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Phonological Skills Among Children with Reading Disabilities
Mirela Duranovic , Nevzeta Salihovic , Amela Ibrahimagic , Emina Tinjic
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10215-011-0007-5
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to examine the phonological skills among children with reading disabilities of the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language, where each phoneme is represented by a grapheme following a certain phonemic principle. The sample consists of 15 children with reading disabilities and 15 children without reading disabilities, where "The diagnostic set for examination of the speech, language, reading and writing abilities among children" was used for examination of their phonological capacity. Phonological skills in children are very important for reading and writing acquisition. The results of the study showed that children with reading disabilities achieved poorer results in all tasks examining the phonological skills, compared to children without reading difficulties. The results of our study comply with results of studies conducted for other languages. The study highlights the importance of the mentioned skills for acquiring reading skills in the Bosnian Croatian/Serbian language and the significance of deficient phonological abilities for the etiology of reading disabilities. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that phonological skills are very important for acquiring reading and writing abilities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VOICE IN STUTTERING CHILDREN
Nevzeta Salihovic,Lejla Junuzovic-Zunic,Amela Ibrahimagic,Lejla Beganovic
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2009, DOI: 10.5457/ams.55.09
Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of this research was to establish voice acoustic characteristics in stuttering children with mild and severe stuttering and relationship between degree of stuttering and characteristics of voice in children. Methods: Sample consisted of two subsamples of male subjects (subsample of subjects with mild stuttering and subsample of subjects with severe stuttering) aged 7 to 10,5. Control group of subjects consisted of 46 fluent speakers, matched by age and sex with experimenal group. This research was conducted in twenty primary schools in Tuzla Canton among children attending grades 1 to 4. Results: Results of this research showed that subjects with severe stuttering had more expressed short frequency variations and variations of amplitude in the vocal tone. Factor analysis revealed four significant factors: factor of frequency variation, phonation factor, factor of aerodynamic phonation characteristics and intensity variation factor. Results of one-way factor analysis of variance between examined groups in factors of voice acoustic characteristics showed that factor 4 contributed the most to differentiation of groups. This factor was created from variables describing variation of amplitude in the vocal tone. Examination of correlation between four factors revealed statistically significant correlation between factor of frequency variation and intensity variation factor. Results of canonic analysis showed that variables of stuttering intesity correlated significantly with variable intensity variation. Results of this study also showed that acoustic analysis of voice in stuttering children might be useful for indepth analyses of stuttering manifestations. Conclusions: Results of this study might serve as incentive for furthter studies of different aspects of acoustic and physiologic phonation characteristics in stuttering children.
INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME
Nevzeta SALIHOVI?,Selma HASANBA?I?,Leila BEGI?
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency) and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education Zenica“; Primary school "Kova i i" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilija . All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.
PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS AMONG CHILDREN WITH READING DISABILITIES
Mirela DURANOVIKJ,Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ,Amela IBRAHIMAGIKJ,Emina TINJIKJ
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2011,
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to examine the phonological skills among children with reading disabilities of the Bosnian/Croatian/ Serbian language, where each phoneme is represented by a grapheme following a certain phonemic principle. The sample consists of 15 children with reading disabilities and 15 children without reading disabilities, where "The diagnostic set for examination of the speech, language, reading and writing abilities among children" was used for examination of their phonological capacity. Phonological skills in children are very important for reading and writing acquisition. The results of the study showed that children with reading disabilities achieved poorer results in all tasks examining the phonological skills, compared to children without reading difficulties. The results of our study comply with results of studies conducted for other languages. The study highlights the importance of the mentioned skills for acquiring reading skills in the Bosnian/ Croatian/Serbian language and the significance of deficient phonological abilities for the etiology of reading disabilities. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that phonological skills are very important for acquiring reading and writing abilities.
STUTTERING THERAPY FOR A CHILD AT INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING LEVEL
Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ,Lejla JUNUZOVIKJ-ZUNIKJ,Mirela DURANOVIKJ,Amela IBRAHIMAGIKJ
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2009,
Abstract: Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old).The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment). This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.
Does Mortality Risk of Cigarette Smoking Depend on Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants? Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study
Duk-Hee Lee, Lars Lind, David R. Jacobs, Samira Salihovic, Bert van Bavel, P. Monica Lind
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095937
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is an important cause of preventable death globally, but associations between smoking and mortality vary substantially across country and calendar time. Although methodological biases have been discussed, it is biologically plausible that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides can affect this association. This study was performed to evaluate if associations of cigarette smoking with mortality were modified by serum concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides. We evaluated cigarette smoking in 111 total deaths among 986 men and women aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) with mean follow-up for 7.7 years. The association between cigarette smoking and total mortality depended on serum concentration of PCBs and OC pesticides (P value for interaction = 0.02). Among participants in the highest tertile of the serum POPs summary score, former and current smokers had 3.7 (95% CI, 1.5–9.3) and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.3–17.7) times higher mortality hazard, respectively, than never smokers. In contrast, the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality among participants in the lowest tertile of the serum POPs summary score was much weaker and statistically non-significant. The strong smoking-mortality association observed among elderly people with high POPs was mainly driven by low risk of mortality among never smokers with high POPs. As smoking is increasing in many low-income and middle-income countries and POPs contamination is a continuing problem in these areas, the interactions between these two important health-related issues should be considered in future research.
Large-scale Metabolomic Profiling Identifies Novel Biomarkers for Incident Coronary Heart Disease
Andrea Ganna,Samira Salihovic,Johan Sundstr?m,Corey D. Broeckling,?sa K. Hedman,Patrik K. E. Magnusson,Nancy L. Pedersen,Anders Larsson,Agneta Siegbahn,Mihkel Zilmer,Jessica Prenni,Johan ?rnl?v,Lars Lind,Tove Fall,Erik Ingelsson
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004801
Abstract: Analyses of circulating metabolites in large prospective epidemiological studies could lead to improved prediction and better biological understanding of coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomics study for association with incident CHD events in 1,028 individuals (131 events; 10 y. median follow-up) with validation in 1,670 individuals (282 events; 3.9 y. median follow-up). Four metabolites were replicated and independent of main cardiovascular risk factors [lysophosphatidylcholine 18:1 (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] increment = 0.77, P-value<0.001), lysophosphatidylcholine 18:2 (HR = 0.81, P-value<0.001), monoglyceride 18:2 (MG 18:2; HR = 1.18, P-value = 0.011) and sphingomyelin 28:1 (HR = 0.85, P-value = 0.015)]. Together they contributed to moderate improvements in discrimination and re-classification in addition to traditional risk factors (C-statistic: 0.76 vs. 0.75; NRI: 9.2%). MG 18:2 was associated with CHD independently of triglycerides. Lysophosphatidylcholines were negatively associated with body mass index, C-reactive protein and with less evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in additional 970 participants; a reverse pattern was observed for MG 18:2. MG 18:2 showed an enrichment (P-value = 0.002) of significant associations with CHD-associated SNPs (P-value = 1.2×10?7 for association with rs964184 in the ZNF259/APOA5 region) and a weak, but positive causal effect (odds ratio = 1.05 per SD increment in MG 18:2, P-value = 0.05) on CHD, as suggested by Mendelian randomization analysis. In conclusion, we identified four lipid-related metabolites with evidence for clinical utility, as well as a causal role in CHD development.
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