Abstract:
Many recent highly precise and unmistakable observational facts achieved thanks to the tightly synchronized clocks of the GPS, provide consistent evidence that the gravitational fields are created by velocity fields of real space itself, a vigorous and very stable quantum fluid like spatial medium, the same space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter. It is shown that motion of this real space in the ordinary three dimensions round the Earth, round the Sun and round the galactic centers throughout the universe, according to velocity fields closely consistent with the local main astronomical motions, correctly induces the gravitational dynamics observed within these gravitational fields. In this spacedynamics the astronomical bodies all closely rest with respect to the real space, which forth-rightly leads to the observed null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments as well as to the absence of effects of the solar and galactic gravitational fields on the rate of clocks moving with Earth as recently discovered with the help of the GPS clocks. This spacedynamics exempts us from explaining the circular orbital motions of the planets round the Sun, likewise the rotation of Earth exempted people from explaining the diurnal transit of the heavens in the days of Copernicus and Galileo, because it is space itself that so moves. This spacedynamics also eliminates the need of dark matter and dark energy to explain respectively the galactic gravitational dynamics and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It also straightforwardly accounts in terms of well known and genuine physical effects for all the other observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the velocity of light and on the rate of clocks, including all the new effects recently discovered with the help of the GPS. It moreover simulates the non-Euclidean metric underlying Einstein’s spacetime curvature. This spacedynamics is the crucial innovation in the current world conception that definitively resolves all at once the troubles afflicting the current theories of space and gravitation.

The present work breaks the endless impasse of the current theories with space and gravitation, proposing a completely new conception in which the quantum space, ruling the propagarion of light and the inertial motion of matter, moves according to a velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This solution is clearly suggested by recent clear-cut experimental observations, achieved with the help of the GPS and also is implicit in the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) underlying the Standard Elementary Particle Model (SEPM).In a first part (Section II) it is shown that these recent experimental observations demonstrate that real space, the one that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter, is moving round each gravitational source according to a Keplerian velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This is the crucial experimental fundamentation of the spacedynamics that appropriately produces the observed gravitational dynamics on earth, in the solar system and also the galactic gravitational dynamics without the need of dark matter as well as all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on the propagation of light and on the rate of clocks.In a second part (Section III) it is shown how this spacedynamics arises within the context of the QFT underlying the SEPM. The QFT entails the idea that space is filled up with a scalar quantum field, a Bose-Einstein condensate of Higgs bosons. This Higgs condensate is a quantum fluid, responsible for giving mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism providing them with mechanical properties. This lets clear that the Higgs condensate plays the role of real quantum space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter and is the ultimate reference for rest and for motion of matter and light. Therefore, on moving according to a Keplerian velocity field, this condensate causes the observed gravitational dynamics as well as all the other observed effects caused by the gravitational fields.

The
present work discusses, in a comprehensible language and simple mathematics,
the origin of the gravitational physics in the light of new recent experimental
observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks of the
GPS. These observations reveal that real space, ruling the inertial motion of
matter and the propagation of light, is moving round the earth and round the
sun according to a Keplerian velocity field, consistent with the local main
astronomical motions. This Keplerian velocity field of real space is the
quintessence of the gravitational fields and appropriately induces the observed
gravitational dynamics. Such real space needs not to be invented. It is well at
hand in the Quantum Field Theory (QFT), underlying the Standard Elementary
Particle Model (SEPM). The QFT entails the idea that space is filled up with
the Higgs condensate (HC), a very powerful quantum space (QS). The HC is a
Bose-Einstein (BE) condensate of the zero spin Higgs bosons. By coupling to the
HC, the elementary particles get inertial mass by the Higgs mechanism, that is,
get mechanical properties. This will say that the HC rules the inertial motion
of matter and the propagation of light and hence is the locally ultimate
reference for rest and for motion of matter and light. The present work
acknowledges that, likewise the Meissner effect in superconductors develops
macroscopic screening currents, forcing magnetic fields out from
superconductors, the Higgs mechanism too entails a macroscopic manifestation in
the form of the Keplerian velocity field of the QS round each matter body
throughout the universe, consistent with the local main astronomical motions.
This Keplerian velocity field screens and thrusts the matter fields out from
the HC by squeezing them into a minimum of volume. It is shown that this
Keplerian velocity field of the QS appropriately induces the observed
gravitational dynamics on earth, in the solar system as well as the galactic
gravitational dynamics without the need of dark matter. It also provides an
antigravitation mechanism accelerating the expansion of the universe. It
finally is shown that this spacedynamics correctly and appropriately gives
origin, in terms of simple and genuine physical effects, to all the other
observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the propagation of
light and on the rate of the clocks.

Abstract:
Intrauterine devices
(IUDs) are the most effective, reversible and longest acting birth control method.
They require no effort for compliance and avoid systemic synthetic hormones. Evidence-based
effectiveness and safety studies have demonstrated IUDs rival sterilization.
IUDs low costmake them the most
popular method worldwide. Despite these benefits, IUDs have minimal market
penetration in the United States where they are expensive, disparaged by an
older generation of physicians, and withheld from teenagers, nulliparous women,
and women not in mutually monogamous relationships,i.e., those who would most
benefit. This article reviews the nearly forgotten history of the IUD that resulted
in broadening the Food and Drug Administration’s oversight of medical devices,
brought needed transparency to physicians’ conflicts of interests, uncovered a
corporate scandal with a whistleblower that led to a major pharmaceutical
bankruptcy, and involved 327,000 women (though only 195,000 met strict criteria
for claims) in the largest US personal injury case.

Abstract:
To avoid molecular damage of biomolecules due to oxidation, all cells have evolved constitutive and responsive systems to mitigate and repair chemical modifications. Archaea have adapted to some of the most extreme environments known to support life, including highly oxidizing conditions. However, in comparison to bacteria and eukaryotes, relatively little is known about the biology and biochemistry of archaea in response to changing conditions and repair of oxidative damage. In this study transcriptome, proteome, and chemical reactivity analyses of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in Sulfolobus solfataricus (P2) were conducted. Microarray analysis of mRNA expression showed that 102 transcripts were regulated by at least 1.5 fold, 30 minutes after exposure to 30 μM H2O2. Parallel proteomic analyses using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), monitored more than 800 proteins 30 and 105 minutes after exposure and found that 18 had significant changes in abundance. A recently characterized ferritin-like antioxidant protein, DPSL, was the most highly regulated species of mRNA and protein, in addition to being post-translationally modified. As expected, a number of antioxidant related mRNAs and proteins were differentially regulated. Three of these, DPSL, superoxide dismutase, and peroxiredoxin were shown to interact and likely form a novel supramolecular complex for mitigating oxidative damage. A scheme for the ability of this complex to perform multi-step reactions is presented. Despite the central role played by DPSL, cells maintained a lower level of protection after disruption of the dpsl gene, indicating a level of redundancy in the oxidative stress pathways of S. solfataricus. This work provides the first “omics” scale assessment of the oxidative stress response for an archeal organism and together with a network analysis using data from previous studies on bacteria and eukaryotes reveals evolutionarily conserved pathways where complex and overlapping defense mechanisms protect against oxygen toxicity.

Abstract:
Optics and interferometry with matter waves is the art of coherently manipulating the translational motion of particles like neutrons, atoms and molecules. Coherent atom optics is an extension of techniques that were developed for manipulating \emph{internal} quantum states. Applying these ideas to translational motion required the development of techniques to localize atoms and transfer population coherently between distant localities. In this view position and momentum are (continuouse) quantum mechanical degree of freedom analogous to discrete internal quantum states. In our contribution we start with an introduction into matter-wave optics in section 1, discuss coherent atom optics and atom interferometry techniques for molecular beams in section 2 and for trapped atoms in section 3. In section 4 we then describe tools and experiments that allow us to probe the evolution of quantum states of many-body systems by atom interference.

Abstract:
The magnitude of the future global warming is uncertain, but the possible dramatic changes associated with high temperatures have seen rising attention in the literature. Projections of temperature change in the literature are often presented in probabilistic terms and typically highlight the most likely ranges of future temperature under assumed emission scenarios. However, focusing on these high probability outcomes of global warming omits important information related to the threats of low-probability but high-impact outcomes under more extreme change. As such, we argue that the literature should place more emphasis on communicating the probabilities of extreme temperature change, in a way that is accessible to policymakers and the general public. The damage associated with climate change is likely to be non-linear with temperature, and thus extreme temperature changes may pose a larger risk than the most likely outcomes. We use a simple climate model to explore the probabilities of high surface temperature under business as usual emissions scenarios, given current knowledge of the climate system. In a business as usual scenario (A1FI) we find the probability of “likely” warming (central 66%) to be approximately 4.4°C-6.9°C in 2100 (above 1900 levels). However, we find extreme (>7°C) warming to embody a notable portion of damage risk compared to this likely range.

There are many community detection algorithms for discovering communities in networks, but very few deal with networks that change structure. The SCAN (Structural Clustering Algorithm for Networks) algorithm is one of these algorithms that detect communities in static networks. To make SCAN more effective for the dynamic social networks that are continually changing their structure, we propose the algorithm DSCAN (Dynamic SCAN) which improves SCAN to allow it to update a local structure in less time than it would to run SCAN on the entire network. We also improve SCAN by removing the need for parameter tuning. DSCAN, tested on real world dynamic networks, performs faster and comparably to SCAN from one timestamp to another, relative to the size of the change. We also devised an approach to genetic algorithms for detecting communities in dynamic social networks, which performs well in speed and modularity.

Abstract:
In this paper we give an elementary proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra for polynomials over the rational tropical semi-ring. We prove that, tropically, the rational numbers are algebraically closed. We provide a simple algorithm for factoring tropical polynomials of a single variable. A central idea is the concept of least-coefficient polynomials as representatives for classes of functionally equivalent polynomials. This idea has importance far beyond the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Tropical Algebra.

Abstract:
As an example of the possible discrepancy, a 1.5-fold increase (50%) in sCr from a baseline of 1.0 mg/dL in a 60-year-old white male corresponds to only a 37% eGFR decrease using the MDRD formula. In this scenario the patient is classified in RIFLE class R by both methods. In the same patient an only 30% increase in sCr (1.0 mg/dL to 1.3 mg/dL), however, corresponds to a 26% decrease of eGFR. Therefore, the patient would consequently be classified as having AKI in RIFLE class R by the GFR threshold but not based on sCr changes. This theoretical disagreement in defining and staging AKI by RIFLE has been outlined previously [2], but data to estimate potential discrepancy in a 'real world' scenario are not available.Furthermore, the use of different versions of RIFLE criteria counteracts the original goal of a consensus definition and hinders comparability.To understand the differences better, we applied these two methods of calculating RIFLE to consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2005 and 2007 at our institution. AKI was defined by using either largest sCr increase or eGFR decrease (MDRD formula) within the first postoperative week compared to baseline. In all patients a preoperative baseline sCr was available. We did not use urine output criteria to define AKI.Among the total cohort, 9.3% patients were diagnosed as having AKI by the sCr criteria versus 18.9% with eGFR criteria (Table 2). The largest disagreement was detected in class R. Overall, the diagnosis of AKI using eGFR thresholds was more sensitive than sCr changes, and this was also true for staging of patients in RIFLE classes R and I. However, for patients staged in the highest AKI class F, sensitivity was higher for sCr criteria. These discrepancies can be expected to be found in other patient populations when non-uniform methods of determining RIFLE criteria are utilized. Our findings may assist in interpretation of other clinical studies.Recently the RIFLE