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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401387 matches for " Natan M Bornstein "
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Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value
Maia Beridze, Tamar Sanikidze, Roman Shakarishvili1, Nino Intskirveli, Natan M Bornstein
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-41
Abstract: Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0.At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P < 0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid Electron Paramagnetic Resonance signal of nitric oxide was increased in patients against controls. Severe stroke group had an elevated Electron Paramagnetic Resonance signal of lipoperoxiradical compared to less severe stroke. Cerebrospinal fluid nitrate levels in less severe stroke patients were higher than those for severe stroke and control. Positive correlation was established between the initial interleukin-6 content and ischemic lesion size as well as with National Institute Health Stroke Scale score on the seventh day. Initial interleukin-6 and nitrate levels in cerebrospinal fluid found to be significant for functional outcome of stroke at one month.According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.Modern concepts of acute cerebral ischemia highlight the role of neurovascular units and emphasize the importance of integrative tissue responses that result from dynamic interactions of endothelial cells, vascular sooth muscles, matrix elements, astroglia, microglia and neurons. By means of infla
Anti-Colorectal Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Diarrhoea: Current Treatments and Side-Effects  [PDF]
Rachel M. McQuade, Joel C. Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.57054
Abstract:

Chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) is a common side-effect experienced by patients being treated with a variety of antineoplastic agents. Approximately 80% of patients undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment for colorectal and other gastrointestinal cancers present with CID; moreover, about 5% of early deaths associated with combination anti-cancer chemotherapy are due to CID. Chronic post-treatment diarrhoea amongst cancer survivors can persist for more than 10 years greatly effecting long-term quality of life. Gastrointestinal toxicities such as diarrhoea and vomiting are amongst the primary contributors to dose reductions and delays throughout anti-cancer treatment, presenting a significant hurdle in clinical management of anti-cancer regimes and often result in sub-optimum treatment. However, little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CID. This work provides a review of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea, current management guidelines, and shortcomings of current treatments as well as emerging and already existing anti-diarrhoeal treatments potentially suitable for CID.

Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in the Nares: A Historical Perspective of the Ecological Niche, with Suggestions for Future Therapy Considerations  [PDF]
Eric Bornstein
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.76034
Abstract: Nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria continues to present challenges for patients undergoing surgical procedures, and for the physicians that treat them. Even as molecular medicine produces ever faster and improved data sets for clinicians, it would benefit all medical personnel attempting to decolonize the nose to better understand the historical nasal decolonization data with specific reference to the ecological niche for these bacteria, as it has been recorded for more than a century. Much of the historical data points to the largest ecological niche for nasal Staphylococcus aureus as the vibrissae of the vestibulum nasi. A careful study shows that any topical antimicrobial preparation needs to successfully penetrate the deepest recesses of these specialized nasal hair follicles, if decolonization is to be adequately accomplished. This review highlights the most relevant data of the last 140 years concerning the staphylococcal ecological niche of the vibrissae. Also to be discussed will be a historical review of topical Mupirocin. Almost thirty years after its FDA approval, Mupirocin is still the most widely used topical antibiotic for decolonization therapy around the world. Correspondingly, new experimental in vitro data will be presented showing the differing efficacy of Mupirocin against multiple strains of HA-MRSA and CA- MRSA, based solely on the commercial topical formulation (non Mupirocin ingredients) that acts synergistically with the Mupirocin. Finally, the review will discuss why an understanding of these historical data is a vital component to integrate into any new or augmented nasal decolonization therapy.
Cortical and Hippocampal Correlates of Deliberation during Model-Based Decisions for Rewards in Humans
Aaron M. Bornstein ,Nathaniel D. Daw
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003387
Abstract: How do we use our memories of the past to guide decisions we've never had to make before? Although extensive work describes how the brain learns to repeat rewarded actions, decisions can also be influenced by associations between stimuli or events not directly involving reward — such as when planning routes using a cognitive map or chess moves using predicted countermoves — and these sorts of associations are critical when deciding among novel options. This process is known as model-based decision making. While the learning of environmental relations that might support model-based decisions is well studied, and separately this sort of information has been inferred to impact decisions, there is little evidence concerning the full cycle by which such associations are acquired and drive choices. Of particular interest is whether decisions are directly supported by the same mnemonic systems characterized for relational learning more generally, or instead rely on other, specialized representations. Here, building on our previous work, which isolated dual representations underlying sequential predictive learning, we directly demonstrate that one such representation, encoded by the hippocampal memory system and adjacent cortical structures, supports goal-directed decisions. Using interleaved learning and decision tasks, we monitor predictive learning directly and also trace its influence on decisions for reward. We quantitatively compare the learning processes underlying multiple behavioral and fMRI observables using computational model fits. Across both tasks, a quantitatively consistent learning process explains reaction times, choices, and both expectation- and surprise-related neural activity. The same hippocampal and ventral stream regions engaged in anticipating stimuli during learning are also engaged in proportion to the difficulty of decisions. These results support a role for predictive associations learned by the hippocampal memory system to be recalled during choice formation.
Air Quality Trends in Metropolitan Zones in Veracruz, México  [PDF]
Sergio Natan González Rocha, Juan Cervantes Pérez, José M. Baldasano Recio
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2016.52007
Abstract: Mexico and currently in Veracruz state, there are metropolitan zones (MZ) growing. Therefore, main objective in this paper is to analyze new data and AQ trends during 01.09.2013 to 30.06.2015 of two new AQ monitoring stations installed in Xalapa and Minatitlan MZ in 2013-year. The methodology applied used quality criteria to the datasets, followed by data validation and statistics for further analysis to determine the hourly, weekly and yearly trends of NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Indicators were compared with Mexican standards, CAI-LAC report, WHO guidelines, EU and USA standards to evaluate the AQ in both sites. We observed AQ trends from moderate to bad in Xalapa and Minatitlan MZ where the PM10 and PM2.5 surpassed the WHO guidelines and Mexican standards. O3 and SO2 in Xalapa presented a quality from good to moderate and in Minatitlan sometimes were from moderate to bad. NO2 did not exceed the value limits of Mexican standards, only Xalapa has exceeded the WHO guidelines. In Minatitlan, the Mexican limits were not exceeded. Concluding, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were the main problem. Others pollutants that influenced the AQ were O3, NO2 and SO2 in Minatitlan MZ due probably to meteorology, site conditions, location and oil and petrochemical industries. In Xalapa, MZ NO2 and SO2 are attributed mainly to road transport.
Secretion and Signaling Activities of Lipoprotein-Associated Hedgehog and Non-Sterol-Modified Hedgehog in Flies and Mammals
Wilhelm Palm equal contributor,Marta M. Swierczynska equal contributor,Veena Kumari,Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein,Stefan R. Bornstein,Suzanne Eaton
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001505
Abstract: Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control animal development and tissue homeostasis. They activate gene expression by regulating processing, stability, and activation of Gli/Cubitus interruptus (Ci) transcription factors. Hh proteins are secreted and spread through tissue, despite becoming covalently linked to sterol during processing. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to release Hh proteins in distinct forms; in Drosophila, lipoproteins facilitate long-range Hh mobilization but also contain lipids that repress the pathway. Here, we show that mammalian lipoproteins have conserved roles in Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) release and pathway repression. We demonstrate that lipoprotein-associated forms of Hh and Shh specifically block lipoprotein-mediated pathway inhibition. We also identify a second conserved release form that is not sterol-modified and can be released independently of lipoproteins (Hh-N*/Shh-N*). Lipoprotein-associated Hh/Shh and Hh-N*/Shh-N* have complementary and synergistic functions. In Drosophila wing imaginal discs, lipoprotein-associated Hh increases the amount of full-length Ci, but is insufficient for target gene activation. However, small amounts of non-sterol-modified Hh synergize with lipoprotein-associated Hh to fully activate the pathway and allow target gene expression. The existence of Hh secretion forms with distinct signaling activities suggests a novel mechanism for generating a diversity of Hh responses.
The ship of the desert. The dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), a domesticated animal species well adapted to extreme conditions of aridness and heat
S. Bornstein
Rangifer , 1990,
Abstract: The dromedary camel (Camel dromedarius) is extremely well adapted to life in hot and arid lands. In terms of physiological adaptation to heat and water deprivation it surpasses by far every other large animal of which data have been collected. None of the adaptive mechanisms to cope with the environmental stresses are unique to the Arabian camel, but the efficiency of its adaptation is superior. At high ambient temperatures the camels adapt to the scarcity of water by reducing their faecal, urinary and evaporative water losses. During dehydration, the kidneys reduce water losses both by decreasing the glomerual filtration rate and by increasing the tubular reabsorption of water. Also their ability of regulating their body temperature from 34.5-40.7 °C conserves a lot of water, when most needed.
Sistemas de preparo de solo: altera??es na estrutura do solo e rendimento das culturas
Mazurana, Michael;Levien, Renato;Müller, J?natan;Conte, Osmar;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832011000400013
Abstract: the introduction and intensification of no-tillage systems in brazilian agriculture in recent decades have created a new scenario, increasing concerns about soil physical properties. the objective of this study was to assess the effects of different tillage systems on some physical properties of an ultisol previously under native grassland. five tillage methods were tested: no-tillage (nt), chiseling (ch), no-tillage with chiseling every two years (ntch2), chiseling using an equipment with a clod-breaking roller (chr) and chiseling followed by disking (chd). the bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity and total porosity, mechanical resistance to penetration, water infiltration into the soil and crop yields were evaluated. the values of soil bulk density, mechanical resistance to penetration and microporosity increased as macroporosity decreased. soil bulk density was lower in tillage systems with higher levels of tillage/soil mobilization; highest values were observed in nt and the lowest in the chd system. the water infiltration rate was highest in the chr system, followed by the systems chd, nt and ntch2, while crop yields were higher in systems with less soil mobilization.
Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods
Golden,Anne L.; Moline,Jacqueline M.; Bar-Chama,Natan;
Salud Pública de México , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341999000800005
Abstract: concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. these include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. new research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of dna damage. for population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.
Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods
Golden Anne L.,Moline Jacqueline M.,Bar-Chama Natan
Salud Pública de México , 1999,
Abstract: Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.
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