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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1362 matches for " Native Americans "
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Images for the History of Communication: The First Engravings from the Americas  [PDF]
María del Mar Ramírez-Alvarado
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41006
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to make an in-depth study of the image as a form of representation of the reality which reflects history in a unique way, and to discuss the different factors that may have impact on the correlation between reality and its representation by an image. For that purpose, the first engravings circulated in Europe of American natives will be used as an example, to determine their characteristics, and their authors. The study demonstrates how the images are determined by the interpretations, beliefs and previous knowledge of the artists or publishers of the 92 studied images, none of whom had direct knowledge of the American reality.
Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States  [PDF]
Joanna Burger
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116
Abstract: Managers and regulators are concerned about potential human health effects from exposure on lands contaminated by chemicals and radionuclides. Determining target cleanup levels is partly dependent upon future land use, and potential exposure from human use. This paper provides data from surveys of activity patterns of people attending festivals in four states, located in the vicinity of Department of Energy facilities. There were significant differences in both participation rates, and activity rates as a function of both location and ethnicity that can be used by managers to track exposure, land use, and preferred activities on natural lands. In general, 1) a higher percent of Native Americans engaged in consumptive activities than others, 2) a higher percent of Caucasians engaged in some non-consumptive activities than Native Americans, 3) a higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in activities on sacred grounds, 4) activity rates were generally higher for Native Americans for consumptive activities and religious/cultural than for Caucasians, 5) fishing rates were higher than other consumptive activities, and camping/hiking were higher than other non-con- sumptive activities, and 6) hunting rates were higher in subjects from Idaho than elsewhere. Baseline human use is critical for monitoring potential exposure, and provides the basis for monitoring, risk assessment and future land use, and these data can be used by managers for assessment and management. Tracking changes over time will reflect changing recreational, subsistence, and cultural/religious trends that relate to land use, public perceptions, and exposure.
Occurrence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Brazilian indians from Umutina Reservation, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Vieira, Evanice Menezes Mar?al;Raslan, Suzane A.;Wahasugui, Thais Cristina;Avila-Campos, Mario Julio;Marvulle, Valdecir;Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572009000500017
Abstract: aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with periodontal disease, especially localized aggressive periodontitis, produces a potent leukotoxin and its distribution is influenced by ethnic characteristics of the population. objective: using culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques, this study evaluated the occurrence of this microorganism and the distribution of leukotoxic strains isolated from indians belonging to the umutima reservation, mato grosso, brazil. material and methods: forty-eight native brazilians with gingivitis and 38 with chronic periodontitis, belonging to umutina, paresi, bororo, bakairi, kayabi, irantxe, nambikwara and terena ethnicities, were studied. subgingival, supragingival and saliva samples of each patient were collected and transferred to vmga iii medium and to ultra pure milli q water. bacteria were grown on tsbv agar and incubated in anaerobiosis (90% n2 + 10% co2) at 37oc for 72 h. the presence of the ltx promoter was determined by pcr, and a 530 bp deletion in the promoter was evaluated by using specific primers. results: a. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from 8.33% of saliva, supragingival and subgingival samples from patients with gingivitis and from 18.42% of saliva and supragingival biofilm, and 26.32% subgingival biofilm from patients with chronic periodontitis. by pcr, the bacterial dna was detected in 8.33% of saliva, supragingival and subgingival biofilms from patients with gingivitis and from 23.68% of saliva, 28.95% supragingival biofilm and 34.21% subgingival biofilm from patients with periodontitis. all strains were grouped as non-jp2 clones based on the absence of deletion in the leukotoxin promoter. differences among the microbial and clinical parameters in patients were analyzed by using the mann-whitney, chi-square or fisher's exact tests. conclusions: the present results suggest that a. actinomycetemcomitans can be related to the attachment loss in this population, but the presence of minim
ARQUEOLOGíA REGIONAL EN TIERRADENTRO, CAUCA, COLOMBIA
LANGEBAEK,CARL HENRIK; DEVER,ALEJANDRO;
Revista Colombiana de Antropología , 2009,
Abstract: research carried out for more than 5 years into settlement patterns in the tierradentro region, cauca department, has provided information of the sequence of social change from early ceramists up to after the spanish conquest. this paper makes available information regarding settlement patterns, demographic change and relations between human occupation and landscape for a period that encompasses more than 2.000 years of history. it is claimed that the well known manifestations of social hierarchy (mound, statuary) is not the result of population pressure or the need to control the most fertile lands at the regional level. comparisons between tierradentro and the neighboring zone of san agustin are provided
Origem e dispers?o dos Tupiguarani: o que diz a morfologia craniana?
Neves, Walter Alves;Bernardo, Danilo Vicensotto;Okumura, Mercedes;Almeida, Tatiana Ferreira de;Strauss, André Menezes;
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-81222011000100007
Abstract: the origin and dispersion of the tupiguarani groups have been intensely debated among archaeologists and linguists in the last five decades. in summary it is widely accepted by archeologists that the ethnogenesis of this linguistic stock, who occupied the majority of brazilian territory and part of bolivia, paraguay, uruguay and argentina, can be traced to amazonia and from there migrated eastward and southward around 2,500 years before present, although a dispersion in the opposite direction, i.e., from south to north, with an origin in the basin of the tietê-paraná region, has not been completely ruled out. among the archaeologists who regard amazonia as the birthplace of these people, some believe that they originated in central amazonia. others believe that the tupiguarani's ethnogenesis occurred in southwestern amazonia, where the majority of tupi linguistic diversity is currently concentrated. in this study, the morphology of 19 human skulls associated with the tupiguarani archaeological tradition, or ethnographically described as such, were compared with several prehistoric and ethnographic cranial series from brazil by means of multivariate statistics. two multivariate techniques were used: principal components analysis applied to the centroid of each series and the mahalanobis distance applied to the individual data. our results suggest an amazonian connection for the tupiguarani people, mainly because of the strong association found between tupi and guarani skulls from southern and southeastern brazil and tupi from northern brazil with specimens from marajó island included in the work.
Sonhos e nomes: as crian?as Guarani
BORGES, PAULO HUMBERTO PORTO;
Cadernos CEDES , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-32622002000100004
Abstract: this paper aims at discussing how guarani indian groups have their children internalize the reko por? ("good way of acting") and construct their concept of childhood and work, in order to form what they call the guarani ete, i.e., the true guarani.
Review: The Yale Indian: The Education of Henry Roe Cloud, by Joel Pfister
Shoemaker, Nancy
Journal of Historical Biography , 2011,
Abstract:
Origin and dispersion of the Tupiguarani: what does cranial morphology say?
Walter Alves Neves,Danilo Vicensotto Bernardo,Mercedes Okumura,Tatiana Ferreira de Almeida
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2011,
Abstract: The origin and dispersion of the Tupiguarani groups have been intensely debated among archaeologists and linguists in the last five decades. In summary it is widely accepted by archeologists that the ethnogenesis of this linguistic stock, who occupied the majority of Brazilian territory and part of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina, can be traced to Amazonia and from there migrated eastward and southward around 2,500 years before present, although a dispersion in the opposite direction, i.e., from south to north, with an origin in the basin of the Tietê-Paraná region, has not been completely ruled out. Among the archaeologists who regard Amazonia as the birthplace of these people, some believe that they originated in Central Amazonia. Others believe that the Tupiguarani's ethnogenesis occurred in southwestern Amazonia, where the majority of Tupi linguistic diversity is currently concentrated. In this study, the morphology of 19 human skulls associated with the Tupiguarani archaeological tradition, or ethnographically described as such, were compared with several prehistoric and ethnographic cranial series from Brazil by means of multivariate statistics. Two multivariate techniques were used: Principal Components Analysis applied to the centroid of each series and the Mahalanobis Distance applied to the individual data. Our results suggest an Amazonian connection for the Tupiguarani people, mainly because of the strong association found between Tupi and Guarani skulls from southern and southeastern Brazil and Tupi from northern Brazil with specimens from Marajó Island included in the work.
Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations
Abigail W Bigham, Xianyun Mao, Rui Mei, Tom Brutsaert, Megan J Wilson, Colleen Julian, Esteban J Parra, Joshua M Akey, Lorna G Moore, Mark D Shriver
Human Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-4-2-79
Abstract: Identifying gene regions showing signatures of natural selection in the human genome offers a window into our recent evolutionary past, as well as a deeper understanding of how this evolutionary force has shaped extant patterns of variation. Several recent studies have analysed dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data to detect signatures of selection in three major continental groups: West Africans, East Asians and Northern Europeans [1-6]. To date, only a few studies have focused on identifying candidate genes under selection with reference to a specific selective pressure [7,8]. Here, we use high-density SNP data to search for candidate genes for altitude adaptation in Andean populations. By expanding the populations of study to the Americas and targeting a specific selective pressure, hypobaric hypoxia, we can produce a more detailed and nuanced understanding of this evolutionary process.High-altitude environments provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the genetic and physiological effects of hypobaric hypoxia, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude resulting in lower circulating oxygen levels in the body, on endemic highland species [9-11]. Humans have inhabited three high-altitude (>2,500 m) zones of the world for multiple generations: the Tibetan Plateau, the Andean Altiplano and the Semien Plateau of Ethiopia (Figure 1). Each of these populations exhibits unique circulatory, respiratory and haematological adaptations to life at high altitude. For example, research has shown that Tibetan and Ethiopian populations have relatively low haemoglobin concentrations, in contrast to the 'classic' Andean physiological adaptation (also seen in high-altitude sojourners), where haemoglobin concentrations are elevated compared with low-altitude groups [12-17]. Andeans also exhibit lower levels of resting ventilation, a more 'blunted' hypoxic ventilatory response, higher levels of pulmonary arterial pressure and an increase
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kaingang native americans in southern Brazil
Anjos, Heloisa Nakai Kwabara dos;Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas;Mota, Lúcio Tadeu;Previdelli, Isolde Terezinha Santos;Anjos, Adriano Félix dos;Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro;Carrara, Márcia Aparecida;Batista, Márcia Regina;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000100011
Abstract: the aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a brazilian indigenous population. a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among kaingang native americans from the central region of the state of paraná, brazil. eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. after fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement of glucose, hdl cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ai and b apolipoprotein, and hemoglobin. the prevalences found were: fasting hyperglycemia (9.8%), hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), reduced hdl cholesterol (13.4%), hypertriglyceridemia (11%), abdominal obesity (37.8%), generalized obesity (26.8%), arterial hypertension (26.8%), and anemia (46.3%). the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the kaingang was 11%, all in females 20 to 49 years of age. the results suggested that the changes in the indigenous lifestyle, especially in eating habits and physical activity, have occurred.
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