to happen in a certain pattern but the extent of changes could not be correlated to the outflow data as they are influenced by other, here not considered factors like wind drift and channel blockages by vegetation.
Preface Transdisciplinary concepts and modelling strategies for the assessment of complex environmental systems Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Large-scale Hydrological Modelling
B. Schmalz, K. Bieger,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Ecohydrological modelling of water discharge and nitrate loads in a mesoscale lowland catchment, Germany
Q. D. Lam, B. Schmalz,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The aims of this study are to identify the capacities of applying an ecohydrological model for simulating flow and to assess the impact of point and non-point source pollution on nitrate loads in a complex lowland catchment, which has special hydrological characteristics in comparison with those of other catchments. The study area Kielstau catchment has a size of approximately 50 km2 and is located in the North German lowlands. The water quality is not only influenced by the predominating agricultural land use in the catchment as cropland and pasture, but also by six municipal wastewater treatment plants. Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) are useful tools for simulating nutrient loads in river catchments. Diffuse entries from the agriculture resulting from fertilizers as well as punctual entries from the wastewater treatment plants are implemented in the model set-up. The results of this study show good agreement between simulated and measured daily discharges with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and 0.88 for the calibration period (November 1998 to October 2004); 0.75 and 0.92 for the validation period (November 2004 to December 2007). The model efficiency for daily nitrate loads is 0.64 and 0.5 for the calibration period (June 2005 to May 2007) and the validation period (June 2007 to December 2007), respectively. The study revealed that SWAT performed satisfactorily in simulating daily flow and nitrate loads at the lowland catchment in Northern Germany.
Hydrologic comparison between a lowland catchment (Kielstau, Germany) and a mountainous catchment (XitaoXi, China) using KIDS model in PCRaster
X. Zhang, G. H rmann,N. Fohrer
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The KIDS model (Kielstau Discharge Simulation model) is a simple rainfall-runoff model developed originally for the Kielstau catchment. To extend its range of application we applied it to a completely different catchment, the XitaoXi catchment in China. Kielstau is a small (51 km2) lowland basin in Northern Germany, with large proportion of wetland area. And XitaoXi is a mesoscale (2271 km2) mountainous basin in the south of China. Both catchments differ greatly in size, topography, landuse, soil properties, and weather conditions. We compared two catchments in these features and stress on the analysis how the specific catchment characteristics could guide the adaptation of KIDS model and the parameter estimation for streamflow simulation. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.73 for Kielstau and 0.65 for XitaoXi. The results suggest that the application of KIDS model may require adjustments according to the specific physical background of the study basin.
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