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The Effect of Poly-Ethylene-co-Glycidyl Methacrylate Efficiency and Clay Platelets on Thermal and Rheological Properties of Wood Polyethylene Composites  [PDF]
Ansou Malang Badji, El Hadj Babacar Ly, Diene Ndiaye, Abdou Karim Diallo, Ndickou Kebe, Vincent Verney
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.64040
Abstract: Global ecological concerns have resulted in an interest in renewable natural materials. Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), wood fiber (Veneer) and containing coupling agents like nanoclay (NC) and poly-ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGMA) were made by melt compounding and then injection molding. In this study, the effects of two variable parameters namely nanoclay and coupling agent on the rheological and thermal properties of wood polyethylene composites (WPECs) were investigated. The study investigates the morphology phase, rheology behaviors and thermal properties by scanning electron microscope, capillary rheometer and thermal gravimetric analyzer. The SEM micrographs of the composites showed that the outer surfaces of the wood were coated by a section of amorphous lignin. The state of dispersion in HDPE/pine/clay composites was improved by EGMA because it could interact with pine flour in addition to clay. The interaction of reinforcement with coupling agent and HDPE matrix is strong based on the observation of the fracture surface of composites when EGMA is present. However the addition of 2.5% clay slightly lowered the initial degradation temperature (Td) but did not improve the thermal stability. Obviously, all the composites materials exhibit viscoelastic values greater than those of neat HDPE.
Caractérisation agronomique, économique et biophysique du continuum bas fond : cas des complexes sahéliens et soudano -sahéliens du sine-saloum au Senegal
M Camara, M Kebe, MM Kouame
Sciences & Nature , 2007,
Abstract: La productivité rizicole dans les complexes de bas fonds pluviaux notamment ceux des régions sahéliennes et soudanosahéliennes dépend de la ma trise de l\'eau. A l\'Ouest du Sénégal, dans la région du Sine Saloum, la salinité des bas fonds résulte du contact avec un bras de mer. Pour lever les effets néfastes de la salinité et autoriser la ma trise de l\'eau, une digue a été édifiée dans les bas fonds du village de Ndour Ndour. Pour rentabiliser cet ouvrage, des activités agricoles ont été initiées sous l\'impulsion des partenaires au développement. Le r le de la recherche dans ce partenariat a consisté entre autres activités à la caractérisation agronomique, économique et biophysique du continuum bas fond. La reprise de la riziculture de bas fond s\'inscrit dans cette nouvelle dynamique avec une amélioration de la productivité et l\'adhésion des hommes à cette activité jusque-là réservée aux femmes. Il faut retenir que les sols sont essentiellement sableux en surface et que la retenue d\'eau douce (digue ) élimine le sel des sols qui deviennent propices pour l\'agriculture. Rice productivity in rainfall lowlands complexes such as sahelian and sudanese sahelian regions, depends on water control. In western Senegal Sine Saloum Region, lowlands salinity is due to sea contact. To reduce negative salinity effects and maintain good water control, a dam was built in Ndour Ndour village. To optimize input of this dam, agricultural activities were conducted with extension parteners. The main role of scientists in this partership is the agronomic, economic and biophysical characterization of lowlands continuum. Lowlands rice cultivation in this new context is characterized by significant productivity improvement and male\'s effective involvement in this activity, so far conducted by women. The study showed that most soils are sandy; in addition and the dam allows to maintain river water in place and to eliminate salts, making soils suitable for agriculture.
?brahim Yavuz YüKSELS?N,Murat Kü?üKEBE
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the timbral perception difference beetween the violin players from two cultural contexts, named as Western and Turkish art music, and which are different on account of cultural contents,. The work, which is fortified with ethnomusicological and psychoacoustic methods for this paper, realized in three phases. First phase, ‘interviews’ with violin players, focused on determination of semantic descriptions that appropriate for timbral expecations of players. Second phase, experiment of ‘timbral preference test’, aimed to examine hypothesis that “timbral perception is a cognition level which could be change as cultural environment/context”. Third phase, ‘spectral analysis’, to determine spectral characteristics of two most preferenced violin, and to comprehend physical relations of these characteristics with semantic descriptions of violin players.
Mothering Here and Mothering There: International Migration and Postbirth Mental Health
Stephanie S. Bouris,Lisa A. Merry,Amy Kebe,Anita J. Gagnon
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/593413
Abstract: Over 125,000 women immigrate to Canada yearly—most in their childbearing years and many having given birth before immigrating. We sought to (1) examine the background characteristics and mental health profile of women separated from their children due to migration and subsequently giving birth in Canada (“dual-country (DC) mothers”) and (2) contrast these with those of “non-dual-country” migrant mothers. Of 514 multiparous migrant women giving birth, one-fifth (18%) reported being separated from their children due to migration. Over one-third of DC mothers were living in poverty (36.0% versus 18.6%, ), and one in seven was experiencing household food insecurity (16.3% versus 7.6%, ). Over one-third had no partner (40.2% versus 11.4%, ), and nearly one-quarter reported no available support (23.1% versus 12.2%, ). Over three-quarters were asylum seekers or refugees (83.7% versus 51%, ). More DC than non-DC mothers had symptoms of postpartum depression (28.3% versus 18.6%, ), symptoms of clinical depression (23.1% versus 13.5%, ), and anxiety related to trauma (16.5% versus 9.4%, ). Results suggest that identifying DC mothers is a rapid approach to enable clinicians to target a subgroup of women needing special attention. 1. Introduction “The mother left 2 children behind [and] does not know what has happened to them.” This is a nursing note on mother from Zambia living in Toronto. In 2010, there were an estimated 214 million migrants worldwide [1]; between 2006 and 2010, 1.27 million migrated to Canada [2]. More than 52% of the newcomers to Canada are women, and of these, 65% are in their childbearing years [2]. Over a five-year period in Canada from1996to2001, the fertility rate among immigrant women was3.1children per woman—twice the national fertility rate of 1.5children per woman [3, 4]. Canadian family reunification policies and practices, such as a narrow definition of family, lengthy application processing times, and financial requirements, can lead to prolonged separation periods between family members [5]. The psychological impact due to family separation is compounded by loss of social networks and support, traumatic experiences before, during, and after migration, and low economic status [6, 7]. The toll that migration status and acculturation adjustments have on women’s health and well-being has given rise to several studies [8–10]. Women who are separated from their children due to migration report considerable emotional strain including anxiety, loss, and guilt, and they are at greater risk for depression [11, 12]. Migrant women who recently
Hormonal and Histomorphologic Effects of Azadirachta indica leaf Extract on the Pars Anterior of Wistar Rats
Akpantah,Amabe O; Ekong,Moses B; Obeten,Kebe E; Akpaso,Mfon I; Ekanem,Theresa B;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000200024
Abstract: azadirachta indica is a tree whose medicinal value is unquantifiable. any part of the tree can be used in the treatment of malarial infection. reports have indicated its antifertility effects, and this necessitated this study on the effects of the methanol leaf extract on serum luteinizing (lh) and follicle stimulating hormones (fsh) levels and the histomorphology of the pars anterior of wistar rats. thirty adult male wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups of a, b and c. group a was the control and the animals received distilled water orally, while groups b and c were treated with 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively of the leaf extract by oral gavage for fourteen days. on day fifteen, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform anaesthesia. blood was obtained from their hearts, while the skull was opened to assess the hypophysis. hormonal assay showed that luteinizing (lh) and follicle stimulating (fsh) hormone levels in the serum were lower in groups b and c treated with 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively of the leaf extract, while that of lh were significant (p<0.001). histomorphologic sections of the pars anterior revealed reduced acidophil and basophil populations, with prominent degranulated chromophobes which were larger in the group treated with 400mg/kg of a. indica leaf extract. this group also presented hypertrophy of the basophils compared to the control. in conclusion, methanol leaf extract of a. indica decreases serum lh and fsh and caused histomorphologic changes in the pars anterior of adult male wistar rats.
Inhibition de Phytophthora palmivora, agent de pourriture brune des cabosses de cacaoyer en C te d’Ivoire, par Trichoderma sp.
J Mpika, IB Kebe, IS Druzhinna, M Komon-Zelazowska, BCP Kubicek, S Ake
Sciences & Nature , 2009,
Abstract: La pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer causée par Phytophthora palmivora entra ne en C te d’Ivoire 30 % de pertes sur les productions. Actuellement, pour combattre cette maladie, la lutte intégrée est envisagée. Elle inclue les pratiques culturales, la sélection des variétés résistances et l’utilisation des antagonistes contre Phytophthora sp. notamment les espèces du genre Trichoderma. Cette dernière approche nécessite l’isolement, l’établissement d’une collection des Trichoderma issus de la cacaoyère et l’évaluation du potentiel antagoniste de celle-ci pour le choix des antagonistes efficaces à Phytophthora palmivora. A cet effet, des confrontations directes in vitro aussi bien que in vivo sur feuilles et sur cabosses ont été réalisées. Quarante trois isolats de Trichoderma montrent une activité antagoniste vis à vis de Phytophthora palmivora sur milieu de culture, avec des taux d’inhibition de l’ordre de 34 à 79 % mais, aussi réduisent significativement la sensibilité foliaire de 6 clones de cacaoyer et de cabosses. Ces tests in vitro et in vivo ont permis de retenir les isolats T.spirale T4, T.virens T7, T.asperellum T54 et T.harzianum T40 à forte action inhibitrice vis à vis de Phytophthora palmivora, offrant une forte aptitude à réduire la sensibilité et surtout à renforcer la résistance intrinsèque du clone sensible NA32 au parasite. Ces tests d’antagonistes ont permis la sélection des Trichoderma sp. candidats aux essais au champ. La réalisation des essais au champ évaluera l’efficacité en milieu réel des antagonistes naturels sur le développement de la maladie. Cocoa black pod disease in C te d’ivoire, due to Phytophthora palmivora , can cause crop losses up to 30%. At present, for controlling cocoa black pod rot, an integrated pest management strategie was envisaged, and include cultural pratices, selection for resistant cocoa varieties and biological control microorganisms. The latter approach need isolation, establishment of collection microorganisms found in the cocoa ecology of C te d’Ivoire and evaluations for their ability to control P. palmivora for screening biocontrol candidates. In vitro direct confrontation also although leaf disc and the cocoa pod biocontrol screening biotest have been carried out. Fortythree of isolates Trichoderma expressed in vitro inhibition against P. palmivora on high-nutrient media, with in the order of 34 à 79 % of inhibition rate but, also were significantly reduced the level of susceptibility of six clones and cocoa pods to P. Palmivora. The isolates T.spirale T4, T.virens T7, T.asperellum T54 et T.harzianum T40 were found to be very effective against P. palmivora by these in vitro and in vivo tests, exhibiting high potential to reduce the susceptibility and especially to reinforce intrinsic resistant susceptible clone (NA32) towards P. palmivora. These screening tests pemitted the selection of Trichoderma isolates candidates for field trials. This field trials will assess for efficacy biocon
Isolement et identification de microorganismes indigènes de cacaoyères en c te d’ivoire et mise en évidence de leurs effets antagonistes vis-àvis de Phytophthora palmivora, agent de la pourriture brune des cabosses.
I Kebe, J Mpika, KF N’guessa, PK Hebbar, GS Samuels, S Ake
Sciences & Nature , 2009,
Abstract: En C te d’Ivoire, avec des pertes de production qui avoisinent 60 % dans certaines régions, la lutte contre la pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer est devenue une priorité. La stratégie préconisée par la recherche est le développement d’une méthode de lutte intégrée, peu onéreuse et compatible avec les préoccupations environnementales. L’une des approches privilégiées de cette stratégie est l’utilisation des antagonistes naturels de Phytophthora sp. Dans cette optique, la biodiversité a été explorée dans l’écosystème de la cacaoyère. Des champignons et des bactéries ont été isolés à partir des sols sous cacaoyères et des cabosses. L’action antagoniste des champignons sur P. palmivora a été évaluée in vitro ainsi que la sensibilité foliaire à P. palmivora sur des disques de feuilles de cacaoyers en présence des bactéries. Les résultats montrent qu’en culture mixte avec P. palmivora, des isolats de Trichoderma sp ont montré un effet fongistatique et fongicide. Une réduction significative des notes de sensibilité selon l’échelle de Blaha a été obtenue avec deux bactéries, appartenant au genre Bacillus. L’étude se poursuit avec l’évaluation de l’efficacité des antagonistes naturels de Phytophthora sp en milieu réel sur le cacaoyer. In C te d’Ivoire, yield losses due to Phytophthora sp. reach of about 60% in some cocoa growing areas; therefore, the control of cocoa black pod disease has become a priority. The management strategy is based on the development of an integrated control method which is cost effective and environmentally sound. The emphasis has been put on the use of natural antagonists of Phytophthora sp. Thus, the microbial biodiversity in the cocoa ecosystem has been explored. Fungi and bacteria have been isolated from pods and soil in cocoa farms. The antagonistic effects of these micro-organisms on Phytophthora sp. have been assessed in vitro. In addition, the leaf susceptibility to P. palmivora was assessed on cocoa leaf disks in the presence of the bacteria. The results showed that in a mix culture with P. palmivora, some isolates of Trichoderma sp. showed fungicidal effects. Two bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus significantly reduced cocoa leaf susceptibility to P. palmivora. The study will continue to assess the efficacy of the potentially effective micro-organisms in the field for the control of the black pod disease. Mots clés : Cacaoyer ; pourriture brune ; Phytophthora ; Trichoderma ; antagonistes
Dental Caries and Associated Determinants among Students of the Military School of Saint Louis (Senegal)  [PDF]
Massamba Diouf, Mababou Kebe, Mamadou Lamine Guirassy, Mbathio Diop, Abdoulaye Diouf, Aida Kanoute, Jean-Claude Guinan, Amadou Dieng, Abou Dramane Sanghare, Daouda Cisse, Daouda Faye, Cheikh Mbacké Lo
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.74024
Abstract: Introduction: Due to its health, social and economic morbidity, dental caries leads to absenteeism and a drop in school performance among schoolchildren. The objective of this work is to study dental caries and its determinants in pupils known as Children of Troop (CT) of the “Military School of Saint Louis” (MSS). Method: This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Recruitment was exhaustive. The collection was made at the school and has covered the period of March 10 throughout June 13, 2014 in an individual interview, based upon a deliberate consent, using a questionnaire drawn up on the basis of the variables studied. The bivariate analysis was done with the Epi Info software version 3.5.3. Results: The mean age of CT was 14.9. The prevalence of caries was 61.2%. Determinants related to caries were: sugar intake between meals (OR = 6.44 [3.4 - 11.9]); insufficient tooth brushing (OR = 14.3 [8.8 - 23.29]); (OR = 3.84 [2.38 - 7.14]) and for regular dental visits (OR = 5.26 [3.44 - 8.33]), with the last dental visit dating back more than one year. Conclusion: In the face of challenges of school performance of CT, it is necessary to set up a control plan focusing mainly on the factors identified and associated with dental caries in military school.
Selection of Cocoa Tree (Theobroma cacao Linn) Endophytic Bacteria Solubilizing Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Isolated from Seedlings Grown on Soils of Six Producing Regions of Côte d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Adama Ouattara, Klotioloma Coulibaly, Ibrahim Konate, Boubacar Isma?l Kebe, Abiba Sanogo Tidou, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.99051
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao Linn). Most of the soils used for cocoa farming in C?te d’Ivoire are low in phosphorus. But cocoa farmers generally have a widespread reluctance to invest in chemicals fertilizers due to high costs and environmental associated risk. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) are kwon to play an important role in supply of phosphorous to plants in a sustainable manner in P deficient soils. The aim of this research was to screen the endophytic bacteria of cocoa nurseries able to solubilize tri-calcium phosphate. Seedlings of two varieties of cocoa (P7 and NA32) and seedlings of an all-comer, were grown on eighteen (18) samples soils collected in six producing regions of C?te d’Ivoire. A total of 218 endophytic bacteria were isolated and tested on the Pikovskaya’s agar medium, containing Ca3 (PO4) 2. The colonies with clear zone around the microbial growth were suspected as phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Out of 218 bacteria, 90 (41.28%) showed a clear zone around colonies after 7 days of incubation. The Phosphate Solubilization Index (PSI) ranged from 20% to 200%. Bacterial isolated from the soils of Duékoué locality showed the highest mean index of 137.67%. Five PSB (CEBSP5, CEBSP6, CEBSP7, CEBSP8, and CEBSP9) from Duékoué soils and two PSB (CEBSP12 and CEBSP13) from Soubré soils have a PSI ranged from 150% to 200%. Further study in greenhouse and in field condition will confirm the use of these PSB as biofertilizer to increase the available P content in soils, reduce environmental pollution and promote sustainable agriculture.
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