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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 137 matches for " Netsanet Worku "
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Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells
Netsanet Worku,Andualem Mossie,August Stich,Arwid Daugschies,Susanne Trettner,Nasr Y. A. Hemdan,Gerd Birkenmeier
ISRN Biochemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/910308
Abstract: The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3?μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33?μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33?μg/mL AMR for 6?hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. 1. Introduction Many anticancer reagents, including nucleotide analogues and other DNA synthesis inhibitors (e.g., methotrexate), aim at exerting a specific activity against rapidly proliferating cell types. Because of the capacity of trypanosomes for rapid growth within mammals, they have been linked to some types of cancer cells. D,L-α-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a polyamine synthesis inhibitor, was originally developed as a potential anticancer reagent before it has been proved useful in trypanosomiasis therapy. Furthermore, suramin, melarsoprol, and pentamidine which are drugs licensed for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are known to arise from cancer research studies [1–3]. If left untreated, sleeping sickness patients die within months when infected with T. brucei rhodesiense (acute form of the disease in East and Southern Africa) or within years when infected with T. brucei gambiense (chronic form of the disease in West and Central Africa) [4]. It is estimated that at least people are presently infected [5]. Above this burden of the disease, all the available drugs have a number of shortcomings during treatment because of resistance development against them, allergic reactions, undesirable effects in the
MA thesis abstracts from Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Journalism and Communication 2007
Netsanet Yilma
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/1-1-48
Abstract: This research attempts to look into what practical changes the broadcasting media in Ethiopia have experienced in light of media regulation policies, and if the intended changes have not taken place, attempts to point to reasons. The period after the coming into power of EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front), 1991 and onwards, marked a change in Ethiopian media politics. Of the reforms EPRDF made was liberalizing the media through granting different freedoms. This was done through various laws and policies. The 1992 press law that gave citizens the freedom to exercise freedom of expression through private print media, the 1999 broadcast proclamation, the 2003 press law and the newly endorsed broadcast proclamation of the year 2007 are the major policies introduced with regard to the media. The 1995 Ethiopian Constitution also is a monumental document for reinforcing freedom of expression in Ethiopia. Article 29 of the Constitution confirms that all citizens have the right to “seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in prints in the form of art, or through any idea of his/her choice” (FDRE Constitution, Art 29). After eight years of the endorsement of the first Broadcast Proclamation in 1999, which further affirms the full grant of the right to own a private broadcasting station, there is no private television station, and radio stations are still under the control of the control of the government in one way or another. Why are the broadcast media regulated severely while full freedom of expression is granted on other arenas? Data for the study was acquired from documents and personal interviews with actors in the media industry. The conclusion of the research include: private broadcasters and licensees do not work together; the new broadcasting regulation policy gives broadcasters a chance to appeal and imprisonment is excluded from the punitive articles.
Prevalence of childhood illness and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: A descriptive community based cross sectional study  [PDF]
Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32020
Abstract:

Introduction: In Ethiopia, even though there are great achievements in decreasing infant and child mortality from year 2000 to 2011, still children are suffering from diarrheal diseases, respiratory problems and malnutrition. This study was done to determine the prevalence of illnesses among under-five children and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 415 mothers/caregivers from April 15 to May 15, 2011. Three kebeles (the smallest administrative unit) from Bahir Dar were selected randomly. The sample was proportionally distributed to the selected kebeles according to their population size. To be eligible to participate in the study, mothers had to live in households that had children under five years of age. These households were selected by systematic sampling method. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire that had been pre-tested. The collected data were analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.0. Result and Conclusions: The overall two weeks prevalence of childhood illness that had one or more symptoms of disease was 110 (26.5%). The prevalence of the most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and others 11.3%, 10%, 6.3% and 4.6% among children of under five years respectively. Eighty (72.7%) of mothers sought treatment from health care facilities for sick children. The main reasons for not seeking treatment from health care facilities as reported by mothers/caregivers were, 53.3% Illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not see any benefit for such childhood illness. Hence there is a need for designing a tailored health message for mother/ caregivers about preventable childhood illness and treatment seeking by the local health extension workers and program planners.

Analysis of Factors That Affect the Long-Term Survival of Small Businesses in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.14008
Abstract:

The paper is based on a 5-year follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small business enterprises that operate in and around the city of Pretoria in South Africa. Data weregathered from each of the businesses on socio economic factors that were known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long-term survival. Pearson’s chi-square tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were used for screening of variables, and for estimating odds ratios and hazard ratios of key predictors of viability and long-term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses were adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.

Differential Factors of Contraceptive Use and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with Ages 15 to 49 in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2014.21004
Abstract:

Challenges of teenage pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy constitute a major public health problem in South African women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. This is a 6-year long study that was conducted in Pretoria, South Africa in order to identify factors that affect utilization of modern contraceptives and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. Data analysis was conducted by using two-by-two Pearson’s chisquare tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis, survival analysis, and multilevel analysis. The study showed that the percentage of women who regularly used modern family planning methods such as condoms, pills, injections, intra-uterine devices and sterilization was 41.74%. The average ages of women at first sex and pregnancy were 18.72 and 19.36 years respectively. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy occurred in 12.19% of women. Based on Odds Ratios (OR) estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, utilization of contraceptives was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, level of support from sexual partner, and young age at first pregnancy. Based on Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model, the occurrence of adverse outcomes of pregnancy was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, unwanted pregnancy, and young age at first pregnancy. Women who experienced adverse outcomes of pregnancy were characterized by poor utilization of reproductive health and modern family planning services. There was a significant difference among the 20 health service delivery wards and 11 health service facilities in which reproductive health services were delivered to women with regards to the quality of service delivery.

Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig, Feleke Moges
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-472
Abstract: A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures.Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively.Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05).The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use
Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus
Netsanet F, Dessie A
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S39250
Abstract: cceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus Original Research (860) Total Article Views Authors: Netsanet F, Dessie A Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 19 - 28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S39250 Received: 16 October 2012 Accepted: 15 November 2012 Published: 24 January 2013 Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie2 1IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV. Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings from the study were categorized by nine themes. A comprehensive and integrated approach of partner notification and a referral framework with active counselor involvement was developed. Conclusion: Partner notification and referral can be improved by an integrated and comprehensive framework, with active involvement of HIV counselors in the disclosure process.
Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus
Netsanet F,Dessie A
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2013,
Abstract: Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings from the study were categorized by nine themes. A comprehensive and integrated approach of partner notification and a referral framework with active counselor involvement was developed.Conclusion: Partner notification and referral can be improved by an integrated and comprehensive framework, with active involvement of HIV counselors in the disclosure process.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, partner notification and referral, partner locator information
Maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery services, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Worku Awoke, Kenie Seleshi
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56137
Abstract:

Introduction: Timely referrals and access to appropriate health care had a great impact on reduction to maternal deaths and disabilities. Maternal delay is one of the contributing factors for high maternal mortality in developing countries. Maternal delays were categorized into three levels: delay in making the decision for seeking care, delay in arrival at a health facility, and delay in receiving adequate treatment. They have been named first, second, and third delay maternal delays; respectively. This study was aimed at assessing maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery service sin Bahir Dar, North-Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on a sample of 422 women attending at a public health facility for delivery services. The sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula and the study participants were selected by using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested, standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: Data was collected from 410 laboring mothers. First delay, 155 (37.8%) of mothers was delayed in decision making for seeking care from the public health facility and the mean delay was 8 hours. Delay in seeking emergency obstetric care [EOC] was about seven fold among illiterate mothers (AOR, 6.71; 95%CI, 3.66 -12.29) than literate mothers; the odds of delay for EOC were three times more likely among mother were unable to make decisions by their own (AOR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.25 -7.20) than those mothers who made the decisions of their own. Unemployed mothers were 4 times more likely to have the maternal delay in seeking EOC (AOR, 3.94; 95%CI, 2.36 -6.57) than employed mothers. Second delay, 130 (31.7%) of mothers had transportation problems in reaching health care facilities. Predictors in the first maternal delay were also the major

Utilization of Youth Reproductive Health Services and Associated Factors among High School Students in Bahir Dar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Meskerem Abebe, Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42012
Abstract: Introduction: Young people in Ethiopia face greater reproductive health risks than adults. Despite efforts that were made on youth to utilize reproductive health service, studies show that there is little information about the extent to which youth utilize available health services. For the proper planning of appropriate health services for youth, it is crucial to have knowledge on the pattern of their use and its associated factors. So this study was conducted from June to September 2013 to assess utilization of youth reproductive health and its associated factors among high school students in Bahir Dar town, Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2013. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among High school student from June to September 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the total of 818 study participants. Data were collected by means of a pretested standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated using binary logistic regression; p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study indicated that among 818 students, 480(58.7%) were females. The data indicates that, 32% of youth utilized youth reproductive health service. Barriers in utilizing reproductive health services, for 31% of the students were due to inconvenience hours and 28.5% were due to fear of being seen by parents or people whom they know. Among socio-demographic predictors, age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services. Students with age 20-24 were 2.31 times more likely to utilize reproductive health service than age15-19 (AOR = 2.31, CI 95% (1.01, 5.28)). Similarly, students who had reproductive health problems were 1.54 times more likely to utilize reproductive health services than students who had no reproductive illness. Conclusions: The majority of youth were not utilizing reproductive health services. Age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services.


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