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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 138 matches for " Nega Assefa "
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Wealth Status, Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and Antenatal Care (ANC) Are Determinants for Low Birth Weight in Kersa, Ethiopia
Nega Assefa, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039957
Abstract: Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is one of the major risk factor for death in early life. However, little is known about predictors of LBW in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the incidence and determinants of LBW in a rural population of Ethiopia. Methods An observational cohort study on pregnant women was conducted from December 2009 to November 2010. During the study period 1295 live birth were registered and the weights of 956 children were measured within 24 hours after birth. Socio-demographic, economic, maternal and organizational factors were considered as a predicators of LBW, defined as birth weight below 2500g. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Result The incidence of LBW was 28.3%. It is significantly associated with poverty [OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.05], maternal Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) less than 23 cm [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.19], not attending ANC [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.28], mother’s experience of physical violence during pregnancy [OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.48], and longer time to walk to health facility [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40]. Conclusion and Recommendation The incidence of LBW was high in Kersa. Babies born to women who were poor, undernourished, experienced physical violence during pregnancy and who had poor access to health services were more likely to be LBW in this part of the country. In this largely poor community where ANC coverage is low, to reduce the incidence of LBW, it is essential to improve access for maternal health care. The involvement of husbands and the community at large to seek collective action on LBW is essential.
Patterns of sexual risk behavior among undergraduate university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Tariku Dingeta, Lemessa Oljira, Nega Assefa
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and sexual risk behavior characteristics among 1,286 undergraduate students at Haramaya University, Ethiopia from March to April, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: About 355 (28%; 95% CI 25.5-30.5) students reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once. More proportion of male students ever had sex compared to females (OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.4-6.8, p<0.001). One fifth (22.8%) of these students had their sexual debut after they joined university. About six percent of students with sexual experience reported having had intercourse with same-sex partners. Half of the males with sexual experience had intercourse with a commercial sex worker. About 60% of students reported to have used a condom rarely. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is a high level of sexual risk behavior among the study population. Significant proportion of students were sexually active, the majority started sexual intercourse before they joined university. We recommend awareness campaigns and interventions on sexual and reproductive health issues for high school and university students in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:33
Executive Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies: A Comparative Overview: Britain, Germany, India and Ethiopia  [PDF]
Andualem Nega Ferede
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.95034
Abstract: Democracies especially parliamentary democracies must ensure that public bodies and officials are performing to their full potential, providing value for money in the provision of public services, building confidence in the society, and being responsive to the community they are meant to be serving. The objective of the article is to explain and compare on the functioning parliamentary democracies, Britain, Germany, India and Ethiopia, to give an insight how the parliaments account the executive to bring better governance. Britain is the oldest parliamentary democracy; Germany with handy parliamentary democracy and functional federalism and India is the largest parliamentary democracy. These countries have much experience Ethiopia has to learn. Thus the article considered the institutional structure of accountability; parliamentary control strategies without jeopardizing the concept of separation of powers in a these four countries. The parliamentary system is portrayed under FDRE Constitution and other legislations. The article explored these laws and practical situations and tried to associate with other parliamentary democracies.
Duration of Crime Investigation Quandary under Ethiopian Criminal Justice System  [PDF]
Andualem Nega Ferede
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.103023
Abstract: Justice is set in motion following the commission and report of an offence to the police targeting to initiation of crime investigation (CPC, 1961). Ethiopian laws do not locate when the investigation shall start. Though laws are silent, police officers may start inquiry at any time to set justice in motion in practice. After justice is set in motion through channels of crime reporting (CPC, 1961, Articles 11, 12 & 19), the question of frequency and duration of investigation is under quandary since it is treated by different legislations differently. The 1961 Ethiopian criminal procedure code was the first document which dealt with the frequency and duration of investigation for the first time in Ethiopian criminal justice history. The FDRE constitution is the other document which locates the concept of duration of investigation at higher level. The Ethiopian criminal policy document envisaged different frequency and duration of crime investigation to be provided by law depending on the complexity and nature of the offence (FDRE Criminal Justice Policy, 2011). After the coming forth of this policy document, different legislations are enacted. The vagrancy control proclamation, the anti-terrorism proclamation, the new draft criminal procedure and evidence law are among the laws. These laws have intricacy concerning constitutionality, consistency and merit. Thus, the writer investigated these issues and analyzed the legislations with regard to the objectives of criminal justice policy.
A Closer Look at Distance Learning From Students' Perspective: A Qualitative Analysis of Web Based Online Courses
Nega Debela
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2004,
Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze responses of 40 respondents from Marshall University. The on-line survey that was conducted in 2003 asks: "What are the advantages/disadvantages of taking college web-based courses?" on behalf of the university's English As a Second Language program. Nud*ist 6 and Sphinx Survey, were used to analyze the qualitative data gathered from the online students at Marshall University. After reviewing and analyzing the survey, several themes have emerged. Online courses have also been perceived beneficial, because they are more convenient and are more accessible. Many students see Web CT as a great way to continue their education. Absence of long travel time was one of the major positive aspects listed by many of the students. A detailed examination of the qualitative data reveals that most disadvantages relate in some way to lack of face to face interaction.
Inactivated Vaccine Trial of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Legesse Bekele, Temesgen Assefa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.86009
Abstract: The study and entire laboratory works were conducted from December 2014 to April 2015 in National Veterinary Institute, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) trial vaccine strain was confirmed the identity with known primer using PCR from locally isolates of National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to develop formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based MG vaccine in Ethiopia. It can help to device strategies in controlling the disease mainly through developing more effective vaccine which will replace the currently being imported vaccines by some farms. After culturing procedure, oil based inactivated MG trial vaccine was produced in suitable clean and secure accommodation. In this study, among different isolates, local isolate of Samuel farm in NVI was prepared and evaluated in chickens. The amount of immune antigen per 0.5 ml of the dose was 107 Colony forming units (CFU) of the bacteria. The trail vaccine was prepared and evaluated at the age of 16 weeks of chickens; the chickens were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C), each having twenty birds (10 male and 10 female). Each of group B was vaccinated group of imported-live vaccine with 30 μl intraocularly for comparing with inactivated trial vaccine, each bird of group C was inoculated with 0.5 ml indigenous or trial vaccine subcutaneously at mid neck region and group A was used as a control then challenge tests were performed. After challenge test, among non-vaccinated chickens (control or group A) 2 chickens were died (10%), thicken and cloudy appearance of the air sac showed 18 (90%), 2 chickens were not showed thickened and cloudy air sack (10%). Although among vaccinated group (inactivated vaccine or group C), all chickens did not show clinical signs or post mortem changes (100%). From attenuated imported live vaccine (group B), no clinical signs or post mortem changes were observed (100%). It was concluded that oil based MG vaccine induces protective level of anti MG antibodies in chickens.
Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Strategic Agricultural Trade in Africa and Its Implications to Food Security: Evidence from Gravity Model Estimation  [PDF]
Fredu Nega Tegebu, Edris Hussein Seid
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94037
Abstract: The problems of African agricultural development have been at the forefront of the debate on Africa’s development since the Lagos Plan of Action in 1963. During the 2004 AU meeting in Sirte, Libya and subsequently in the 2006 AU/NEPAD Summit on Food Security in Africa, concrete steps have been taken to work towards Common African Market on 12 selected strategic agricultural products. Eight regional trade agreements which are to form the building blocks of the African Economic Community are engaged in trade liberalization and regional integration process on the selected strategic agricultural products with the ultimate goal being the formation of Common Markets for Agricultural products. However, the recent proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has intensified the debate on their merits especially the merits of south-south trade agreements. This study contributes to this debate by analysing trade creation and trade diversion effects of African RTAs on trade in nine of the twelve strategic agricultural products. An extended gravity model is estimated. We address econometrically the endogeneity of RTAs using a panel approach. Results indicate that African RTAs have mixed effect on trade creation and trade diversion. Net trade creation is positive in three of the eight RTA and it is negative in two. Although a lot remains to be done, RTAs in Africa are an attractive means to speed up the move towards common market for agricultural products in the continent. This will have positive implication for food security and sustainable agricultural development in the continent.
Low Flow Trends and Frequency Analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kidist Assefa, Mamaru A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.102011
Abstract: Low flow analysis provides crucial information for the planning and design water resource development, risk assessment and environmental flow management. Understanding the low flow regimes and evaluating the magnitudes for incorporating in water resources management is vital for the countries like Ethiopia where demand for water is increasing. However, there were hardly enough studies in understanding the trends of low flow and frequency analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluation of the trends in low flows and regional low flow analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. In order to carry out the study, 15 river sub-basins in the Blue Nile Basin were selected based on the long term data availability and presence of quality of data. The 3-day sustained low flow (3d-slf), the 7-day sustained low flow (7d-slf) and the 14-day sustained low flow (14d-slf) models were used to extract the data from the daily time series stream data obtained from MoWIE. Trends in low flow were analyzed separately by using Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. Low flow frequency analysis was used to estimate the long term low flow quantiles. In addition, regional analysis for estimating the quantiles for ungaged catchments was also developed based on the regional growth curve and catchment characteristic of drainage basins. The results indicated that 3d-slf, 7d-slf and 14d-slf models of low flow series indicated no significant difference for each station at 95% CI. Out of the 15 selected stations, 12 of stations have indicated decreasing; two stations indicated increasing and remaining one station with no trend. Mainly decreasing trend was associated with the land cover and climate change which results in increasing runoff and evapotranspiration respectively. Weibull distribution—GEV and LGN was found best fit based on the L-Moment Ratio Diagram (L-MRD). Hence quantile estimations have indicated diminishing magnitudes of low flow quintiles for 2 - 500 years return periods. Regional low frequency analysis has provided a very good relationship between discharge and catchment characteristics with an R2 of 0.72. Where area (A) and rainfall (R) followed by slope were found sensitive to compute in developing the regional region equations between mean low flows and the physiographic data. This study indicated that there needs to be a new water management scenario and adaptation mechanism of climate change and land use land cover dynamics for utilizing water resource in the Blue Nile Basin.
The mineral resources potential of Ethiopia
Getaneh Assefa
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1991,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 5(2), 111-137 (1991).
The Principle of the Presumption of Innocence and its Challenges in the Ethiopian Criminal Process
SK Assefa
Mizan Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: The administration of the criminal justice system tries to strike a balance between the search for truth and the fairness of the process. To this end, the law should protect individual rights and impose various legal burdens on the state. One such tool is the principle of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. This is a constitutional principle under Ethiopian law and requires the public prosecutor to prove each element constituting the crime which, as argued in this article, should be proved beyond reasonable doubt. However, this principle is being violated by various subsidiary laws, procedures and practices. First, there are various provisions in the criminal law that limit (or arguably disregard) this constitutional principle. Such criminal law provisions assume as proved the existence of some of the elements of certain crimes without requiring the public prosecutor to submit evidence. Second, the Criminal Justice Administration Policy adopted in 2011 contemplates shifting the burden of proof to the defendant in selected serious crimes. Third, the courts also wrongly shift burden of proof to the accused regarding certain facts in various court decisions. These laws and judicial practices deprive the accused of the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty. This article, inter alia, examines the constitutionality of such shifting of the burden of proof and also analyzes the standards of proof that are required in criminal cases in the Ethiopian context.
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