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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494517 matches for " Neiva S. L.;COSTA "
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Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Brazilian blood donors using a reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction: comparison with enzyme immunoassay and recombinant protein immunoblot assay
GON?ALES, Neiva S. L.;COSTA, Fernando F.;VASSALLO, José;GON?ALES JR., Fernando L.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652000000500005
Abstract: screening blood donations for anti-hcv antibodies and alanine aminotransferase (alt) serum levels generally prevents the transmission of hepatitis c virus (hcv) by transfusion. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the enzyme immunoassay (eia) screening policy in identifying potentially infectious blood donors capable to transmit hepatitis c through blood transfusion. we have used a reverse transcriptase (rt)-nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to investigate the presence of hcv-rna in blood donors. the prevalence of hcv-rna positive individuals was compared with the recombinant immunoblot assay (riba-2) results in order to assess the usefulness of both tests as confirmatory assays. both tests results were also compared with the eia-2 od/c ratio (optical densities of the samples divided by the cut off value). alt results were expressed as the alt quotient (qalt), calculated dividing the alt value of the samples by the maximum normal value (53ui/l) for the method. donors (n=178) were divided into five groups according to their eia anti-hcv status and qalt: group a (eia33, alt<1), group b (eia33, alt>1), group c (1£eia<3, alt<1), group d (1£eia<3, alt>1) and group e (eia£0.7). hcv sequences were detected by rt-nested pcr, using primers for the most conserved region of viral genome. riba-2 was applied to the same samples. in group a (n=6), all samples were positive by rt-nested pcr and riba-2. among 124 samples in group b, 120 (96.8%) were riba-2 positive and 4 (3.2%) were riba-2 indeterminate but were seropositive for antigen c22.3. in group b, 109 (87.9%) of the riba-2 positive samples were also rt-nested pcr positive, as well as were all riba-2 indeterminate samples. in group c, all samples (n=9) were rt-nested pcr negative: 4 (44.4%) were also riba-2 negative, 4 (44.4%) were riba-2 positive and 1 (11.1%) was riba-2 indeterminate. hcv-rna was detected by rt-nested pcr in 3 (37.5%) out of 8 samples in group d. only one of them was also rib
Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Brazilian blood donors using a reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction: comparison with enzyme immunoassay and recombinant protein immunoblot assay
GON?ALES Neiva S. L.,COSTA Fernando F.,VASSALLO José,GON?ALES JR. Fernando L.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000,
Abstract: Screening blood donations for anti-HCV antibodies and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels generally prevents the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by transfusion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening policy in identifying potentially infectious blood donors capable to transmit hepatitis C through blood transfusion. We have used a reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate the presence of HCV-RNA in blood donors. The prevalence of HCV-RNA positive individuals was compared with the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-2) results in order to assess the usefulness of both tests as confirmatory assays. Both tests results were also compared with the EIA-2 OD/C ratio (optical densities of the samples divided by the cut off value). ALT results were expressed as the ALT quotient (qALT), calculated dividing the ALT value of the samples by the maximum normal value (53UI/l) for the method. Donors (n=178) were divided into five groups according to their EIA anti-HCV status and qALT: group A (EIA > or = 3, ALT<1), group B (EIA > or = 3, ALT>1), group C (1<=EIA<3, ALT<1), group D (1<=EIA<3, ALT>1) and group E (EIA<=0.7). HCV sequences were detected by RT-nested PCR, using primers for the most conserved region of viral genome. RIBA-2 was applied to the same samples. In group A (n=6), all samples were positive by RT-nested PCR and RIBA-2. Among 124 samples in group B, 120 (96.8%) were RIBA-2 positive and 4 (3.2%) were RIBA-2 indeterminate but were seropositive for antigen c22.3. In group B, 109 (87.9%) of the RIBA-2 positive samples were also RT-nested PCR positive, as well as were all RIBA-2 indeterminate samples. In group C, all samples (n=9) were RT-nested PCR negative: 4 (44.4%) were also RIBA-2 negative, 4 (44.4%) were RIBA-2 positive and 1 (11.1%) was RIBA-2 indeterminate. HCV-RNA was detected by RT-nested PCR in 3 (37.5%) out of 8 samples in group D. Only one of them was also RIBA-2 positive, all the others were RIBA-2 indeterminate. All of the group E samples (controls) were RT- nested PCR and RIBA-2 negative. Our study suggests a strong relation between anti-HCV EIA-2 ratio > or = 3 and detectable HCV-RNA by RT-nested PCR. We have also noted that blood donors with RIBA-2 indeterminate presented a high degree of detectable HCV-RNA using RT-nested PCR (75%), especially when the c22.3 band was detected.
Validade de instrumento epidemiológico para rastrear H. pylori entre pacientes dispépticos
Santos,Iná Silva; Sassi,Raúl A Mendoza; Minten,Gicele Costa; Tuerlinckx,Giovana Costa; Valle,Neiva C J; Oliveira,Sandro S de; Boccio,Jose; Barrado,Domingo Andrés; Mariani,Samanta Gaertner; Carriconde,Joaquim Freitas;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000034
Abstract: objective:to validate an epidemiological score for identifying dyspeptic patients at high risk of being h. pylori positive. methods:cross-sectional study including 434 users of primary health care units in the city of pelotas, southern brazil, aged 18-45 years, and with symptoms of non-investigated dyspepsia, between 2006 and 2007. dyspepsia was diagnosed according to roma-ii. the gold standard for h. pylori infection was the 13c-urea-breath-test. the association between presence of h. pylori and independent variables was assessed through logistic regression. the score was built based on adjusted odds ratios. sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of different cutoffs were calculated. results:prevalence of h. pylori dyspeptic subjects was 74% (95% ci: 69;77.7). prevalence was directly associated with age and number of siblings during childhood, and inversely associated with schooling; these variables were used in the construction of the score. the score ranged from 3 to 9 points. scores 7, 8, and 9 had sensitivity of 36.6%, 22.3%, and 11.1%, and positive predictive values of 87.8%, 90.9%, and 92.1%, respectively. without the score, 3 in every 4 dyspeptic patients would have received h. pylori erradication therapy. this proportion would have been lower with the score (one in three, six, and 11, for the cutoff points betwewen 7 and 9, respectively), albeit at the expense of a high rate of false-negatives. conclusions:the score was not valid for selectively identifying dyspeptic individuals candidate to eradication therapy for h. pylori. contrary to the recommendation in developed countries, the test-and-treat strategy seems inappropriate for use in developing settings due to the high prevalence of h. pylori infection.
Estudo microbiológico do core e superfície das amígdalas palatinas em crian?as portadoras de faringoamigdalites de repeti??o e hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana
Costa, Felipe Neiva;Santos, Odimara;Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice;Pignatari, Shirley S. N.;
Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-72992003000200006
Abstract: aim: bacterial pharyngotonsillitis and tonsil hypertrophy are extremely frequent in childhood. this study aims to identify and verify the frequency of the bacterial colonization in tonsils of children with history of recurrent tonsillitis and tonsil hypertrophy. study design: clinical prospective. patients and method: ninety children, both female and male, ages between 2 and 6 years (pre-school children) and 6 and 12 years (scholars) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy; 27 with history of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis (ar), and 63 with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ao), assisted at division of pediatric otolaryngology, federal university of sao paulo, were evaluated from 1999 to 2002. material from the surface of the tonsils was taken with swabs at the moment of the surgery. after tonsil removal, material was also taken from the tonsil core. the obtained material were submitted to culture and analyzed according to bacterial growth. results: overall, regardless the age and the diagnostic group, the most prevalent pathogenic isolated bacteria were haemophilus sp, 50.5% in the ao group and 59.2% in the group ar; s. aureus, 50.7% in the ao group, and 33.3% in group ar; s pyogenes, 9.5% in the ao group and 7.4% group ar; s. pneumoniae, 4.7% in the ao group, and 0% in group ar; and moraxella sp, 6.3% in the ao group and 11.1% in group ar. no significant difference was noted between the bacteria isolated from surface and the tonsil core. s aureus was more frequent in the ao group compared to the group ar in both, school children and scholars. scholars presented higher incidence of s pyogenes in the ar group, and although also present in the pre-school children tonsils, it was only isolated in the ao group. s pneumoniae was only isolated in children with obstructive adenotonsillitis (ao). conclusion: the results of our study suggest that the surface and core bacterial colonization of the tonsils is similar. it also seems that the prevalence of s pyogenes colonization
Estudo microbiológico do core e superfície das amígdalas palatinas em crian as portadoras de faringoamigdalites de repeti o e hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana
Costa Felipe Neiva,Santos Odimara,Weckx Luc Louis Maurice,Pignatari Shirley S. N.
Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: As faringoamigdalites bacterianas, assim como a hipertrofia das amígdalas palatinas, s o extremamente freqüentes na popula o infantil. Este estudo visa a pesquisa e identifica o da flora bacteriana que coloniza as amígdalas palatinas nas crian as portadoras destas afec es. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. CASUíSTICA E MéTODO: Neste estudo, os autores avaliam 90 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 2 e 6 anos (Pré-escolares) e 6 e 12 anos (Escolares) com indica o de adenoamigdalectomia; 27 com histórico de faringoamigdalites de repeti o (AR), e 63 portadores de hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana obstrutiva (AO), assistidos na Disciplina de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica da Universidade Federal de S Paulo, no período de abril de 1999 a 2002. Foram colhidos swabs da superfície das amígdalas palatinas no momento da cirurgia, e após sua remo o cirúrgica, realizados esfrega os do core amigdaliano. O material obtido foi analisado em rela o ao crescimento bacteriano. RESULTADOS: De uma forma geral, independentemente da faixa etária e do grupo, as bactérias consideradas patogênicas mais prevalentes foram o Haemophilus sp, 50,5% no grupo AO e 59,2% no grupo AR; Staphilococcus aureus (S. aureus), 50,7% no grupo AO e 33,3% no grupo AR; Streptococcus pyogenes (S.pyogenes), 9,5% no grupo AO e 7,4% no grupo AR; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), 4,7% no grupo AO e 0% no grupo AR; e Moraxella sp, 6,3% no grupo AO e 11,1% no grupo AR, n o ocorrendo diferen a significativa entre a superfície e o core. Tanto nos pré-escolares como nos escolares, o S. aureus foi mais freqüente nas crian as com hipertrofia (AO) em rela o às que apresentavam infec es de repeti o (AR). Nos escolares, o S. pyogenes foi mais prevalente no grupo AR, e embora presente em pré-escolares do grupo AO, n o foi isolado nas crian as com infec o de repeti o. O S. pneumoniae só foi isolado em crian as com hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana. CONCLUS O: Os resultados do nosso estudo sugerem que a flora bacteriana que coloniza a superfície amigdaliana é semelhante à do core amigdaliano; que a prevalência de S. pyogenes colonizante na orofaringe de crian as é alta, em torno de 10%, e que o S. aureus é mais prevalente em crian as portadoras de hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana.
O cuidado humano: reflex?o ética acerca dos portadores do HIV/AIDS
Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa;Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha;Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte;Barroso, Maria Grasiela Teixeira;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692005000400016
Abstract: this descriptive-reflexive study reflects on the importance of ethics in human care and its relation with hiv/aids patients, identifying the main concepts of ethics in human care and ethics in care for hiv/aids patients. considering the clear need for care nowadays, current ideas present care as the human essence which is present in ethics. the emergence of aids, an epidemic that cannot be cured yet, mobilizes society to concerns about privacy and confidentiality, including the need to reinforce ethical aspects, with a view to a better life quality for its patients. ethical thinking is in line with scientific and technological evolution all over the world. in view of our reflections, we understood that ethics is part of our society and that human care needs to be linked up with ethics.
Avalia??o do impacto do Programa Nacional do Leite em Alagoas, através de métodos isotópicos: aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares
Gigante, Denise Petrucci;Santos, Iná S.;Coitinho, Denise Costa;Valle, Neiva C. J.;Haisma, Hinke;Valente, Gicele C. M.;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2002000100008
Abstract: objective: to describe methodological aspects and preliminary results of an intervention designed to measure the impact on child growth of nutritional programs delivered to underweight children in a northeastern state of brazil. methods: this is a natural longitudinal controlled experiment or quasi experiment, in which intervention and control groups were compared at baseline and endpoint. twenty municipalities of the state of alagoas were selected through a coverage indicator of the nutritional program at the municipal level. coverage was estimated by the difference between the proportion of underweight children and the proportion of children actually reached by the nutritional program. the ten municipalities with higher coverage indicators were selected for the intervention group, those ten with lower coverage were selected for the control group. fifteen children that entered the program in each intervention municipality and fifteen eligible children not included in the nutritional program were included in the study. results: a structured questionnaire and nutritional assessment were applied on 111 children of the intervention group and 102 children of the control group. baseline characteristics are presented. the demographic variables for mothers and children were similar in the intervention and control group. children from the intervention group had lower family income and their parents had a lower level of schooling. there was no difference in the nutritional characteristics of the intervention and control group. conclusion: the preliminary results showed that the groups are comparable in terms of demographic and nutritional variables. the difference in the socioeconomic level between intervention and control group will be considered in the adjusted analyses in the second phase of the study.
Helicobacter pylori and anemia: a community-based cross-sectional study among adults in Southern Brazil
Santos, Iná S.;Minten, Gicele Costa;Valle, Neiva C. J.;Tuerlinckx, Giovana Costa;Boccio, José;Barrado, Domingo Andrés;Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski da;Pereira, Guilherme Augusto Reissig;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001200012
Abstract: to investigate the association between helicobacter pylori and anemia, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 year old users of the 31 primary health care units in pelotas, southern brazil. interviews using a structured questionnaire were carried out in waiting rooms during two work shifts. anemia (hemoglobin < 11g/dl among pregnant women, < 12g/dl among women and < 13g/dl among men) was diagnosed from capillary blood (hemocue) and h. pylori by means of a 13c-ubt. information on socio-demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics was collected. logistic and linear regression analyses were carried out, taking into account aggregated primary health care units. a total of 1,117 respondents fulfilled the inclusion criteria (losses/refusals: 8.1%). prevalence of anemia was 20.6% (18.2-23.2%) and of h. pylori, 70.7% (68.0-73.6%). after allowing for age, sex and skin color the odds ratio for anemia among those who were diagnosed h. pylori positive was 0.94 (0.70-1.27). after allowing for sex, skin color, family monthly income, age, and smoking, the reduction in hemoglobin among h. pylori positive respondents was 0.07g/dl (-0.24-0.11; p = 0.4). there is no association between h. pylori and anemia among adults attending primary health care units in southern brazil.
On the Classical Stability of Orientifold Cosmologies
L. Cornalba,M. S. Costa
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/20/18/309
Abstract: We analyze the classical stability of string cosmologies driven by the dynamics of orientifold planes. These models are related to time-dependent orbifolds, and resolve the orbifold singularities which are otherwise problematic by introducing orientifold planes. In particular, we show that the instability discussed by Horowitz and Polchinski for pure orbifold models is resolved by the presence of the orientifolds. Moreover, we discuss the issue of stability of the cosmological Cauchy horizon, and we show that it is stable to small perturbations due to in-falling matter.
A New Cosmological Scenario in String Theory
L. Cornalba,Miguel S. Costa
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.66.066001
Abstract: We consider new cosmological solutions with a collapsing, an intermediate and an expanding phase. The boundary between the expanding (collapsing) phase and the intermediate phase is seen by comoving observers as a cosmological past (future) horizon. The solutions are naturally embedded in string and M-theory. In the particular case of a two-dimensional cosmology, space-time is flat with an identification under boost and translation transformations. We consider the corresponding string theory orbifold and calculate the modular invariant one-loop partition function. In this case there is a strong parallel with the BTZ black hole. The higher dimensional cosmologies have a time-like curvature singularity in the intermediate region. In some cases the string coupling can be made small throughout all of space-time but string corrections become important at the singularity. This happens where string winding modes become light which could resolve the singularity. The new proposed space-time casual structure could have implications for cosmology, independently of string theory.
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