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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222869 matches for " Neil C Henderson "
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Impaired gluconeogenesis in a porcine model of paracetamol induced acute liver failure
Konstantinos J Dabos, Henry R Whalen, Philip N Newsome, John A Parkinson, Neil C Henderson, Ian H Sadler, Peter C Hayes, John N Plevris
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate glucose homeostasis and in particular gluconeogenesis in a large animal model of acute liver failure (ALF).METHODS: Six pigs with paracetamol induced ALF under general anaesthesia were studied over 25 h. Plasma samples were withdrawn every five hours from a central vein. Three animals were used as controls and were maintained under anaesthesia only. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy we identified most gluconeogenic amino acids along with lactate and pyruvate in the animal plasma samples.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in the concentrations of the amino acids studied in the animals maintained under anaesthesia only. If we look at the ALF animals, we observed a statistically significant rise of lactate (P < 0.003) and pyruvate (P < 0.018) at the end of the experiments. We also observed statistically significant rises in the concentrations of alanine (P < 0.002), glycine (P < 0.005), threonine (P < 0.048), tyrosine (P < 0.000), phenylalanine (P < 0.000) and isoleucine (P < 0.01). Valine levels decreased significantly (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Our pig model of ALF is characterized by an altered gluconeogenetic capacity, an impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a glycolytic state.
Development of an invasively monitored porcine model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure
Philip N Newsome, Neil C Henderson, Leonard J Nelson, Costas Dabos, Celine Filippi, Chris Bellamy, Forbes Howie, Richard E Clutton, Tim King, Alistair Lee, Peter C Hayes, John N Plevris
BMC Gastroenterology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-10-34
Abstract: 35kg pigs were maintained under general anaesthesia and invasively monitored. Control pigs received a saline infusion, whereas ALF pigs received acetaminophen intravenously for 12 hours to maintain blood concentrations between 200-300 mg/l. Animals surviving 28 hours were euthanased.Cytochrome p450 levels in phenobarbital pre-treated animals were significantly higher than non pre-treated animals (300 vs 100 pmol/mg protein). Control pigs (n = 4) survived 28-hour anaesthesia without incident. Of nine pigs that received acetaminophen, four survived 20 hours and two survived 28 hours. Injured animals developed hypotension (mean arterial pressure; 40.8 +/- 5.9 vs 59 +/- 2.0 mmHg), increased cardiac output (7.26 +/- 1.86 vs 3.30 +/- 0.40 l/min) and decreased systemic vascular resistance (8.48 +/- 2.75 vs 16.2 +/- 1.76 mPa/s/m3). Dyspnoea developed as liver injury progressed and the increased pulmonary vascular resistance (636 +/- 95 vs 301 +/- 26.9 mPa/s/m3) observed may reflect the development of respiratory distress syndrome.Liver damage was confirmed by deterioration in pH (7.23 +/- 0.05 vs 7.45 +/- 0.02) and prothrombin time (36 +/- 2 vs 8.9 +/- 0.3 seconds) compared with controls. Factor V and VII levels were reduced to 9.3 and 15.5% of starting values in injured animals. A marked increase in serum AST (471.5 +/- 210 vs 42 +/- 8.14) coincided with a marked reduction in serum albumin (11.5 +/- 1.71 vs 25 +/- 1 g/dL) in injured animals. Animals displayed evidence of renal impairment; mean creatinine levels 280.2 +/- 36.5 vs 131.6 +/- 9.33 μmol/l. Liver histology revealed evidence of severe centrilobular necrosis with coagulative necrosis. Marked renal tubular necrosis was also seen. Methaemoglobin levels did not rise >5%. Intracranial hypertension was not seen (ICP monitoring), but there was biochemical evidence of encephalopathy by the reduction of Fischer's ratio from 5.6 +/- 1.1 to 0.45 +/- 0.06.We have developed a reproducible large animal model of acetaminophen-i
A Biophysical Basis for Mucus Solids Concentration as a Candidate Biomarker for Airways Disease
David B. Hill, Paula A. Vasquez, John Mellnik, Scott A. McKinley, Aaron Vose, Frank Mu, Ashley G. Henderson, Scott H. Donaldson, Neil E. Alexis, Richard C. Boucher, M. Gregory Forest
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087681
Abstract: In human airways diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), host defense is compromised and airways inflammation and infection often result. Mucus clearance and trapping of inhaled pathogens constitute key elements of host defense. Clearance rates are governed by mucus viscous and elastic moduli at physiological driving frequencies, whereas transport of trapped pathogens in mucus layers is governed by diffusivity. There is a clear need for simple and effective clinical biomarkers of airways disease that correlate with these properties. We tested the hypothesis that mucus solids concentration, indexed as weight percent solids (wt%), is such a biomarker. Passive microbead rheology was employed to determine both diffusive and viscoelastic properties of mucus harvested from human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures. Guided by sputum from healthy (1.5–2.5 wt%) and diseased (COPD, CF; 5 wt%) subjects, mucus samples were generated in vitro to mimic in vivo physiology, including intermediate range wt% to represent disease progression. Analyses of microbead datasets showed mucus diffusive properties and viscoelastic moduli scale robustly with wt%. Importantly, prominent changes in both biophysical properties arose at ~4 wt%, consistent with a gel transition (from a more viscous-dominated solution to a more elastic-dominated gel). These findings have significant implications for: (1) penetration of cilia into the mucus layer and effectiveness of mucus transport; and (2) diffusion vs. immobilization of micro-scale particles relevant to mucus barrier properties. These data provide compelling evidence for mucus solids concentration as a baseline clinical biomarker of mucus barrier and clearance functions.
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICS IN THE PHILIPPINES
Joan C. Henderson
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2011,
Abstract: The paper examines tourism in the Philippines, a South East Asian nation which has yet to reach its potential as an international destination. Conditions in the country are analysed and possible reasons for its relatively poor performance are discussed. Various barriers to development are identified, but political circumstances emerge as a key consideration whereby instability in assorted manifestations has impeded the operation of the industry, investment and policy making. While experiences of destination development are distinctive, the particular example offers insights into general processes and underlying dynamics.
THE POLITICS OF TOURISM: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE MALDIVES
Joan C. Henderson
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2008,
Abstract: The nature of the relationship between politics and tourism, encompassing the politics of religion, is examined in this paper with particular reference to the case of the Maldives. Although marketed as a tropical island paradise, the country is experiencing political uncertainty due to challenges to the long standing government from a democratic movement and religious radicalism. These trends and their impacts on tourism, which itself is a topic of political debate, are explained and the tourism industry is seen to overlook discordant political and religious realities in its promotion. However, it is argued that a destination’s politics cannot be ignored and that there must be awareness amongst all stakeholders and appropriate responses to political events if tourism is to deal successfully with turbulent times.
Corrigendum: Sexual Dimorphism in the Effects of Exercise on Metabolism of Lipids to Support Resting Metabolism
Gregory C. Henderson
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00200
Abstract:
Exploiting Diversity for Natural Language Parsing
John C. Henderson
Computer Science , 2000,
Abstract: The popularity of applying machine learning methods to computational linguistics problems has produced a large supply of trainable natural language processing systems. Most problems of interest have an array of off-the-shelf products or downloadable code implementing solutions using various techniques. Where these solutions are developed independently, it is observed that their errors tend to be independently distributed. This thesis is concerned with approaches for capitalizing on this situation in a sample problem domain, Penn Treebank-style parsing. The machine learning community provides techniques for combining outputs of classifiers, but parser output is more structured and interdependent than classifications. To address this discrepancy, two novel strategies for combining parsers are used: learning to control a switch between parsers and constructing a hybrid parse from multiple parsers' outputs. Off-the-shelf parsers are not developed with an intention to perform well in a collaborative ensemble. Two techniques are presented for producing an ensemble of parsers that collaborate. All of the ensemble members are created using the same underlying parser induction algorithm, and the method for producing complementary parsers is only loosely constrained by that chosen algorithm.
A Pragmatic Approach to Coping with Matrix Effects during ICP-MS Analysis of Trace Elements in Silicate Rocks and Calibration of REE Interferences  [PDF]
C. Michael B. Henderson, Paul R. Lythgoe, Karen J. Theis
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.73005
Abstract: Operating an Agilent 7700X ICP-MS spectrometer under robust plasma conditions (1550 W) with a He-filled octopole collision cell and analysing solutions (<2000 μg·g?1 total dissolved solids) still suffered analyte peak suppression due to matrix effects. International reference rocks BCR-1, BHVO-1, AGV-1, G-2 and BCR-2 all showed count rate reductions for 36 elements (mass range 7Li to 238U) averaging ~10% but with no dependence on isotope mass. Use of an internal standard (103Rh) and/or using a ten-fold dilution of sample solutions reduced these effects but problems with reduced count rates combined with larger errors for some elements introduced other problems. The best approach was to normalise the count rates for each element in the other samples against those for BCR-1 as an external standard; thus the count suppression due to the matrix effect is corrected for each individual element. This approach provides standardization “traceability” in line with the ERM ISO/IEC requirement. Experiments are also reported on quantifying the proportions of Ba and selected REE oxide/hydroxide components versus parent isotopes (XO/X and XOH/X). This information is essential for correcting peak interferences on higher mass number REE for the rock samples, and equations are developed to use measured CeO/Ce and CeOH/Ce ratios to predict such values for any other member of the REE suite. Concentrations obtained show excellent agreement with recommended values for the international reference materials especially for the REE. Robust data are also provided for two other standard rocks: nepheline syenite STM-1 and quartz syenite CAAS-1; the latter shows exceptional enrichments of Zr, REE, Th, and U.
Towards an understanding of barriers to condom use in rural Benin using the Health Belief Model: A cross sectional survey
Sennen H Hounton, Hélène Carabin, Neil J Henderson
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-8
Abstract: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July 2002. Two hundred fifty one (251) individuals were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from a standardized WHO/GAP questionnaire. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with condom use.In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection. Sixty three (63) percents of the interviewees reported being able to recognize infected people, and condom use during the last occasional intercourse was declared by only 36.8% of males and 47.5% of females. Based on the HBM, failure to use condom was related to its perceived lack of efficacy [OR = 9.76 (3.71–30.0)] and perceived quality [OR = 3.61 (1.31–9.91)].This study identifies perceived efficacy (incomplete protective effect) and perceived utilization-related problem (any reported problem using condoms) as the main barriers to condom use. Hence, preventions strategies based on increasing perceived risk, perceived severity or adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS may not be sufficient to induce condom use. These data will be useful in designing and improving HIV/AIDS prevention outreach programs in Sub Saharan Africa.One of the current challenging tasks faced by health professionals and scientists worldwide is the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. This disease claims yearly a huge toll of deaths, productivity and economic losses, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the population is already weakened by poverty, malaria and tuberculosis [1,2]. Curtailing the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires a holistic approach [3]. In Benin, several programmes have been developed to target high-risk groups and to modify cultural risk factors for the transmission of the infection [4-7]. Nonetheless, the prevalence of HIV infection and the rate of other sexually transmissible Infections (STI), and the number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are still increasing [8,9].
Water incident related hospital activity across England between 1997/8 and 2003/4: a retrospective descriptive study
Holly Henderson, Richard C Wilson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-210
Abstract: The data was extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for episodes with a mention of ICD 10 (V90–94, W15–16, W65–74, X38, X92, Y21) for the years 1997/8 to 2003/4. Population based rates and relative risk were calculated using the most recent Census data for England (2001).The 6,793 episodes resulted in a total of 32,520 bed days with an average of length of stay of 5.0 days. Males made up 73.7% (n = 5,006) of episodes and females 26.1% (n = 1,787). Annual trends peaked in 1999–2000 at a rate of 2.4 per 100,000 and have fluctuated on alternate years there after. In terms of relative risk males are at a 2.3 to 3.0 increased annual risk of being admitted compared to females, relating to a water event. The highest annual rates were observed within the 0 – 14 age group, ranging from 3.1 to 4.2 episodes per 100,000.Based on these findings, for every one drowning that occurs per year there are three hospital episodes. Each of the age groups identified within the study reported an increase in hospital episodes between 2002 – 2003 and 2003 – 2004, when considering the fatality information available it would appear that although fatalities are decreasing in the similar time period, hospital episodes are increasing.For the 0–14 age group, the cause of the injury had changed over the years, moving away from bath tub and swimming pool, to watercraft incidents (V91 – 93). For the 15 – 59 age group there had been a decline in the frequency of watercraft and water transport episodes, however, an increase in diving and jumping injury and incidents. In the over 60 age group water transport episodes remained the most frequent, with swimming pool related episodes declining and other specified drowning and submersion increasing.More work needs to be undertaken in regard to who is admitted to hospital, when where, and how to fill gaps in knowledge and highlight information that is critical to prevention strategies.Every year in the United Kingdom, 10,000 people will die from
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