Abstract:
Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (？2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG.

Abstract:
setting out from an analysis of the narrative that turned black people into the archetypical recipients of european development aid, this article examines the production of an ontological, racial and cultural difference between aid donors and recipients. it shows the interconnection between two sociohistorical processes: the reconfigurations of european bureaucracy responsible for relations with 'underdeveloped' countries, and the social and professional trajectories of some of the first civil servants responsible for informing about these policies within the context of european unification. the text examines the definition of the populations and regions receiving development aid in four parts: the racialization of poverty and policies of compassion, the european community and the development of africa, bureaucracy and world organization, and the passions and vocations of development workers.

Abstract:
Lejeune-Jalabert and Reguera computed the geometric Poincare series P_{geom}(T) for toric surface singularities. They raise the question whether this series equals the arithmetic Poincare series. We prove this equality for a class of toric varieties including the surfaces, and construct a counterexample in the general case. We also compute the motivic Igusa Poincare series Q_{geom}(T) for toric surface singularities, using the change of variables formula for motivic integrals, thus answering a second question of Lejeune-Jalabert and Reguera's. The series Q_{geom}(T) contains more information than the geometric series, since it determines the multiplicity of the singularity. In some sense, this is the only difference between Q_{geom}(T) and P_{geom}(T).

Abstract:
For a certain class of varieties X, we derive a formula for the valuation d_{X} on the arc space L(Y) of a smooth ambient space Y, in terms of an embedded resolution of singularities. A simple transformation rule yields a formula for the geometric Poincare series. Furthermore, we prove that for this class of varieties, the arithmetic and the geometric Poincare series coincide. We also study the geometric valuation for plane curves.

Abstract:
We give an informal introduction to formal and rigid geometry over complete discrete valuation rings, and we discuss some applications in algebraic and arithmetic geometry and singularity theory, with special emphasis on recent applications to the Milnor fibration and the motivic zeta function by J. Sebag and the author.

Abstract:
We constructed the analytic Milnor fiber is a non-archimedean model of the classical topological Milnor fibration. In the present paper, we describe the homotopy type of the analytic Milnor fiber in terms of a strictly semi-stable model, and we show that its singular cohomology coincides with the weight zero part of the mixed Hodge structure on the nearby cohomology. We give a similar expression for Denef and Loeser's motivic Milnor fiber in terms of a strictly semi-stable model.

Abstract:
We study a trace formula for tamely ramified abelian varieties $A$ over a complete discretely valued field, which expresses the Euler characteristic of the special fiber of the N\'eron model of $A$ in terms of the Galois action on the $\ell$-adic cohomology of $A$. If $A$ has purely additive reduction, the trace formula yields a cohomological interpretation for the number of connected components of the special fiber of the N\'eron model.

Abstract:
These notes give a basic introduction to the theory of $p$-adic and motivic zeta functions, motivic integration, and the monodromy conjecture.

Abstract:
We study the motivic Serre invariant of a smoothly bounded algebraic or rigid variety $X$ over a complete discretely valued field $K$ with perfect residue field $k$. If $K$ has characteristic zero, we extend the definition to arbitrary $K$-varieties using Bittner's presentation of the Grothendieck ring and a process of N\'eron smoothening of pairs of varieties. The motivic Serre invariant can be considered as a measure for the set of unramified points on $X$. Under certain tameness conditions, it admits a cohomological interpretation by means of a trace formula. In the curve case, we use T. Saito's geometric criterion for cohomological tameness to obtain more detailed results. We discuss some applications to Weil-Ch\^atelet groups, Chow motives, and the structure of the Grothendieck ring.

Abstract:
We show that the de Rham cohomology of any separated and smooth rigid variety over a field of Laurent series of characteristic zero carries a natural formal meromorphic connection, which we call the Gauss-Manin connection. We compare it with the Gauss-Manin connection of a proper and smooth variety over a curve, and with the Gauss-Manin connection of the Milnor fibration at an isolated complex hypersurface singularity.