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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6139 matches for " Nguyen Tran Chinh "
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Distinct Molecular Effects of Angiotensin II and Angiotensin III in Rat Astrocytes
Michelle A. Clark,Chinh Nguyen,Hieu Tran
International Journal of Hypertension , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/782861
Distinct Molecular Effects of Angiotensin II and Angiotensin III in Rat Astrocytes
Michelle A. Clark,Chinh Nguyen,Hieu Tran
International Journal of Hypertension , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/782861
Abstract: It is postulated that central effects of angiotensin (Ang) II may be indirect due to rapid conversion to Ang III by aminopeptidase A (APA). Previously, we showed that Ang II and Ang III induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-terminal kinases (SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation in cultured rat astrocytes. Most importantly, both peptides were equipotent in causing phosphorylation of these MAP kinases. In these studies, we used brainstem and cerebellum astrocytes to determine whether Ang II’s phosphorylation of these MAP kinases is due to the conversion of the peptide to Ang III. We pretreated astrocytes with 10?μM amastatin A or 100?μM glutamate phosphonate, selective APA inhibitors, prior to stimulating with either Ang II or Ang III. Both peptides were equipotent in stimulating ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. The APA inhibitors failed to prevent Ang II- and Ang III-mediated phosphorylation of the MAP kinases. Further, pretreatment of astrocytes with the APA inhibitors did not affect Ang II- or Ang III-induced astrocyte growth. These findings suggest that both peptides directly induce phosphorylation of these MAP kinases as well as induce astrocyte growth. These studies establish both peptides as biologically active with similar intracellular and physiological effects. 1. Introduction Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases constitute a superfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in the regulation of a number of intracellular pathways associated with cellular growth, apoptosis, cellular differentiation, transformation of cells, and vascular contraction [1–4]. We have shown that angiotensin (Ang) II via activation of AT1 receptors increases the expression of MAP kinases in primary cultures of rat astrocytes [5–7]. ERK1/2 MAP kinases were shown to mediate Ang II-induced astrocyte growth and Ang II-induced c-Fos and c-Myc expression [5, 6, 8]. We have also established that Ang II induces the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) MAP kinases leading to cellular proliferation in cultured rat astrocytes, an effect that was also mediated by the AT1 Ang receptors [7]. Our findings suggest that Ang II signals through these two different MAP kinase pathways in astrocytes. More recently, we showed that Ang III also induces the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK MAP kinases in these cells [9, 10]. Moreover, Ang III was equipotent to Ang II in causing these MAP kinases phosphorylation and occurred via interaction with the Ang AT1 receptor. Ang III also
Combination of Metal Shielding and Distance Estimation for Electromagnetic Compatibility Guarantee  [PDF]
Nguyen Duc Truong, Tran Van Nghia, Bui Duc Chinh, Ho Quang Quy
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2019.119009
Abstract: In this paper, a solution for electromagnetic compatibility guarantee based on the combination of metal shielding and circuit components distance estimation methods is presented. The electromagnetic noises generated from a working radio-electronic unit can expand into the space and act on other around radio-electronic units. An EMC guaranteed radio-electronic unit by the suitable technique method will not cause the electromagnetic noise to others. In opposition, it will not be under electromagnetic action from another one. Due to the power of electromagnetic noise, the metal shielding, distance estimation or other technique methods should be used to guarantee EMC. Every method has own advantage as so as weakness for detail radio-electronic unit, so it is necessary to choose a suitable method to guarantee EMC for them, the combination of metal shielding and distance estimation is a choice, for example. The proposed solution has been evaluated by using CST (Computer Simulation Technology) software and EMxpertEHX analyzer in oscillator circuit context. The simulated results on CST show that the proposed solution decreases the electromagnetic radiation about of 39.1 dB at frequency 500 MHz in comparison to results when nothing electromagnetic compatibility methods are not used. The experimental results on the oscillator circuit are presented. The electromagnetic radiation reduction of the oscillator circuit is about of (25 - 30) dB. In comparison to individual metal shielding and distance estimation methods, the effectiveness of the proposed solution for electromagnetic compatibility guarantee is significantly increased.
Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and Typhoid Fever in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hue, Mai Ngoc Lanh, Le Thi Phuong, Ha Vinh, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Tran Tinh Hien, Nguyen T. Hieu, Jeremy J. Farrar, Sarah J. Dunstan
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004800
Abstract: Understanding the host genetic susceptibility to typhoid fever may provide a better understanding of pathogenesis and help in the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we determine the genetic variation within the human TLR4 gene encoding the principal receptor for bacterial endotoxin recognition in typhoid fever patients. It is possible that genetic variants of TLR4 could detrimentally affect the innate immune response against S. typhi infection. Mutation detection and genotyping of TLR4 was performed on DNA from 414 Vietnamese typhoid fever patients and 372 population controls. dHPLC detected a total of 10 polymorphisms within the upstream and exonic regions of TLR4, of which 7 are novel. Two SNPs, T4025A and C4215G, were more frequent in typhoid cases than in controls however due to their low allele frequencies they showed borderline significance (T4025A: OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.9–4.3, P 0.07 and C4215G: OR 6.7, 95%CI 0.8–307, P 0.04). Six missense mutations were identified, with 5/6 positioned in the ectoplasmic domain. Four missense mutations and one promoter SNP (A-271G) were only present in typhoid cases, albeit at low allele frequencies. Here we determined the extent of genetic variation within TLR4 in a Vietnamese population and suggest that TLR4 may be involved in defense against typhoid fever in this population.
Some Factors Affected on Structure, Mechanical of Ni Bulk  [PDF]
Nguyen Trong Dung, Nguyen Chinh Cuong
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2018.84012
Abstract: The article examines the effect of atomic number, temperature and tempering time on microstructure and mechanical of Ni bulk by molecular dynamics simulation and deformation z-axis. Samples Ni with N = 4000, 5324, 6912, and 8788 atoms at 300 K, 6912 atoms at T = 1100, 900, 700, 500, 300 K and 6912 atoms at 900 K after different annealing time. The samples were incubated with the same heating rate \"\". Combined with common neighborhood analysis method shown in sample is always existing four types structure: FCC, HCP, BCC, and Amor. In particular, structural units FCC, HCP and Amor always prevail and BCC are very small and appear only at 300, 500 K with 6912 atoms. When increasing atomic number, lowering temperature or increasing tempering time will facilitate crystallization process leading to increased FCC and HCP units number. The increasing FCC, HCP units number and additional appearance BCC structure led to change microstructure and mechanical of material: When increasing atom, lowering temperature and increasing incubation time lead to an increase in density of atoms that increase mechanical properties of the material.
Three Adult Cases of Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Vietnam
Tran Thi Hong Chau,James I. Campbell,Constance Schultsz,Nguyen Van Vinh Chau,To Song Diep,Stephen Baker,Nguyen Tran Chinh,Jeremy J. Farrar,H. Rogier van Doorn
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000306
Evaluation of the MODS Culture Technique for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis
Maxine Caws, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Estee Torok, James Campbell, Do Dang Anh Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen van Vinh Chau, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Jeremy Farrar
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001173
Abstract: Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating condition. The rapid instigation of appropraite chemotherapy is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality. However rapid diagnosis remains elusive; smear microscopy has extremely low sensitivity on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in most laboratories and PCR requires expertise with advanced infrastructure and has sensitivity of only around 60% under optimal conditions. Neither technique allows for the microbiological isolation of M. tuberculosis and subsequent drug susceptibility testing. We evaluated the recently developed microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay format for speed and accuracy in diagnosing TBM. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred and thirty consecutive CSF samples collected from 156 patients clinically suspected of TBM on presentation at a tertiary referal hospital in Vietnam were enrolled into the study over a five month period and tested by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear, MODS, Mycobacterial growth Indicator tube (MGIT) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture. Sixty-one samples were from patients already on TB therapy for >1day and 19 samples were excluded due to untraceable patient records. One hundred and fifty samples from 137 newly presenting patients remained. Forty-two percent (n = 57/137) of patients were deemed to have TBM by clinical diagnostic and microbiological criteria (excluding MODS). Sensitivity by patient against clinical gold standard for ZN smear, MODS MGIT and LJ were 52.6%, 64.9%, 70.2% and 70.2%, respectively. Specificity of all microbiological techniques was 100%. Positive and negative predictive values for MODS were 100% and 78.7%, respectively for HIV infected patients and 100% and 82.1% for HIV negative patients. The median time to positive was 6 days (interquartile range 5–7), significantly faster than MGIT at 15.5 days (interquartile range 12–24), and LJ at 24 days (interquartile range 18–35 days) (P<0.01). Conclusions We have shown MODS to be a sensitive, rapid technique for the diagnosis of TBM with high sensitivity, ease of performance and low cost (0.53 USD/sample).
The Influence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi on the Clinical Response to Ofloxacin Therapy
Christopher M. Parry ,Ha Vinh,Nguyen Tran Chinh,John Wain,James I. Campbell,Tran Tinh Hien,Jeremy J. Farrar,Stephen Baker
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001163
Abstract: Background Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has been associated with fluoroquinolone treatment failure. We studied the relationship between ofloxacin treatment response and the ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the infecting isolate. Individual patient data from seven randomised controlled trials of antimicrobial treatment in enteric fever conducted in Vietnam in which ofloxacin was used in at least one of the treatment arms was studied. Data from 540 patients randomised to ofloxacin treatment was analysed to identify an MIC of the infecting organism associated with treatment failure. Principal Findings The proportion of patients failing ofloxacin treatment was significantly higher in patients infected with S. Typhi isolates with an MIC≥0.25 μg/mL compared with those infections with an MIC of ≤0.125 μg/mL (p<0.001). Treatment success was 96% when the ofloxacin MIC was ≤0.125 μg/mL, 73% when the MIC was between 0.25 and 0.50 μg/mL and 53% when the MIC was 1.00 μg/mL. This was despite a longer duration of treatment at a higher dosage in patients infected with isolates with an MIC≥0.25 μg/mL compared with those infections with an MIC of ≤0.125 μg/mL. Significance There is a clear relationship between ofloxacin susceptibility and clinical outcome in ofloxacin treated patients with enteric fever. An ofloxacin MIC of ≥0.25 μg/mL, or the presence of nalidixic acid resistance, can be used to define S. Typhi infections in which the response to ofloxacin may be impaired.
Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners’ Voices
Nguyen Duc Chinh
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n4p1
Abstract: The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker competence and target culture, the culture teaching in ELT now aims at cultural diversity to develop learners as intercultural speakers in a globalised context. Given the need to integrate diverse cultures into the ELT practice as a platform for learners to become intercultural speakers, learners’ attitudes towards this issue are of paramount importance. This article will, therefore, discuss learners’ perspective on cultural diversity that is integrated into the ELT practice in Vietnam. Based on data collected from learners’ reflections, the article discusses the question of whether or not cultural diversity is feasible in the ELT practice in Vietnam.
Early Pandemic Influenza (2009 H1N1) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Clinical Virological and Epidemiological Analysis
Tran Tinh Hien equal contributor,Maciej F. Boni equal contributor ,Juliet E. Bryant equal contributor,Tran Thuy Ngan equal contributor,Marcel Wolbers,Tran Dang Nguyen,Nguyen Thanh Truong,Nguyen Thi Dung,Do Quang Ha,Vo Minh Hien,Tran Tan Thanh,Le Nguyen Truc Nhu,Le Thi Tam Uyen,Pham Thi Nhien,Nguyen Tran Chinh,Nguyen Van Vinh Chau,Jeremy Farrar,H. Rogier van Doorn equal contributor
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000277
Abstract: Background To date, little is known about the initial spread and response to the 2009 pandemic of novel influenza A (“2009 H1N1”) in tropical countries. Here, we analyse the early progression of the epidemic from 26 May 2009 until the establishment of community transmission in the second half of July 2009 in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In addition, we present detailed systematic viral clearance data on 292 isolated and treated patients and the first three cases of selection of resistant virus during treatment in Vietnam. Methods and Findings Data sources included all available health reports from the Ministry of Health and relevant health authorities as well as clinical and laboratory data from the first confirmed cases isolated at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in HCMC. Extensive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics on serial samples, viral culture, neuraminidase-inhibition testing, and sequencing were performed on a subset of 2009 H1N1 confirmed cases. Virological (PCR status, shedding) and epidemiological (incidence, isolation, discharge) data were combined to reconstruct the initial outbreak and the establishment of community transmission. From 27 April to 24 July 2009, approximately 760,000 passengers who entered HCMC on international flights were screened at the airport by a body temperature scan and symptom questionnaire. Approximately 0.15% of incoming passengers were intercepted, 200 of whom tested positive for 2009 H1N1 by RT-PCR. An additional 121 out of 169 nontravelers tested positive after self-reporting or contact tracing. These 321 patients spent 79% of their PCR-positive days in isolation; 60% of PCR-positive days were spent treated and in isolation. Influenza-like illness was noted in 61% of patients and no patients experienced pneumonia or severe outcomes. Viral clearance times were similar among patient groups with differing time intervals from illness onset to treatment, with estimated median clearance times between 2.6 and 2.8 d post-treatment for illness-to-treatment intervals of 1–4 d, and 2.0 d (95% confidence interval 1.5–2.5) when treatment was started on the first day of illness. Conclusions The patients described here represent a cross-section of infected individuals that were identified by temperature screening and symptom questionnaires at the airport, as well as mildly symptomatic to moderately ill patients who self-reported to hospitals. Data are observational and, although they are suggestive, it is not possible to be certain whether the containment efforts delayed community transmission in Vietnam.
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