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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18493 matches for " Nicola Di Daniele "
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Safety Food in Celiac Disease Patients: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Mariarita Dessì, Annalisa Noce, Sara Vergovich, Gianluca Noce, Nicola Di Daniele
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.47A008
Abstract: The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Epidemiological studies have shown that CD is very common and affects about one in 250 people. The mechanism of the intestinal immune-mediated response is not completely clear, but involves an HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 restricted T-cell immune reaction in the lamina propria as well as an immune reaction in the intestinal epithelium. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives). Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. In this review, we evaluate the main studies about the safety food in CD patients.
Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines
Manfredi Tesauro,Maria Paola Canale,Giuseppe Rodia,Nicola Di Daniele,Davide Lauro,Angelo Scuteri,Carmine Cardillo
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/653182
Abstract: Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems. 1. Introduction The prevalence of obesity, among both adults and children, has worldwide increased over the past two decades; a phenomenon which is predominantly attributed to the change in dietary habits and lifestyle modifications [1, 2]. It is clearly knows that central obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and is associated with Mets. Insulin resistance (IR) is a key feature of the Mets and consists in a decreased sensitivity or responsiveness of peripheral tissues to the metabolic action of insulin [3]. IR as well as all components of the Mets are associated with altered functions of endothelium which lead to CVD [4]. Hyperlipemia and coronary artery disease are also consequences of obesity which through a cascade of various reactions lead to kidney dysfunction. Moreover, obesity-induced sleep apnoea activates sympathetic nervous system increasing the tone of the glomerular efferent arterioles and the secretion of renin and angiotensin [5]. In the last decade, obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, decline of renal function, and low-grade albuminuria, but conflicting results have been reported [6–10]. Yet obesity, per se, even in the absence of the above-mentioned medical complications alters renal physiology and metabolism. In this paper, we will examine the role of adipose tissue-secreted factors and the mechanisms of obesity-induced renal and vascular injury leading to chronic kidney and cardiovascular
Endocannabinoid signalling in the blood of patients with schizophrenia
Nicola De Marchi, Luciano De Petrocellis, Pierangelo Orlando, Fabiana Daniele, Filomena Fezza, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-2-5
Abstract: Blood from 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with schizophrenia, 5 of which both before and after a successful antipsychotic treatment, was analysed for: 1) the amounts of the endocannabinoid anandamide; 2) the levels of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor mRNAs, and 3) the levels of the mRNA encoding the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), responsible for anandamide degradation.The amounts of anandamide were significantly higher in the blood of patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers (7.79 ± 0.50 vs. 2.58 ± 0.28 pmol/ml). Clinical remission was accompanied by a significant decrease of the levels of anandamide (3.88 ± 0.72 pmol/ml) and of the mRNA transcripts for CB2 receptors and FAAH.These findings indicate that endocannabinoid signalling might be altered during the acute phase of schizophrenia not only in the central nervous system but also in the blood. These changes might be related to the several immunological alterations described in schizophrenia.The Endogenous Cannabinoid (EC) system comprises at least two cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 and CB2 receptors, a series of lipophilic endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids (ECs), and enzymes for EC biosynthesis and degradation [1]. Mounting evidence indicates that it is involved in the physiological modulation of many crucial functions in both the peripheral and the central nervous system [1]. It has been hypothesized that an alteration of EC neurotransmission could play a role in neurological, psychiatric and immunological disorders [2,3]. In this context, it is possible that, along with other neurotransmitter systems (i.e., dopaminergic, serotonergic), anomalies of the ECs might take part in producing the clinical picture of schizophrenia. This hypothesis relies on the following considerations:1) Subjects with acute cannabis intoxication often display a schizophrenia-like syndrome, with hallucinations, altered judgement, false beliefs, and cognitive impairment [4]. In other, predisp
Implications of the Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum and Anisotropy measured with Fermi-LAT
Giuseppe Di Bernardo,Carmelo Evoli,Daniele Gaggero,Dario Grasso,Luca Maccione,Mario Nicola Mazziotta
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.11.005
Abstract: The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration recently released the updated results of the measurement of the cosmic ray electron (CRE) spectrum and published its first constraints on the CRE anisotropy. With respect to the previous Fermi-LAT results, the CRE spectrum measurement was extended down from 20 to 7 GeV, thus providing a better lever arm to discriminate theoretical models. Here we show that the new data strengthen the evidence for the presence of two distinct electron and positron spectral components. Furthermore, we show that under such hypothesis most relevant CRE and positron data sets are remarkably well reproduced. Consistent fits of cosmic-ray nuclei and antiproton data, which are crucial to validate the adopted propagation setup(s) and to fix the solar modulation potential, are obtained for the Kraichnan and plain-diffusion propagation setups, while the Kolmogorov one is disfavored. We then confirm that nearby pulsars are viable source candidates of the required $e^\pm$ extra-component. In that case, we show that the predicted CRE anisotropy is compatible with Fermi-LAT constraints and that a positive detection should be at hand of that observatory. Models assuming that only nearby supernova remnants contribute to the high energy tail of the observed CRE spectrum are in contrast with anisotropy limits.
Brown Tumour in a Patient with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Resistant to Medical Therapy: Case Report on Successful Treatment after Subtotal Parathyroidectomy
Nicola Di Daniele,Stefano Condò,Michele Ferrannini,Marta Bertoli,Valentina Rovella,Laura Di Renzo,Antonino De Lorenzo
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/827652
Abstract: Brown tumour represents a serious complication of hyperparathyroidism. Differential diagnosis, based on histological examination, is only presumptive and clinical, radiological and laboratory data are necessary for definitive diagnosis. Here we describe a case of a brown tumour localised in the maxilla due to secondary hyperparathyroidism in a young women with chronic renal failure. Hemodialysis and pharmacological treatment were unsuccessful in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism making it necessary to proceed with a subtotal parathyroidectomy. The proper timing of the parathyroidectomy and its favourable effect on regression of the brown tumor made it possible to avoid a potentially disfiguring surgical removal of the brown tumor.
Obesity-Related Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Sympathetic Overactivity
Maria Paola Canale,Simone Manca di Villahermosa,Giuliana Martino,Valentina Rovella,Annalisa Noce,Antonino De Lorenzo,Nicola Di Daniele
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/865965
Abstract: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased worldwide over the past few years. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a key mechanism leading to hypertension in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sympathetic activation can be triggered by reflex mechanisms as arterial baroreceptor impairment, by metabolic factors as insulin resistance, and by dysregulated adipokine production and secretion from visceral fat with a mainly permissive role of leptin and antagonist role of adiponectin. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity contributes to a further decline of insulin sensitivity and creates a vicious circle that may contribute to the development of hypertension and of the metabolic syndrome and favor cardiovascular and kidney disease. Selective renal denervation is an emerging area of interest in the clinical management of obesity-related hypertension. This review focuses on current understanding of some mechanisms through which sympathetic overactivity may be interlaced to the metabolic syndrome, with particular regard to the role of insulin resistance and of some adipokines. 1. Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of abnormalities that include diabetes mellitus (DM), morbid obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (HT) that are all risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) [1]. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP III) identified six components of the MetS that relate to CVD: abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (I.R.)/glucose intolerance, and proinflammatory and prothrombotic state [2]. A major problem concerning the WHO and NCEP ATPIII definitions was their applicability to different ethnic groups, especially when obesity cutoffs were to be defined. This is particularly evident for the risk of type II DM, which may be associated with much lower levels of obesity in Asians compared to Caucasians. The International Diabetes Federation has then proposed a new set of criteria with ethnic/racial specific cutoffs [3]. The MetS central feature is obesity, and the MetS is a growing epidemic in the United States and throughout the world [4, 5]. Approximately 1 adult in 4 or 5, depending on the country, has the MetS. Incidence increases with age; it has been estimated that in people over 50 years of age, the MetS affects more than 40% of the population in the United States and nearly 30% in Europe [6, 7]. Whether the effects of the MetS are due to a sum of
Atherosclerosis, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation: The Significant Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Mariarita Dessì,Annalisa Noce,Pierfrancesco Bertucci,Simone Manca di Villahermosa,Rossella Zenobi,Veronica Castagnola,Eliana Addessi,Nicola Di Daniele
ISRN Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/191823
Abstract: Phospholipids play an essential role in cell membrane structure and function. The length and number of double bonds of fatty acids in membrane phospholipids are main determinants of fluidity, transport systems, activity of membrane-bound enzymes, and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. The fatty acid profile of serum lipids, especially the phospholipids, reflects the fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Moreover, long-chain n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids decrease very-low-density lipoprotein assembly and secretion reducing triacylglycerol production. N-6 and n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids are the precursors of signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 polyunsatured fatty acids have proinflammatory actions, while eicosanoids derived from n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids have anti-inflammatory ones. Previous studies showed that inflammation contributes to both the onset and progression of atherosclerosis: actually, atherosclerosis is predominantly a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. Several studies suggested the relationship between long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation, showing that fatty acids may decrease endothelial activation and affect eicosanoid metabolism. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations accounting for about 30% of all deaths [1] and its incidence is still increasing. Ongoing research aims to investigate and prevent the early development of cardiovascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) were proved in several observational and experimental studies. The lipid lowering action of n3-PUFAs was detected at the beginning, so these nutrients were used for the treatment of dyslipidemic disorders. Their anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, and antiarrhythmogenic effects were observed later. Low-grade chronic inflammation is now recognized as a prominent process in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The induction of inflammation may well provide a link between hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis [2, 3]. Atherosclerosis is now considered a “systemic disease” featured by low-grade arterial inflammatory lesions that can develop through the disease progression [4]. In physiological conditions, endothelial cells synthesize and release adequate amounts
Preoperative Embolization Reduces the Risk of Cathecolamines Release at the Time of Surgical Excision of Large Pelvic Extra-Adrenal Sympathetic Paraganglioma
Nicola Di Daniele,Maria Paola Canale,Manfredi Tesauro,Valentina Rovella,Roberto Gandini,Orazio Schillaci,Federica Cadeddu,Giovanni Milito
Case Reports in Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/481328
Abstract: A 30-year-old woman with severe hypertension was admitted to the hospital with a history of headache, palpitations, and diaphoresis following sexual intercourse. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of free catecholamines and metabolites was markedly increased as was serum chromogranin A. Computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the left adnex site and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the computer tomography finding, suggesting the presence of extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglioma. I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine scintigram revealed an increased uptake in the same area. Transcatheter arterial embolization of the mass resulted in marked decreases in blood pressure and urinary excretion of free catecholamines and metabolites. Surgical excision of the mass was then accomplished without complication. Preoperative embolization is a useful and safe procedure which may reduce the risk of catecholamines release at the time of surgical excision in large pelvic extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglioma.
FeNO as a Marker of Airways Inflammation: The Possible Implications in Childhood Asthma Management
Marcello Verini,Nicola Pietro Consilvio,Sabrina Di Pillo,Anna Cingolani,Cynzia Spagnuolo,Daniele Rapino,Alessandra Scaparrotta,Francesco Chiarelli
Journal of Allergy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/691425
Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify FeNO usefulness, as a marker of bronchial inflammation, in the assessment of therapeutic management of childhood asthma. We performed a prospective 1-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two groups of 32 children with allergic asthma: “GINA group”, in which therapy was assessed only by GINA guidelines and “FeNO group”, who followed a therapeutic program assessed also on FeNO measurements. Asthma Severity score (ASs), Asthma Exacerbation Frequency (AEf), and Asthma Therapy score (ATs) were evaluated at the start of the study (T1), 6 months (T2), and 1 year after (T3). ASs and AEf significantly decreased only in the FeNO group at times T2 and T3 (p[T1-T2] = 0.0001, and p[T1-T3] = 0.01; p[T1-T2] = 0.0001; and p[T1-T3] < 0.0001, resp.). After six months of follow-up, we found a significant increase of patients under inhaled corticosteroid and/or antileukotrienes in the GINA group compared to the FeNO group ( ). Our data show that FeNO measurements, might be a very useful additional parameter for management of asthma, which is able to avoid unnecessary inhaled corticosteroid and antileukotrienes therapies, however, mantaining a treatment sufficient to obtain a meaningful improvement of asthma. 1. Introduction Asthma is characterized by variable degrees of airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness, and chronic inflammation [1]. Current guidelines emphasize that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) represent the main treatment for asthma because they target the underlying airways inflammation [2]. Actually decisions to start ICSs and/or long-acting 2-adrenergic agonist (LABA) and/or antileukotrienes (a-LT), or change the dose are mainly based on symptoms reported by the child or parents [3]. Nevertheless symptoms are nonspecific and not closely related to the presence and severity of airways inflammation [4]. Lung function tests show only marginal correlation with airways inflammation [5]. Bronchial epithelium produces Nitric Oxide (NO) [6], and its fraction in exhaled air (FeNO) is elevated in atopic asthma and reflects eosinophilic airways inflammation [7]. Many studies have shown that allergological markers correlate with FeNO levels, and particularly elevated FeNO levels have been found mainly in atopic than in nonatopic asthma [8–10]. Therefore, measurement of FeNO represents a noninvasive marker that may be a useful guide for the adjustment of ICSs treatment [11]. The hypothesis of this study was to verify if FeNO measure is useful in terms of better asthma management in children. The aim of our study was to examine
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Episodic Memory Related to Emotional Visual Stimuli
Barbara Penolazzi,Alberto Di Domenico,Daniele Marzoli,Nicola Mammarella,Beth Fairfield,Raffaella Franciotti,Alfredo Brancucci,Luca Tommasi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010623
Abstract: The present study investigated emotional memory following bilateral transcranial electrical stimulation (direct current of 1 mA, for 20 minutes) over fronto-temporal cortical areas of healthy participants during the encoding of images that differed in affective arousal and valence. The main result was a significant interaction between the side of anodal stimulation and image emotional valence. Specifically, right anodal/left cathodal stimulation selectively facilitated the recall of pleasant images with respect to both unpleasant and neutral images whereas left anodal/right cathodal stimulation selectively facilitated the recall of unpleasant images with respect to both pleasant and neutral images. From a theoretical perspective, this double dissociation between the side of anodal stimulation and the advantage in the memory performance for a specific type of stimulus depending on its pleasantness supported the specific-valence hypothesis of emotional processes, which assumes a specialization of the right hemisphere in processing unpleasant stimuli and a specialization of the left hemisphere in processing pleasant stimuli. From a methodological point of view, first we found tDCS effects strictly dependent on the stimulus category, and second a pattern of results in line with an interfering and inhibitory account of anodal stimulation on memory performance. These findings need to be carefully considered in applied contexts, such as the rehabilitation of altered emotional processing or eye-witness memory, and deserve to be further investigated in order to understand their underlying mechanisms of action.
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