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Nutritional Status of Diabetic Mothers and Health of Newborns in Western Algeria  [PDF]
Refka Ouramdane, Karima Bereksi-Reguig, Fadl Allah Abou-Bakr, Slimane Belbraouet
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.610089
Abstract: The aim of our work is the study of nutrition diabetic women, and the study of the health status of their newborns in West of Algeria. Our study was performed on 165 diabetic mothers aged 20 to 45 years and 161 newborns admitted to the hospital specialized in obstetrics and gynecology of Sidi Bel Abbes. A food survey and anthropometric study were achieved in our population, clinical and socioeconomic data were recorded in an identification card. Our results show that the average age of women with diabetes is 33.26 ± 5.15 ans. The socio-economic survey shows that 47.32% of women have an average monthly income; their education level is low with only 8.06% having a higher level. Anthropometric parameters show that 48.08% of elderly diabetic women aged 30 to 40 years are overweight BMI > 25. Dietary survey indicates that women experienced iron, calcium and vitamin B9 deficiency. The results of clinical data have shown the existence of gestational diabetes with a rate of 50.90%; macrosomia is dominant in their newborns with a rate of 22.26%. We noted the presence of hypoglycemia in 18.01% and inutero death in 12.42%.
Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dhydrogenase Deficient Neonates and Cost Effective of Enzyme Screening in Tehran, Iran  [PDF]
Hossein Dahifar, Aboulfazl Ghorbani, Manijeh Ghods
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2010.12011
Abstract: Background: Newborn screening is an area with potential for immense impact in lifelong morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine cost effective for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) enzyme screening and prevalence of deficiency in newborns and children in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: All full term newborns, neonates with icterus and children with acute hemolysis were evaluated to determine prevalence of G-6-PD enzyme deficiency and cost effectiveness of a screening test for G-6-PD enzyme deficiency. The qualitative color reduction test performed on healthy newborns and quantitative test on newborns with icterus and children with acute hemolysis. Results: Three (2%) of 146 screened newborns were G-6-PD deficient at a cost of $ 18 for three positive screening tests and $ 856 for 143 unaffected newborns Thirty-one (11.4%) of 272 newborns readmitted with icterus were G-6-PD deficient with a cost of 31 tests were $186 and $1446 for unaffected newborns. The only significant difference between G-6-PD deficient and normal newborns was bilirubin level (p < 0.001). Eleven (0.2%) of 5054 hospitalized children were found to be G-6-PD deficient at a screening cost of $ 66 and $ 3.258 for remainder children. The prevalence of G-6-PD is estimated to be approximately 2.4% and 2.2% in males and females respectively. Conclusion: Glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase screening in newborns is not cost effective and for prevention of hemolysis during the next years all newborns admitted with icterus should be evaluated for G-6-PD enzyme deficiency.
Characterization of Pathologic Cries of Newborns Based on Fundamental Frequency Estimation  [PDF]
Yasmina Kheddache, Chakib Tadj
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B057
Abstract:

The majority of the sick babies seem in good health at birth and early diagnosis of the various pathologies that can afflict newborn is crucial. For this reason we introduce in this paper the use of the fundamental frequency and the different modes of cries as Hyper-phonation, phonation and high pitched cries to differentiate the pathological cries from the cries of the healthy babies. The automatic estimation of these characteristics enabled us to establish a quantitative characterization of healthy newborn cries and pathologic newborn cries. The results obtained agree with the spectrographic analysis carried out on the healthy and pathologic cries of the newborns.

Diagnosis of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Using Sound Transmission in Neonates  [PDF]
Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza, Diana Medina-Alvarez, Ma Laura Ruiz-Paloalto, Teodoro Cordova-Fraga, Modesto Antonio Sosa-Aquino, Aaron Huetzin Perez-Olivas
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618289
Abstract: The developmental dysplasia of the hip disease is in 1% of newborns, and it is a risk factor for dislocation of the hip; only 1 from 7000 newborns develops dislocation of the hip. Newborns were selected from public and private hospitals in Celaya, Guanajuato. Parents were asked to sign informed consent. Clinical maneuvers were applied for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip, on three consecutive occasions, two by the same investigator and the third by a different observer: Ortolani, Barlow, Piston, Galeazzi, Peter Baden, the comparative sound transmission test, and comparative sound transmission with extension/flexion test were applied. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound of hip, technique Graf, I healthy hip, II functionally immature, III subluxation, and IV dislocation. Sample size was 8 affected hips and 56 healthy hips. Kappa for intra observer and inter observer reliability were measured; the validity was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, using the ultrasound diagnosis as the gold standard. The sample consisted of 78 neonates hips with female’s predominance. With comparative sound transmission test was obtained Kappa intra observer 0.80, Kappa inter observer 0.93, sensitivity 45.45%, specificity 96.27%, positive predictive value 66.67% and negative predictive value 91.49%; with comparative sound transmission with extension/flexion, was 0.83, 0.92, 72.73%, 95.52%, 72.73%, and 95.52%, respectively. The tests compared the sound transmission help better diagnose developmental dysplasia disease of the hip.
Congenital malformations among newborns admitted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East Nigeria - a retrospective study
Herbert A Obu, Josephat M Chinawa, Nwachinemere D Uleanya, Gilbert N Adimora, Ikechukwu E Obi
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-177
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken.All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome.Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P?<?0.05Seventeen (17) out of a total of six hundred and seven newborn babies admitted in the newborn unit of UNTH over the study period (Jan 2007-March 2011) were found to have congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special Care Unit in a teaching hospital in Enugu had congenital abnormalities and that the commonest forms seen were mainly surgical birth defects and includes
C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Couto, Fábio David;Adorno, Elisangela Vitória;Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo;Moura Neto, José Pereira;Rêgo, Marco Ant?nio Vasconcelos;Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o dos;Gon?alves, Marilda Souza;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000200021
Abstract: the c677t polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (mthfr) is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (thcy), described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in salvador, bahia, brazil were screened for this polymorphism by pcr and rflp. the t-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. the t-allele frequency differed and the t/t genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. the hemoglobin (hb) profile was investigated by hplc in 763 newborns. the frequency of variant hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. the association of the c677t polymorphism and the hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant hbs and the t allele. these data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals.
Medidas da latência das emiss?es otoacústicas - produto de distor??o em neonatos
Azevedo, Renata Frasson de;Carvallo, Renata;
Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-72992003000500015
Abstract: latency of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (dpoe) is defined as the time that the acoustic stimulus takes to reach the site generating the otoacoustic emission, inside de cochlea, and the return to the external acoustic meatus, to be register. dpoe latency may serve as a useful tool to study cochlear maturational changes as well as the micromechanics of the cochlea, since a relationship between dpe latency and the cochlear traveling wave was observed. studies on adults showed a decrease in the latency with an increase of the sound frequency, varying from 13.8 ms in 787 hz to 4.4 ms in 5 kz. this decrease occurs due to tonotopic arrangement of the cochlea. studies on this area are rare in the literature and no criteria of normality are found for these measurements, mainly in newborns. aim: thus, the main of this study was to characterize the latency measurements of the dpoe in full-term newborns without any hearing risk. study design: control study. material and method: thirty-one full term newborns of both sexes were evaluated. the procedure used was the "latencygram" program. the tested frequencies were 3 to 6 khz at the intensity of 70 dbna for f1 and f2. results: the obtained results showed a decrease in the latency with the increase in the sound frequency and a difference between sexes was also observed.
Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period
Mancini, Monique Catache;Barbosa, Naila Elias;Banwart, Débora;Silveira, Sandra;Guerpelli, José Luiz;Leone, Cléa Rodrigues;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87811999000500004
Abstract: intraventricular hemorrhage (ivh) is a severe complication in very low birth weight (vlbw) newborns (nb). with the purpose of studying the incidence of ivh, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the vlbw infants born in our neonatal unit. birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. the diagnosis of ivh was based on ultrasound scan studies (papile's classification) performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. the mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101) and the incidence of ivh was 29.8% (20/67) : 70% grade i, 20% grade iii and 10% grade iv. the incidence of ivh in nb <1,000 g was 53.8% (p = 0.035) and for gestational age <30 weeks was 47.3% (p = 0.04), both considered risk factors for ivh. the length of hospitalization (p = 0.00015) and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.038) were longer in ihv nb. the ivh nb had a relative risk of 2.3 of developing apnea (p = 0.02), 3.7 of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0007), and 7.7 of periventricular leukomalacia (p < 0.00001). the authors emphasize the importance of knowing the risk factors related to ivh so as to introduce prevention schemes to reduce ivh and to improve outcomes of affected newborns.
Incidence and causes of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a center of Catania
Marco Sciuto, Gaetano Bertino, Mariangela Zocco, Ignazio Vecchio, et al.
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S4509
Abstract: cidence and causes of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a center of Catania Short Report (3941) Total Article Views Authors: Marco Sciuto, Gaetano Bertino, Mariangela Zocco, Ignazio Vecchio, et al. Published Date March 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 247 - 250 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S4509 Marco Sciuto1, Gaetano Bertino2, Mariangela Zocco3, Ignazio Vecchio4, Rocco Raffaele4, Rosario R Trifiletti5, Piero Pavone3,6 1Neonatal Care Section, Valsalva Hospital, Catania, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital S Marta University of Catania, Italy; 3Pediatric Unit, Department of Pediatric Hospital Civile, Ragusa, Italy; 4Department of Neurology, University of Catania, Italy; 5Department of Neurology, Morristown Memorial Hospital, New Jersey, USA; 6Pediatric Unit, Department of Pediatric and Pediatric Neurology, University of Catania, Italy Aim and scope: We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in a small neonatal care unit in Catania, Italy, and to determine the underlying causes, which would be of value in identifying and implementing strategies to prevent morbidity from this condition. Background: Management of hyperbilirubinemia remains a challenge for neonatal medicine because of the risk for serious neurological complications related to the toxicity of bilirubin. Methods: From January 2006 to January 2007, we screened 525 newborns born at the Neonatal Care Unit of Valsalva Hospital in Catania, Italy. Infants aged 3–5 days and with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia were included for assessment if they had a peak serum total bilirubin level exceeding 6 mg/dl (102 μmol/L). Sex, birth weight, gestational age, breast feeding, type of birth, presence of facial bruising (including cephalohematoma) and ABO group were noted. Patients with Toxoplasma or Cytomegalovirus infection, hepatic insufficiency, or suspected drug-induced hyperbilirubinemia were excluded from more detailed analysis. Results: Our year-long nursery sample examined otherwise healthy-appearing term infants for the prevalence of hyperbilirubinemia (defined as bilirubin levels exceeding 6 mg/dL [11mol/L]). We found hyperbilirubinemia in 19% (100/525). Among the patients with hyperbilirubinemia, almost all (99%) had peak levels of bilirubin < 20 mg/dL, levels which are generally considered to be potentially neurotoxic. Conclusions: In our clinic experience, hyperbilirubinemia was generally a serious medical issue and one whose etiology can usually be well defined.
Selection of Blood (Packed RBCs) for Transfusion in Newborn Baby up to the Age of 4 Months
Ghulam Mostafa Khan
Journal of Enam Medical College , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jemc.v1i1.11138
Abstract: Proper selection of donor’s blood group is essential to prevent transfusion hazards. It is known that ABO antigen is fully developed at birth but the newborn baby does not produce ABO antibodies until 3 to 6 months of age. The ABO antibodies present in the serum of newborn babies are derived from mother’s blood due to placental transfer. So the blood group of the newborn baby is done by ABO antigen grouping (forward grouping) only, antibody grouping (reverse grouping) is not required. In case of transfusion of blood in newborn under 4 months of age, cross-matching of donor’s blood is done with the mother’s blood if it is available. We know, recipient’s same group of blood is always preferable in case of transfusion in adults or older children. But selection of blood for transfusion in the infants under 4 months of age depends on the mother’s blood group as well. If the mother’s blood group differs from the infant’s blood group, the infant’s same group of blood may not be selected for transfusion. For example, if the mother’s blood group is “O” and the newborn blood group is “A” or “B”, infant’s same group “A” or “B” group blood could not be transfused, because the anti-A & anti-B antibodies can be derived in the infant’s serum from mother’s blood which may react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the donor’s blood. In this case “O” group packed RBCs should be selected for transfusion. “O” group whole blood may contain IgG anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma which can react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the infant’s blood. So to avoid anti-A & anti-B antibodies in “O” group, plasma should be discarded and the packed RBCs should be transfused.In case of Rh-negative mother with Rh positive baby, Rh antibody may develop in mother’s blood and Rh antibody may enter into baby’s circulation, in this case the infant should be transfused with Rh-negative blood to avoid Rh antigen & antibody reaction. So for the selection of blood for transfusion in newborn baby up to the age of 4 months mother’s blood group is important to select the appropriate blood.
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