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Executive Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies: A Comparative Overview: Britain, Germany, India and Ethiopia  [PDF]
Andualem Nega Ferede
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.95034
Abstract: Democracies especially parliamentary democracies must ensure that public bodies and officials are performing to their full potential, providing value for money in the provision of public services, building confidence in the society, and being responsive to the community they are meant to be serving. The objective of the article is to explain and compare on the functioning parliamentary democracies, Britain, Germany, India and Ethiopia, to give an insight how the parliaments account the executive to bring better governance. Britain is the oldest parliamentary democracy; Germany with handy parliamentary democracy and functional federalism and India is the largest parliamentary democracy. These countries have much experience Ethiopia has to learn. Thus the article considered the institutional structure of accountability; parliamentary control strategies without jeopardizing the concept of separation of powers in a these four countries. The parliamentary system is portrayed under FDRE Constitution and other legislations. The article explored these laws and practical situations and tried to associate with other parliamentary democracies.
Duration of Crime Investigation Quandary under Ethiopian Criminal Justice System  [PDF]
Andualem Nega Ferede
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.103023
Abstract: Justice is set in motion following the commission and report of an offence to the police targeting to initiation of crime investigation (CPC, 1961). Ethiopian laws do not locate when the investigation shall start. Though laws are silent, police officers may start inquiry at any time to set justice in motion in practice. After justice is set in motion through channels of crime reporting (CPC, 1961, Articles 11, 12 & 19), the question of frequency and duration of investigation is under quandary since it is treated by different legislations differently. The 1961 Ethiopian criminal procedure code was the first document which dealt with the frequency and duration of investigation for the first time in Ethiopian criminal justice history. The FDRE constitution is the other document which locates the concept of duration of investigation at higher level. The Ethiopian criminal policy document envisaged different frequency and duration of crime investigation to be provided by law depending on the complexity and nature of the offence (FDRE Criminal Justice Policy, 2011). After the coming forth of this policy document, different legislations are enacted. The vagrancy control proclamation, the anti-terrorism proclamation, the new draft criminal procedure and evidence law are among the laws. These laws have intricacy concerning constitutionality, consistency and merit. Thus, the writer investigated these issues and analyzed the legislations with regard to the objectives of criminal justice policy.
Why Should Students Of The Different Discipline In Jimma University (JU) Be Involved In Community Based Education (CBE)?
M Asefa
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: No Readers please note: AJOL was notified by the journal editor of an error in the orginal version of the article supplied to us. The correction has since been included on the last page of the current, available PDF file as of 13 April 2011.
Brief Communication: Imaginative, Innovative, and Creative Curriculum (IICC)
M Asefa
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: No Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences Vol. 3 (2) 2008: pp. 107-119
Children Who Received PCV-10 Vaccine from a Two-Dose Vial without Preservative Are Not More Likely to Develop Injection Site Abscess Compared with Those Who Received Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study
Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Meaza Demissie, Neghist Tesfaye, Nega Asefa, Worku Aniemaw, Berhe Weldearegawi, Yigzaw Kebede, Tigist Shiferaw, Amare Worku, Lemessa Olijira, Behailu Merdekios, Yemane Ashebir, Takele Tadesse, Yadeta Dessie, Solomon Meseret, Gestane Ayele
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097376
Abstract: Background The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. Objective To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine. Methods A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. Results A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576–12.770), and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485–6.091). Conclusion No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative and pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine in the first 7 days following vaccination.
A Closer Look at Distance Learning From Students' Perspective: A Qualitative Analysis of Web Based Online Courses
Nega Debela
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2004,
Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze responses of 40 respondents from Marshall University. The on-line survey that was conducted in 2003 asks: "What are the advantages/disadvantages of taking college web-based courses?" on behalf of the university's English As a Second Language program. Nud*ist 6 and Sphinx Survey, were used to analyze the qualitative data gathered from the online students at Marshall University. After reviewing and analyzing the survey, several themes have emerged. Online courses have also been perceived beneficial, because they are more convenient and are more accessible. Many students see Web CT as a great way to continue their education. Absence of long travel time was one of the major positive aspects listed by many of the students. A detailed examination of the qualitative data reveals that most disadvantages relate in some way to lack of face to face interaction.
Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Strategic Agricultural Trade in Africa and Its Implications to Food Security: Evidence from Gravity Model Estimation  [PDF]
Fredu Nega Tegebu, Edris Hussein Seid
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94037
Abstract: The problems of African agricultural development have been at the forefront of the debate on Africa’s development since the Lagos Plan of Action in 1963. During the 2004 AU meeting in Sirte, Libya and subsequently in the 2006 AU/NEPAD Summit on Food Security in Africa, concrete steps have been taken to work towards Common African Market on 12 selected strategic agricultural products. Eight regional trade agreements which are to form the building blocks of the African Economic Community are engaged in trade liberalization and regional integration process on the selected strategic agricultural products with the ultimate goal being the formation of Common Markets for Agricultural products. However, the recent proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has intensified the debate on their merits especially the merits of south-south trade agreements. This study contributes to this debate by analysing trade creation and trade diversion effects of African RTAs on trade in nine of the twelve strategic agricultural products. An extended gravity model is estimated. We address econometrically the endogeneity of RTAs using a panel approach. Results indicate that African RTAs have mixed effect on trade creation and trade diversion. Net trade creation is positive in three of the eight RTA and it is negative in two. Although a lot remains to be done, RTAs in Africa are an attractive means to speed up the move towards common market for agricultural products in the continent. This will have positive implication for food security and sustainable agricultural development in the continent.
Esssential oils of three Eucalyptus species acclimatized in Ethiopia
Abera Asefa,Ermias Dagne
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1997,
Total Delay in Treatment among Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Five Primary Health Centers, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study
Anteneh Asefa, Wondu Teshome
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102884
Abstract: Introduction The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB) remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay. Results The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60), 7 (IQR: 3, 14), 3 (IQR: 1, 4) and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5) days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s) (total delay) constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001). Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18–0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR = 2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61]. Conclusion Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms.
Analysis of determinants of gross margin income generated through fishing activity to rural households around Lake Ziway and Langano in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Dawit Garoma, Asefa Admassie, Gezahegn Ayele, Fekadu Beyene
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.411080

This article analyzed determinants of gross margin income from fishing to the rural households around Lake Ziway and Langano in Ethiopia. Four districts adjacent to the two lakes were selected purposively from which 179 respondents drawn randomly. Both primary and secondary information comprises of household structure and assets, climate factors and supportive services were organized. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and the Ricardian method. Budgetary analysis showed positive fish gross margin income (GMI) of ETB 3,023.40 to average fisher. The Ricardian analysis made use of the climate only model (Model 1) and comprehensive model (Model 2). Using Model 1, water level raise due to inflow is vital to earn fair income in addition to the rainfall amount in Season 1, which is supported with positive impact of precipitation water level interaction on fish income. Impact of precipitation was positive in Season 3, due to meher rainfall and withdrawal of fishing labor to join agriculture that minimized over fishing. Using Model 2, precipitation water level interaction has positive impact in Season 2 due to better inflow and Meher rainfall. The interaction term was negative in Season 4 attributed to decreased water level, dry weather and less precipitation. The result also showed positive impact of household members participation, participation in the traditional financial arrangement and capacity to finance

operating costs. The study highlights problems facing fishing business like: decreased lake size and water volume, lake turbidity and siltation, open access and weak institutional arrangement to guide fishing efforts, wetland farming and expansion of irrigation to the lake side, cost of fishing materials, minimum sales price as well as poor access to the fish market. Hence,

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