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Search Results: 1 - 4 of 4 matches for " Ngoun Chanpheaktra "
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Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Pediatric Infection in Cambodia
Kheng Chheng, Sarah Tarquinio, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Lina Sin, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Premjit Amornchai, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Sarinna Tumapa, Hor Putchhat, Nicholas P. J. Day, Sharon J. Peacock
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006630
Abstract: Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST) 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive. Conclusions This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.
A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia
Kheng Chheng, Michael J. Carter, Kate Emary, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Catrin E. Moore, Nicole Stoesser, Hor Putchhat, Soeng Sona, Sin Reaksmey, Paul Kitsutani, Borann Sar, H. Rogier van Doorn, Nguyen Hanh Uyen, Le Van Tan, Daniel Paris, Stuart D. Blacksell, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Christopher M. Parry, Nicholas P. J. Day, Varun Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060634
Abstract: Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia.
Effect of Pure Culture Fermentation on Biochemical Composition of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaves Powders  [PDF]
Noumo Ngangmou Thierry, Tatsadjieu Ngouné Léopold, Montet Didier, F. Mbofung Carl Moses
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48111
Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effect of the age of the leaves and fermentation on in vitro protein digestibility and biochemical properties of leaves powder of Moringa oleifera. A 6 × 2 × 2 factorial design with two ages of the leaves (one and seven-month-old leaves), six times of fermentation and two fermentation temperatures was used for this purpose. One and seven-month-old fresh leaves were dried at 45 for 24 h, crushed to 1000 μm then fermented at 30 and 37 for 120 hours with Lactobacillus plantarum A6 at 108 CFU/g. Samples were withdrawn every 24 hours for physico-chemical analyses. Results showed that 7 month-old leaves were richer in iron, proteins, polyphenols and phytates than one month old leaves. The phytates content dropped from 66.92% and 61.95% in the seven and one month-old leaves powders respectively fermented at 37, and from 54.15% and 67.95% in the seven and one month-old leaves powders respectively fermented at 30. Protein content increased by 26.34% and 24.48% for the 1and 7-month-old leaves powders respectively fermented at 37, and by 13.06% and 13.97% for the 1and 7month-old leaves powders respectively, fermented at 30. Iron availability increased from 35.97% to 40.57% and 20.74% to 30.98% for the 1and 7-month-old leaves powders respectively, fermented at 37 and from 35.97% to 39.79% and 20.76% to 23.72% for the 1and 7-month-old leaves powders respectively, fermented at 30. There was a negative correlation between pH, total and reducing sugar contents, time as well as fermentation temperature, whereas there was a positive correlation between total protein content and pepsic digestibility of protein and fermentation time. From these results, fermentation of M. oleifera leaf powder by Lactobacillus plantarum A6 increases protein content, pepsic

{[Na1(μ-H2O)Na2]2[(C2O4)2Cr(μ-OH)2Cr(C2O4)2]·H2O}n, a novel hydrated form
Michel M. Bélombé,Justin Nenwa,Jean Ngouné,Eleuterio Álvarez
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810023986
Abstract: The unit cell of the title compound, poly[[μ-aqua-μ-hydroxido-di-μ-oxalato-chromium(III)disodium] monohydrate], {[CrNa2(C2O4)2(OH)(H2O)]·H2O}n, contains four [Na1(μ-H2O)Na2][(C2O4)2Cr(μ-OH)·H2O] formula units, each of which consists of two crystallographically independent Na+ sites (bridged by one aqua ligand), one half of a centrosymmetric di-μ-hydroxido-bis[cis-bis(oxalato)chromate(III)] dimer, [(C2O4)2Cr(μ-OH)2Cr(C2O4)2]4 , and one uncoordinated water molecule. The structure is best described as a coordination polymer in which the three-dimensional lattice framework is realized by the interconnection of the metallic atoms via the O atoms of the aqua, hydroxide and oxalate ligands. One Na atom is heptacoordinated by one water, one hydroxide and five oxalate O atoms, whilst the other is pentacoordinated by one water and four oxalate O atoms. The coordination around the Cr3+ sites is pseudo-octahedral, involving four aqua and two hydroxide O atoms. Adjacent Na atoms are separated by 3.593 (2) , whereas the intradimer Cr...Cr spacing is 2.978 (1) . The crystal structure is consolidated by extended relatively weak O—H...O hydrogen bonding with O...O distances ranging from 2.808 (4) to 3.276 (5) .
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