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A Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Treatment in the Control of Malaria in a Population with Infected Immigrants  [PDF]
Olaniyi S. Maliki, Ngwu Romanus, Bruno O. Onyemegbulem
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.911081
In this work, we developed a compartmental bio-mathematical model to study the effect of treatment in the control of malaria in a population with infected immigrants. In particular, the vector-host population model consists of eleven variables, for which graphical profiles were provided to depict their individual variations with time. This was possible with the help of MathCAD software which implements the Runge-Kutta numerical algorithm to solve numerically the eleven differential equations representing the vector-host malaria population model. We computed the basic reproduction ratio R0 following the next generation matrix. This procedure converts a system of ordinary differential equations of a model of infectious disease dynamics to an operator that translates from one generation of infectious individuals to the next. We obtained R0 = \"\", i.e., the square root of the product of the basic reproduction ratios for the mosquito and human populations respectively. R0m explains the number of humans that one mosquito can infect through contact during the life time it survives as infectious. R0h on the other hand describes the number of mosquitoes that are infected through contacts with the infectious human during infectious period. Sensitivity analysis was performed for the parameters of the model to help us know which parameters in particular have high impact on the disease transmission, in other words on the basic reproduction ratio R0.
Societal Perception of Communication Strategies among Married Couples in Nsukka, South-Eastern, Nigeria  [PDF]
Christian Iyiani, Christopher Ngwu
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.24053
Abstract: When communication between couples becomes strained or even non-existent, the entire foundation of the relationship is affected. The purpose of this study therefore was to examine communication strategies that will improve couple’s relationships. Data were gathered from 197 couples of Igbo ethnic group using a 20-item scale measuring societal perception of married couples. Results showed that about half of the respondents (51.1%) were able to identify strategies couples can take to reduce misunderstanding in marriage relationship. The study also revealed that 53.2% of the respondents were of the opinion that culture has an influence on effective communication among couples. A major implication of the findings is the need to focus mainly on improving marital relationship through application of effective communication strategies by couples.
Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management
Ngwu, OE.
Tropicultura , 2005,
Abstract: The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm) and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp) were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K) enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.
Fe KαLine in Hard X-ray Emitting Symbiotic Stars
Romanus Eze
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1947
Abstract: The 6.4 keV iron emission line is typically created by irradiation of the neutral (or low ionized) iron by a hard X-ray source. Whereas the 6.7 and 7.0 keV emission lines are mainly produced by photoionization and collisional excitation in hot plasma, the 6.4 keV fluorescence line is typically a signature of either reflection from an accretion disk or absorption. We have surveyed the emission using a collection of Suzaku ob- servations of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic stars to better understand the geometry of these systems. We find that they do not seem to have a single geometry, and that while absorption-induced fluorescence leads to some emission in three of the hard X-ray emitting symbiotic stars (hSSs) in our study, CH Cyg, T CrB and RT Cru there are strong hints that significant 6.4 keV emission arises in the accretion disk irradiated by the hard X-rays from the boundary layer between the accretion disk and hot white dwarf in one of our sources, SS73 17. The 6.7 and 7.0 keV lines, however, are largely produced by collisional excitation in the vicinity of the compact white dwarf.
Deteriorating Environmental Resources and Primary School Educational Attainment in the Rural South Pare Highlands, Tanzania
Romanus Lucian Dimoso
International Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v4i1.1147
Abstract: We assess whether school attendance and progress of children in rural primary schools, with respect to their gender, is inversely affected by deteriorating environmental resources. We distinguished three types of areas, namely, severely-degraded, medium-degraded and non-degraded environmental conditions. Our findings, among others, show that there were other factors like school crowdedness, illness, bad weather, school absenteeism due to petty trading and/or informal casual labour, and poor quality of some primary schools that significantly affected the probability of school attainment for the schoolchildren apart from the environmental degradation situations. Environmental degradation, in all estimates except for the schoolgirls in severely-degraded environment, did not have a significant impact. The policy makers therefore, in their attempt to improve educational attainment and human capital formation at primary level should, as well, focus on these other relevant factors excluded from our model. Moreover, the non-government sector may also be enticed into investing in education through attractive fiscal incentives.
Online Social Networks and Terrorism 2.0 in Developing Countries
Fredrick Romanus Ishengoma
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The advancement in technology has brought a new era in terrorism where Online Social Networks have become a major platform of communication with wide range of usage from message channeling to propaganda and recruitment of new followers in terrorist groups. Meanwhile, during the terrorist attacks people use social networks for information exchange, mobilizing and uniting and raising money for the victims. This paper critically analyses the specific usage of social networks in the times of terrorism attacks in developing countries.
Authentication System for Smart Homes Based on ARM7TDMI-S and IRIS-Fingerprint Recognition Technologies
Fredrick Romanus Ishengoma
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: With the rapid advancement in technology, smart homes have become applicable and so the need arise to solve the security challenges that are accompanied with its operation. Passwords and identity cards have been used as traditional authentication mechanisms in home environments, however, the rise of misuse of these mechanisms are proving them to be less reliable. For instance, ID cards can be misplaced, copied or counterfeited and being misused. Conversely, studies have shown that biometrics authentication systems particularly Iris Recognition Technology (IRT) and Fingerprint Recognition Technology (FRT) have the most reliable mechanisms to date providing tremendous accuracy and speed. As the technology becomes less expensive, application of IRT& FRT in smart-homes becomes more reliable and appropriate solution for security challenges. In this paper, we present our approach to design an authentication system for smart homes based on IRT, FRT and ARM7TDMI.The system employs two biometrics mechanisms for high reliability whereby initially, system users must enroll their fingerprints and eyes into the camera. Iris and fingerprint biometrics are scanned and the images are stored in the database. In the stage of authentication, FRT and IRT fingerprint scan and analyze points of the user's current input iris and fingerprint and match with the database contents. If one or more captured images do not match with the one in the database, then the system will not give authorization.
A Novel Design of IEEE 802.15.4 and Solar Based Autonomous Water Quality Monitoring Prototype using ECHERP
Fredrick Romanus Ishengoma
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The recently advancement in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology has brought new distributed sensing applications such as water quality monitoring. With sensing capabilities and using parameters like pH, conductivity and temperature, the quality of water can be known. This paper proposes a novel design based on IEEE 802.15.4 (Zig-Bee protocol) and solar energy called Autonomous Water Quality Monitoring Prototype (AWQMP). The prototype is designed to use ECHERP routing protocol and Adruino Mega 2560, an open-source electronic prototyping platform for data acquisition. AWQMP is expected to give real time data acquirement and to reduce the cost of manual water quality monitoring due to its autonomous characteristic. Moreover, the proposed prototype will help to study the behavior of aquatic animals in deployed water bodies.
Discriminant Analysis of Demand-Side Roadblocks to Financial Inclusion in Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Issahaku Yakubu, Romanus Dinye, Daniel Buor, Wahab A. Iddrisu
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2017.73038
Abstract: Northern Ghana has been described as the most poverty-stricken spot in Ghana. Given the link between financial inclusion and poverty reduction, this paper aims at estimating a discriminant function model to analyse demand-side roadblocks to financial inclusion in Northern Ghana. The study is mainly based on primary data elicited through survey questionnaires. Even though the minimum sample size was determined to be 385 households, a total of 400 households were selected systematically, out of which 395 households returned their questionnaires for analysis. The estimated discriminant function model was found to be significant at the 1% level of significance. It was also found that, the demand-side roadblocks that are very crucial to financial inclusion in Northern Ghana (in order of importance) are “Culture”, “Cost”, “Capability”, and “Trust”. Overall, 77.2% of the cases were correctly classified by the estimated model. This paper therefore concludes that most vulnerable groups in Northern Ghana still find it difficult to access formal financial services due to barriers such as culture, cost, capability and trust. Government policies should therefore be directed at addressing these barriers so as to enhance financial inclusion in the area which eventually will lead to poverty reduction.
Estimation of Population Variance Using the Coefficient of Kurtosis and Median of an Auxiliary Variable under Simple Random Sampling  [PDF]
Tonui Kiplangat Milton, Romanus Otieno Odhiambo, George Otieno Orwa
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.76066

In this study we have proposed a modified ratio type estimator for population variance of the study variable y under simple random sampling without replacement making use of coefficient of kurtosis and median of an auxiliary variable x. The estimator’s properties have been derived up to first order of Taylor’s series expansion. The efficiency conditions derived theoretically under which the proposed estimator performs better than existing estimators. Empirical studies have been done using real populations to demonstrate the performance of the developed estimator in comparison with the existing estimators. The proposed estimator as illustrated by the empirical studies performs better than the existing estimators under some specified conditions i.e. it has the smallest Mean Squared Error and the highest Percentage Relative Efficiency. The developed estimator therefore is suitable to be applied to situations in which the variable of interest has a positive correlation with the auxiliary variable.

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