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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1123 matches for " Neal; "
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Hepatobiliary Cystadenocarcinoma
Neal Wilkinson
Case Reports in Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/298957
Abstract: Biliary cystadenocarcinomas are rare tumors that are poorly understood. Preoperative imaging is imprecise and treatment is not standardized. We describe the presentation and treatment of one of these rare tumors and review the limited published literature.
Quantifying the Importance of Interleukin-6 for Coronary Heart Disease
Bruce Neal
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050084
Abstract:
What not to do in medical statistics
Alexander, Neal;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-38292007000300012
Abstract: there have been major efforts to improve the application of statistical methods in medical research, although some errors and misconceptions persist. in this paper i will review some of the topics which most often cause problems: a) comparison of two methods of clinical measurement; b) comparison of baseline values between arms of a randomized trial; c) absence of evidence as opposed to evidence of absence; and d) regression to the mean. i will also revisit a statistical error in one of my own publications. i review some causes of the continuing misuse of statistics, and make some suggestions for modifying the education of statistical and non-statistical medical researchers in order to alleviate this.
Rare earth element concentrations in dissolved and acid available particulate forms for eastern UK rivers
C. Neal
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: Variations in concentration of yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm) and gadolinium (Gd) among rivers of eastern England and the border with Scotland are described in relation to the dissolved (<0.45 μM) fraction and acid-available particulate (AAP) fractions. The rivers cover a range of rural, agricultural and urban/industrial environments. Yttrium and the lanthanides show significant levels of both dissolved and acid-available particulate forms (typically about 40% in the dissolved form). For the dissolved phase, Y and the lanthanides are linearly correlated with each other and with iron: most of this dissolved component may be in a micro-particulate/colloidal form. The Y and lanthanide relationships show marked scatter and there are anomalously high La concentrations at times for the rivers Great Ouse, Thames and Wear that are probably linked to pollutant sources. For the Ouse, and especially for one of its tributaries, the Swale, relatively high Sm concentrations are probably associated with mineralisation within the catchment and contamination of the associated flood plain. For the AAP components, there are strong linear relationships with Y and the lanthanides across all the rivers. There is also a strong link between these AAP associated REE and AAP iron, although the scatter is greater and the industrial rivers have a lower lanthanide to iron ratio, probably due to iron-rich contaminants.
Dry Valley Research: a Case Study from the Yorkshire Wolds
Cath Neal
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2006, DOI: 10.5334/pia.272
Abstract:
The Hubble Constant
Jackson Neal
Living Reviews in Relativity , 2007,
Abstract: I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.
The potential for phosphorus pollution remediation by calcite precipitation in UK freshwaters
C. Neal
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2001,
Abstract: This paper examines the potential for calcium carbonate to reduce phosphate pollution in freshwaters by co-precipitation, a process known as a "self cleansing mechanism". Calcium carbonate saturation levels and phosphate concentrations (SRP - soluble reactive phosphate) across the major eastern UK river basins are examined to test for solubility controls. The study shows that calcite saturation varies for each catchment as a function of flow and biological activity rather than by direct regulation by SRP. Indeed, there is no evidence, for any of the rivers studied, that calcite solubility controls hold. However, for groundwater and groundwater-fed springs in the Chalk of the Thames basin, calcite saturation is observed with associated low SRP levels. A self-cleansing mechanism may well be operative within the Chalk due to two factors. Firstly, there is a high potential for nucleation on the calcite micro-crystals in the aquifer. Secondly, there are within aquifer reactions that remove the calcite nucleating inhibitors (SRP and dissolved organic carbon, DOC) to levels lower than those occurring within the rivers do. These inhibitors enter the catchment at very high concentrations in association with agricultural pollution (fertilizer application and animal slurry) and household contamination (e.g. sewage sources from septic tanks). Under low flow conditions, when the saturation index for calcite is at its highest, so too is the concentration of the nucleation inhibitor SRP. Companion work shows that calcite precipitation can occur at the water-sediment interface of the river and this may involve SRP removal. The data, as a whole, define an apparent bound for calcite solubility control where in the presence of nucleating centres, SRP must be less than 4 mM-P l-1 and DOC must be less than 150 mM-C l-1: a condition that does not seem to pertain within most UK rivers. Keywords: calcite, calcium carbonate, phosphate, soluble reactive phosphate, dissolved organic carbon, LOIS, UK, rivers, self-cleansing mechanisms.
The mineralogy and chemistry of fine-grained sediments, Morphou Bay, Cyprus
C. Neal
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2002,
Abstract: The mineralogy and chemistry of the less than 20μm fraction of marine sediments at Morphou Bay, north-west Cyprus, are presented to characterise fine-grained sediment supplies from basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Troodos Massif within a typological setting. The sediments comprise a mixture of smectite, illite, kaolinite and iron rich chlorite. They also contain amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides, calcite (with some magnesium substitution for calcium) and an amphibole. Spatial patterns in mineralogy occur: the near-shore sediments are rich in smectite, chlorite, amphibole and amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides, while the offshore sediments are rich in illite and calcite. The sediments are calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminium and potassium bearing, due to the presence of significant amounts of calcite (for Ca), clay minerals and aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides. Potassium is present within the micaceous mineral illite, but it is also contained within other phases that are difficult to pinpoint. Statistical analysis reveals that the chemical composition of the sediments broadly follows the mineralogy with the dominant feature being related to spatial changes in the mineralogy. The patterns of change reflect a three component mix of clay-sized sediment types: (1) localised lithogenous sources rich in smectite with subsidiary amounts of amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides and amphibole, from Cyprus, the Troodos in particular, (2) illite rich and smectite chlorite and chlorite bearing material of lithogenous origin from other parts of the eastern Mediterranean and (3) calcite, mainly of marine origin. Keywords: smectite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, calcite, sediments, Morphou Bay, Troodos, Cyprus, Mediterranean, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, silicon, phosphorus.
Scenario Building to Plan an e-learning Program
Lisa NEAL
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2002,
Abstract:
Boron water quality for the Plynlimon catchments
C. Neal
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 1997,
Abstract: Boron concentrations in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow for Spruce stands, mist, streamwater and groundwater are compared with chloride to assess atmospheric sources and catchment input-output balances for the Plynlimon catchments. In rainfall, boron concentration averages about 4.5 μg-B l-1 and approximately two thirds of this comes from anthropogenic sources. In through-fall and stemflow, boron concentrations are approximately a factor of ten times higher than in rainfall. This increase is associated with enhanced scavenging of mist and dry deposition by the trees. As the sampling sites were close to a forest edge, this degree of scavenging is probably far higher than in the centre of the forest. The throughfall and stemflow concentrations of boron show some evidence of periodic variations with time with peak concentrations occurring during the summer months indicating some vegetational cycling. In mist, boron concentrations are almost twenty times higher than in rainfall and anthropogenic sources account for about 86% of this. Within the Plynlimon streams, boron concentrations are about 1.4 to 1.7 times higher than in rainfall. However, after allowance for mist and dry deposition contributions to atmospheric deposition, it seems that, on average, about 30% of the boron input is retained within the catchment. For the forested catchments, felling results in a disruption of the biological cycle and a small increase in boron leaching from the catchment results in the net retention by the catchment being slightly reduced. Despite the net uptake by the catchment, there is clear evidence of a boron component of weathering from the bedrock. This is shown by an increased boron concentration in a stream influenced by a nearby borehole which increased groundwater inputs. The weathering component for boron is also observed in Plynlimon groundwaters as boron concentrations and boron to chloride ratios are higher than for the streams. For these Goundwaters, increases in boron concentrations are matched linearly by increases in the concentration of the principal ase cation weathering component in the bedrock, calcium. However, the bedrock weathering term is not uniform as the ratio of boron to calcium concentration varies for the different boreholes sampled.
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