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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1862 matches for " Nathalie Fournet "
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Intrusive Thoughts and Executive Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  [PDF]
Martine Bouvard, Nathalie Fournet, Adelaide Sixdenier, Mircea Polosan
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.87025
Abstract: Objectives: Our aim was to compare the effects of an unwanted intrusive thought on executive function in a group of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in a healthy group. Method: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Adult (BRIEF-A) was used to measure executive dysfunction in everyday life in people with OCD. The study participants underwent either an intrusive thought induction or neutral thought induction prior to the administration of three computer-based tests of executive function. Results: The BRIEF-A results confirmed the impairment of executive function in everyday life for patients with OCD. In the number-letter task, patients with OCD displayed a longer reaction time (relative to the controls). There were no intergroup differences in the local-global task. In the go/no-go task, there was a significant impairment (p = 0.03) in the OCD group (with more commission errors than controls). There was a non-significant trend towards an effect of thought induction in both groups in the number-letter task. However, intrusive thought induction did not have a greater effect than neutral thought induction on the OCD group in any of the tasks. Conclusions: Intrusive thought induction has no effect on executive function in the two groups. The two groups differed with regard to two executive tasks.
Impaired Executive Function in Everyday Life: A Predictor of OCD Relapse?  [PDF]
Nathalie Fournet, Ouafae Achachi, Arnaud Roy, Jérémy Besnard, Céline Lancelot, Didier Le Gall, Martine Bouvard
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93008
Abstract: Objectives: In the present study, we set out to establish whether executive function in everyday life is impaired in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, and if it is more impaired (or not) in patients who relapsed after cognitive behavioural therapy than in treatment-na?ve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Method: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function— Adult Version (BRIEF-A) was used to measure executive function in everyday life in three groups of 19 participants: treatment-na?ve obsessive-compulsive disorderpatients, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients having relapsed after CBT, and healthy controls. Results: The BRIEF-A results revealed an impairment in executive function in the treatment-na?ve and relapsed obsessive-compulsive disorder groups, relative to the healthy control group. There was no significant difference in executive function between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: These results show that impaired executive function is not associated with relapse in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder having undergone cognitive behavioural therapy.
Le projet professionnel et personnel des étudiants, assise de leur professionnalisation ?
Daniel Bart,Michel Fournet
Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l’Enseignement Supérieur , 2010,
Abstract: Cet article rend compte de la structuration des projets d’étudiants participant à une formation professionnalisante de second cycle universitaire (Master) et de la manière dont ces derniers traduisent le programme de formation en appui stratégique à leur développement professionnel. L’analyse des réponses de ces étudiants à une enquête par questionnaire permet de mieux comprendre les conditions d’émergence des projets et d’en dégager les différents agencements autour de trois composants majeurs : 1) les éléments d’une visée ; 2) les représentations d’un programme de formation ; et 3) les moyens personnels acquis de l’expérience. Nous montrons également en quoi ces projets soutiennent la pluralité des engagements et des apprentissages des étudiants. En conclusion, nous soulignons que cette recherche appelle des aménagements pédagogiques tenant compte de la configuration des projets mise au jour et de leur r le de support du processus de professionnalisation. This article analyzes projects carried out by students taking part in a professional academic master programme. It focuses on how the students “translate” the programme into “learning strategies” for their professional development. Analysing students’ answers in a questionnaire enables to get a better understanding of the genesis of their projects and to bring out various issues regarding three main components : 1) elements of purpose, 2) conceptions regarding programmes and 3) skills acquired through experience. This article also shows in which ways these projects support a wide range of student commitments and learning strategies. To conclude, we emphasise that this research requires a pedagogical approach that takes into consideration the projects’ design and their contribution towards professional development.
Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin
Sonia Fournet-Perot
Cahiers de Narratologie , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/narratologie.1288
Abstract: Le langage stéréotypique représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre . Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grace à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’ uvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès. El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.
Contact patterns among high school students
Julie Fournet,Alain Barrat
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107878
Abstract: Face-to-face contacts between individuals contribute to shape social networks and play an important role in determining how infectious diseases can spread within a population. It is thus important to obtain accurate and reliable descriptions of human contact patterns occurring in various day-to-day life contexts. Recent technological advances and the development of wearable sensors able to sense proximity patterns have made it possible to gather data giving access to time-varying contact networks of individuals in specific environments. Here we present and analyze two such data sets describing with high temporal resolution the contact patterns of students in a high school. We define contact matrices describing the contact patterns between students of different classes and show the importance of the class structure. We take advantage of the fact that the two data sets were collected in the same setting during several days in two successive years to perform a longitudinal analysis on two very different timescales. We show the high stability of the contact patterns across days and across years: the statistical distributions of numbers and durations of contacts are the same in different periods, and we observe a very high similarity of the contact matrices measured in different days or different years. The rate of change of the contacts of each individual from one day to the next is also similar in different years. We discuss the interest of the present analysis and data sets for various fields, including in social sciences in order to better understand and model human behavior and interactions in different contexts, and in epidemiology in order to inform models describing the spread of infectious diseases and design targeted containment strategies.
Adjuvant Treatment for High-Risk Operable Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Bernard Paule, Nathalie Brion
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11002
Abstract: Patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have to face high risks of recurrence. The risk of recurrence is elevated due to probable occult metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rationale for using multimodal approach in order to minimize the chance of disease recurrence and to improve the survival of high risk patients is emerging from preclinical and clinical studies. New molecular and genetics assays, may help to select patients most likely to benefit from these approaches. In this review, we will especially discuss the potential benefits of adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy. This paper presents the identification of these high-risk patients; the explanation of an adjuvant treatment of residual disease after a radical prostatectomy; the clinical studies with adjuvant androgen deprivation, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and the microarrays analysis. This review highlights the importance of these new adjuvant treatments that aims at targeting the factor which triggers metastatic disease following a radical prostatectomy
Therapeutic MUC1-Based Cancer Vaccine Expressed in Flagella-Efficacy in an Aggressive Model of Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Nathalie Machluf, Ruth Arnon
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2012.23015
Abstract: MUC1, a tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in many carcinomas, represents a candidate of choice for cancer immunotherapy. Flagella-based MUC1 vaccines were tested in therapeutic setting in two aggressive breast cancer models, comprising the implantation of the 4T1-MUC1 cell line in either Balb/c, or Human MUC1 transgenic mice in which spontaneous metastases occurs. Recombinant flagella carrying only 7 amino acid of MUC1 elicited therapeutic activity, affecting both the growth of established growing tumors and the number of metastases. Higher therapeutic activity was achieved with an additional recombinant flagella designed with the SYFPEITHI algorithm. The vaccines triggered a Th1 response against MUC1 with no evident autoimmune response towards healthy MUC1-expressing tissues. Recombinant flagella carrying a 25-residue fragment of MUC1, induced the most effective response, as evidenced by a significant reduction of both the size and growth rate of the tumor as well as by the lower number of metastases, and expanding life span of vaccinated mice.
Lab-Scale Performance Evaluation of Vertical Flow Reed Beds for the Treatment of Chlorobenzene Contaminated Groundwater  [PDF]
Gerard Merlin, Nathalie Cottin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328099
Abstract: Chlorinated Benzenes (CBs) that were released into the environment contaminate groundwater at many existing and former industrial sites. A research program was initiated to investigate the ecoremediation of CBs contaminated groundwater using subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Four lab-scale experiments were performed to evaluate re- moval efficiency with different operation conditions. The first experiment was achieved with two different solid-state materials: a peat and a lava stone (pozzolana). In order to stimulate biological activity, organic matter coming from an aged Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (VFCW) was added to the media. Mass balance was determined to assess the fate of these pollutants in this system. The biofiltres of the second experiment were constructed with the same materials but bioaugmentation was realized by adding organic matter of VFCW or by bacteria inoculums. Peat and pozzolana biofiltres planted with Phragmites australis constituted the third experiment to evaluate the effect of plants. Bioaugmen- tation was constituted by the addition of OM coming from aged VFCW. Compost mixed with pozzolana was the solid-state material of the fourth experiment. Columns were made of two stages. The first stage was unplanted and the second stage was planted with Phragmites. Peat has been replaced by compost, a renewable material. Lab-scale biofil- tres remove CBs with an efficiency of 70% - 99%, depending on studied media and conditions. Greater efficiency was observed with bioaugmented media. Volatilization was very low (<0.2%) and the detection of chlorides in water indi- cated the occurrence of biodegradation. The experiments have shown that organic solid-state materials (compost or peat) are useful for groundwater remediation, with higher treatment efficiency than pozzolana material. Bioaugmentation increased biological activity. Clogging of biofiltres have been observed and can be reduced by the presence of plants or by a resting period of 14 - 21 days (requiring alternative feedings on several filters).
Encoding of local and global cues in domestic dogs’ spatial working memory  [PDF]
Sylvain Fiset, Nathalie Malenfant
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33A001
Abstract: The current study investigated whether domestic dogs encode local and/or global cues in spatial working memory. Seven dogs were trained to use a source of allocentric information (local and/or global cues) to locate an attractive object they saw move and disappear behind one of the three opaque boxes arrayed in front of them. To do so, after the disappearance of the target object and out of the dogs’ knowledge, all sources of allocentric information were simultaneously shifted to a new spatial position and the dogs were forced to follow a U-shaped pathway leading to the hiding box. Out of the seven dogs that were trained in the detour problem, only three dogs learned to use the cues that were moved from trial to trial. On tests, local (boxes and experimenter) and/or global cues (walls of the room) were systematically and drastically shifted to a new position in the testing chamber. Although they easily succeeded the control trials, the three dogs failed to use a specific source of allocentric information when local and global cues were put in conflict. In discussion, we explore several hypotheses to explain why dogs have difficulties to use allocentric cues to locate a hidden object in a detour problem and why they do not differentiate the local and global cues in this particular experimental setting.
Public health perspectives on noise and cardiovascular disease  [PDF]
Lynnette-Nathalie Lyzwinski
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.41005
Abstract:

Introduction: Emerging research suggests that noise impacts human health beyond simply the auditory system. There have been recent amendments to acceptable noise level thresholds within the occupational setting and new European Union directives for noise in the community from air and road sources. The purpose of this review will be to assess the relationship between noise and cardiovascular disease in different settings. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed on noise and more cardiovascular disease endpoints. All studies published in the English language between 2000-present were included. Studies on noise annoyance were excluded. Results: There is a strong positive association between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. There is a moderate association with noise in the community setting from road sources and a weak association with aircraft noise. The strength of the association across settings is dependent on the outcome type, interaction with age and sex of subjects, and time of measurement. Road source noise had the strongest association with myocardial infarction, notably in women during night exposures. The association with hypertension and road noise, when stratified by sex, was significant in men during night-time exposures and in pregnant older women. Only nighttime aircraft noise was associated with statistically significant findings in adults. All sources of noise demonstrate a dose response relationship, which peaks at different noise thresholds. Occupational noise exposure had the strongest association with noise > 85 dB (A) and duration of exposure. Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to warrant the precautionary public health principle to reduce noise at the population levels for industry workers through stronger legislation, regular compliance inspections, and health promotion. Where population wide noise legislation has not yet been enacted, noise exposure reduction at the individual level may be beneficial.

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