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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192423 matches for " Neal D. Freedman "
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Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults
Xuguang Guo, Yikyung Park, Neal D. Freedman, Rashmi Sinha, Albert R. Hollenbeck, Aaron Blair, Honglei Chen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094715
Abstract: Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk.
Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in the NIH-AARP Cohort
Michael B. Cook, Charles E. Matthews, Munira Z. Gunja, Zaynah Abid, Neal D. Freedman, Christian C. Abnet
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084805
Abstract: Introduction Body mass index is known to be positively associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, yet there is there limited evidence on whether physical activity or sedentary behavior affects risk of histology- and site-specific upper gastrointestinal cancers. We used the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to assess these exposures in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used to elicit physical activity and sedentary behavior exposures at various age periods. Cohort members were followed via linkage to the US Postal Service National Change of Address database, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CI) Results During 4.8 million person years, there were a total of 215 incident ESCCs, 631 EAs, 453 GCAs, and 501 GNCAs for analysis. Strenuous physical activity in the last 12 months (HR>5 times/week vs. never=0.58, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.88) and typical physical activity and sports during ages 15–18 years (p for trend=0.01) were each inversely associated with GNCA risk. Increased sedentary behavior was inversely associated with EA (HR5–6 hrs/day vs. <1 hr=0.57, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.92). There was no evidence that BMI was a confounder or effect modifier of any relationship. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of these results were deemed to be statistically significant at p<0.05. Conclusions We find evidence for an inverse association between physical activity and GNCA risk. Associations between body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus do not appear to be related to physical activity and sedentary behavior.
Anthropometric Measures and Physical Activity and the Risk of Lung Cancer in Never-Smokers: A Prospective Cohort Study
Tram Kim Lam, Steve C. Moore, Louise A. Brinton, Llewellyn Smith, Albert R. Hollenbeck, Gretchen L. Gierach, Neal D. Freedman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070672
Abstract: Worldwide, lung cancer in never-smokers is ranked the seventh most common cause of cancer death; however, the etiology of lung cancer in never-smokers is unclear. We investigated associations for body mass index (BMI) at various ages, waist circumference, hip circumference, and physical activity with lung cancer in 158,415 never-smokers of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models. Over 11 years of follow-up, 532 lung cancer cases occurred. The risk estimate for obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) participants at baseline was 1.21 (95%CI = 0.95–1.53) relative to those with a normal BMI between 18.5≤BMI<25.0. Overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0) at age 18 (HRoverweight-vs-normal = 1.51;95%CI = 1.01–2.26) and time spent sitting (HR≥3 hrs-vs-<3 hrs = 1.32;95%CI = 1.00–1.73) was each associated with lung cancer after adjustment for baseline BMI, as was waist (HRQ4-vs-Q1 = 1.75;95%CI = 1.09–2.79) and hip circumference (HRQ4-vs-Q1 = 0.62;95%CI = 0.39–0.99), after mutual adjustment for each other and baseline BMI. No associations were observed for vigorous activity or television watching. In summary, using a large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence that BMI at baseline or middle age was associated with decreased lung cancer risk in never smokers. If anything, we observed some evidence for positive associations with a larger BMI or waist circumference.
Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study
Jacqueline M. Major,Chyke A. Doubeni,Neal D. Freedman,Yikyung Park,Min Lian,Albert R. Hollenbeck,Arthur Schatzkin,Barry I. Graubard,Rashmi Sinha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015538
Abstract: Residing in deprived areas may increase risk of mortality beyond that explained by a person's own SES-related factors and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and all-cause, cancer- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality for men and women after accounting for education and other important person-level risk factors.
Alcohol Consumption, One-Carbon Metabolites, Liver Cancer and Liver Disease Mortality
Lauren M. Schwartz, E. Christina Persson, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Barry I. Graubard, Neal D. Freedman, Satu M?nnist?, Demetrius Albanes, Katherine A. McGlynn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078156
Abstract: Background Excess alcohol consumption adversely affects one-carbon metabolism and increases the risk of liver disease and liver cancer. Conversely, higher folate levels have been inversely associated with liver damage. The current study investigated the effects of alcohol and one-carbon metabolite intake on liver cancer incidence and liver disease mortality within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Methods Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a population of 27,086 Finnish males with 194 incident liver cancers and 213 liver disease deaths. In a nested case-control subset (95 liver cancers, 103 controls), logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CIs for serum one-carbon metabolites in relation to liver cancer risk. Results Daily alcohol consumption of more than 20.44 g was associated with an increased risk of both liver cancer incidence (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.52, 95%CI 1.06–2.18) and liver disease mortality (HR 6.68, 95%CI 4.16–10.71). These risks were unaffected by one-carbon metabolite intake. Similarly, in the case-control study, none of the serum one-carbon metabolites were associated with liver cancer. Conclusions The current study provided no convincing evidence for a protective association of one-carbon metabolite intake or serum level on the risk of liver cancer or liver disease mortality.
Diabetes Mellitus and Its Correlates in an Iranian Adult Population
Asieh Golozar, Hooman Khademi, Farin Kamangar, Hossein Poutschi, Farhad Islami, Christian C. Abnet, Neal D. Freedman, Philip R. Taylor, Paul Pharoah, Paolo Boffetta, Paul J. Brennan, Sanford M. Dawsey, Reza Malekzadeh, Arash Etemadi
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026725
Abstract: The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean) to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's). The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4). These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.
Iban augury
J.D. Freedman
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 1961,
Abstract:
Varying Tolerance to Glyphosate in a Population of Palmer Amaranth with Low EPSPS Gene Copy Number  [PDF]
Neal D. Teaster, Robert E. Hoagland
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412297
Abstract:

A Palmer amaranth population (seeds collected in the year 2000; Washington Co., MS) suspected to be susceptible to glyphosate was examined as a population and as individual plants and found to exhibit varying tolerance or resistance to glyphosate. Whole plant spraying of glyphosate (0.84 kg·ha?1) to the population revealed that approximately 40% of this population were resistant to glyphosate and an LD50 of 0.75 kg·ha?1 was determined. Spray application of glyphosate indicated that some plants displayed varying degrees of resistance 14 days after treatment. Initial tests using leaf disc bioassays on 10 individual plants selected randomly from the population, allowed characterization of glyphosate resistance using both visual ratings of injury and quantitative measurement via chlorophyll content analysis. After initial bioassays and spray application, five plants with a range of tolerance to glyphosate were selected for cloning so that further studies could be accomplished on these individuals. Q-PCR analysis of these clones showed that resistance was not due to elevated EPSPS gene copy number. Shikimate levels were lower in the resistant and higher in the susceptible clones which correlated with varying degrees of resistance demonstrated in bioassays and spray application of glyphosate of these clones. Results demonstrate that individuals in a population can vary widely with respect to herbicide resistance and suggest that uptake, translocation, sequestration, metabolism or altered target site may contribute to the resistance in some individuals of this population.

Constructing a c-function for SUSY Gauge Theories
D. Z. Freedman,H. Osborn
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00649-2
Abstract: Recently a non-perturbative formula for the RG flow between UV and IR fixed points of the coefficient in the trace of the energy momentum tensor of the Euler density has been obtained for N=1 SUSY gauge theories by relating the trace and R-current anomalies. This result is compared here with an earlier perturbation theory analysis based on a naturally defined metric on the space of couplings for general renormalisable quantum field theories. This approach is specialised to N=1 supersymmetric theories and extended, using consistency arguments, to obtain the Euler coefficient at fixed points to 4-loops. The result agrees completely, to this order, with the exact formula.
On the energy of gamma-ray bursts
D. L. Freedman,E. Waxman
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/318386
Abstract: We show that gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations strongly suggest, within the fireball model framework, that radiating electrons are shock accelerated to a power-law energy distribution, with universal index p \approx 2.2, and that the fraction of shock energy carried by electrons, \xi_e, is universal and close to equipartition, \xi_e ~ 1/3. For universal p and \xi_e, a single measurement of the X-ray afterglow flux on the time scale of a day provides a robust estimate of the fireball energy per unit solid angle, \epsilon, averaged over a conical section of the fireball of opening angle \theta ~ 0.1. Applying our analysis to BeppoSAX afterglow data we find that: (i) Fireball energies are in the range of 4\pi\epsilon=10^{51.5} to 10^{53.5} erg; (ii) The ratio of observed $\gamma$-ray to total fireball energy per unit solid angle, \epsilon_\gamma / \epsilon, is of order unity, satisfying abs[log10(\epsilon_\gamma/\epsilon)]<0.5; (iii) If fireballs are jet like, their opening angle should satisfy \theta>=0.1. Our results imply that if typical opening angles are \theta ~ 0.1, a value consistent with our analysis, the total energy associated with a GRB event is in the range of 10^{50} erg to 10^{51.5} erg.
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