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Assessment of the utilization of pre-marital HIV testing services and Shabbir Ismael determinants of VCT in Addis Ababa, 2003
Dereje Habte, Negussie Deyessa, Gail Davey
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Pre-marital HIV testing contributes to the prevention of HIV infection by diminishing heterosexual transmission between partners and indirectly also protects any potential child from contracting the virus. Objectives: To assess the utilization and determinants of pre-marital HIV testing in civil marriages taking place at the Addis Ababa City Hall Marriage Licensing Center. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made on men and women at their civil marriage ceremonies. Interviews were conducted on a one-to-one basis, and a separate analysis was performed for each sex. Results: Out of the 640 individuals (320 males and 320 females) who underwent civil marriage, 55% reported having had pre-marital HIV testing. The main reason given for not having HIV testing was that the interviewees did not feel at risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Individuals of both sexes who had frank discussion as a couple about HIV were found to be more likely to have pre-marital HIV testing (adjusted ORs 10.96, 95% CI 3.7 to 33.3 for men and 7.78, 95% CI 2.86 to 20.0 for women). The VCT schemes preferred by most respondents included; integrated VCT centers, confidential testing, appointing medical doctors as counselors, and face-to face disclosure of VCT results. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the promotion of discussion between couples about HIV and VCT through intense IEC activities as well as involving marriage agencies to encourage such discussion is recommended. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 18-23
Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence in Ethiopia
Negussie Deyessa,Yemane Berhane,Mary Ellsberg,Maria Emmelin
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.2070
Abstract: Objective: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. Setting: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site), which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. Design: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married women. Methods: A standardised WHO questionnaire was used to measure physical violence, residency, literacy of the woman and her spouse, and attitudes of women about gender roles and violence. Analyses present prevalence with 95% confidence intervals and odds ratios derived from bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: In urban and rural areas of the study area, the women were of varying ages, had varying levels of literacy and had spouses with varying levels of literacy. Women in the overall study area had beliefs and norms favouring violence against women, and women living in rural communities and illiterate women were more likely to accept such attitudes. In general, violence against women was more prevalent in rural communities. In particular, violence against rural literate women and rural women who married a literate spouse was more prevalent. Literate rural women who were married to an illiterate spouse had the highest odds (Adj. OR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.7–6.9) of experiencing physical violence by an intimate partner. Conclusion: Semi-urban lifestyle and literacy promote changes in attitudes and norms against intimate partner violence; however, within the rural lifestyle, literate women married to illiterate husbands were exposed to the highest risks of violence.
Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Deyessa Negussie,Berhane Yemane,Alem Atalay,Ellsberg Mary
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-5-8
Abstract: Background Studies from high-income countries have shown intimate partner violence to be associated with depression among women. The present paper examines whether this finding can be confirmed in a very different cultural setting in rural Ethiopia. Method A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in Ethiopia among 1994 currently married women. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), cases of depressive episode were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnosis. Using a standardized questionnaire, women who experienced violence by an intimate partner were identified. A multivariate analysis was conducted between the explanatory variables and depressive status of the women, after adjusting for possible confounders. Results The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode among the women was 4.8% (95% CI, 3.9% and 5.8%), while the lifetime prevalence of any form of intimate partner violence was 72.0% (95% CI, 70.0% and 73.9%). Physical violence (OR = 2.56, 95% CI, 1.61, 4.06), childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.00, 95% CI, 1.13, 3.56), mild emotional violence (OR = 3.19, 95% CI, 1.98, 5.14), severe emotional violence (OR = 3.90, 95% CI, 2.20, 6.93) and high spousal control of women (OR = 3.30, 95% CI, 1.58, 6.90) by their partners were independently associated with depressive episode, even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Conclusion The high prevalence of intimate partner violence, a factor often obscured within general life event categories, requires attention to consider it as an independent factor for depression, and thus to find new possibilities of prevention and treatment in terms of public health strategies, interventions and service provision.
Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia
Italia V Rolle, Irum Zaidi, Jennifer Scharff, Donna Jones, Aynalem Firew, Fikre Enquselassie, Ashenafi Negash, Negussie Deyessa, Getnet Mitike, Nadine Sunderland, Peter Nsubuga
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-292
Abstract: Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E). Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia.The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.The United States (U.S.) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), implemented in 2003, is a significant undertaking by the U.S. government to prevent and treat HIV-infected persons in developing countries [1]. Strategic Information (SI) is an essential element of PEPFAR that ensures quality data are used to guide programs supported by this initiative. Surveillance, monitoring and evaluation (M and E), health management information systems, planning, and reporting are the core components of SI [2]. As the second cycle of PEPFAR broadens its focus to health systems strengthening in addition to scaling up services for HIV care treatment and prevention (PEPFAR I), the effective use of SI is key for this venture to be successful. A recent review of PEPFAR I by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) supports the role of SI in HIV-related activities. The IOM report recommended that as PEPFAR goes forward there is a need for quality data to guide interventions, evidence-based decision making, and ongoing evaluations and research [2].The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has extensive experience in teaching the use of data for effective decision making using an applied approach that entails hands on practical training [3-5]. The use of data is central for evidence-based decisions as it leads t
Prevalence of Catha edulis (Khat) Chewing and Its Associated Factors among Ataye Secondary School Students in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Awoke Lakew, Behailu Tariku, Nigussie Deyessa, Yared Reta
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.410027
Abstract: The life time and current prevalence of khat chewing are 15.36% (95% CI; 11.7, 19.8) and 13.25% (95% CI; 11.0, 18.1) respectively. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed that male students [Adjusted OR = 2.15 (95% CI; 1.02, 4.56)], presence of chewer friends [Adjusted OR = 3.14 (95% CI; 1.53, 6.41)], having chewer family [Adjusted OR = 2.68 (95% CI; 1.13, 6.37)] and place of residency [Adjusted OR = 1.89 (95% CI; 1.0, 3.79)] were associated risk factors for khat chewing. Khat chewing is prevalent among students who are male, urban residents and students who have chewer friends and family. Therefore, to reduce the prevalence, social, economic and health effect of khat chewing, Minister of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Health has to work to incorporate life skill training in high school students’ curricula.
Relationship between Rewards and Nurses’ work Motivation in Addis Ababa Hospitals
Nebiat Negussie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Nurses constitute the largest human resource element and have a great impact on quality of care and patient outcomes in health care organizations. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between rewards and nurse motivation on public hospitals administrated by Addis Ababa health bureau. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2010 in 5 public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Among 794 nurses, 259 were selected as sample. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. After the data was collected, it was analysed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analysed in terms of descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics on the variables. Results: A total of 230 questionnaires were returned from 259 questionnaires distributed to respondents. Results of the study revealed that nurses are not motivated and there is a statistical significant relationship between rewards and the nurse work motivation and a payment is the most important and more influential variable. Furthermore, there is significant difference in nurse work motivation based on age, educational qualification and work experience while there is no significant difference in nurse work motivation based on gender. Conclusion: The study shows that nurses are less motivated by rewards they received while rewards have significant and positive contribution for nurse motivation. Therefore, both hospital administrators’ and Addis Ababa health bureau should revise the existing nurse motivation strategy.
Flow Injection Amperometric Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols at Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode  [PDF]
Negussie Negash, Hailemichael Alemu, Merid Tessema
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.53023

Single wall carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT/GCE) was used for flow-injection analysis (FIA) for phenolic compounds (phenol (P), 4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorphenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP)). Experimental variables such as the detection potential, flow rate and pH of the carrier solution, 0.1 M sodium acetate, were optimized. Under these conditions, the designed electrode showed a very good performance for the amperometric measurements, with no need to apply a cleaning or pre-treatment procedure. The operational stability was tested with 20 repetitive injections of each analyte and was found to be good. The analytical performance of the SWCNT/GCE electrode under flow through conditions was tested and was found to be impressive. When it is compared with other enzymatic and non-enzymatic sensors, it shows wider dynamic range for the detection of phenolic compounds with low limits of detection. These results suggest that the method is quite useful for monitoring and analyzing phenols and chlorophenols.

Zirconium selenite and thorium tellurite cation exchangers: Separation of some metal ions
Negussie Retta, Tezera Sisay
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1994,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1994, 8(1) 1-8.
Zirconium antimonate: Ion-exchange separation of some metal ions
Tesfaye Abdulkadir, Negussie Retta
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1989,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 3(1), 47-50 (1989).
Relationship between leadership styles of Nurese managers and nurses’ job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital
N Negussie, A Demissie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses’ job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses’ manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses’ job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to respondents. The result indicated that nurses can prefer transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, p<0.01) and intrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.32, p<0.05) while all five dimension of transformational leadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses’ managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses’ job satisfaction. KEYWORDS: Leadership, Nurses, Job satisfaction, Jimma University Specialized Hospital
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