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Assessing Demographic Factors Related to Maternal Mortality in Tehran Province, Iran from 2008 to 2011  [PDF]
Fereshteh Farzianpour, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Nasrin Changizi, Khatere Ramezani
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.73035
Abstract: The rate of maternal mortality due to complications of pregnancy and delivery is one of the most significant indicators showing the development state of countries. The purpose of the present study is to assess important indicators of maternal health and predisposing factors of maternal mortality in Tehran province from 2008 to 2011. The present study is a case-control one. All mothers who had lost their life (n = 113) were selected through census and survived mothers (n = 327) through randomized stratified sampling. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS V.22, X2 test, Fishers exact test and Logistic regression. The rate of maternal mortality was the highest (29.2%) in 2009 and the lowest (20.4%) in 2011. Variables type of maternity hospital (P-value = 0.036), maternal education (P-value < 0.001), husband’s education (P-value < 0.001) had a significant relation to maternal mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a relationship between the education level of the husband and maternal mortality. Considering the factors affecting maternal mortality, promoting hospital services, improving skills and knowledge of doctors, midwives and nurses and strengthening educational programs for the illiterate are the most effective measures to reduce maternal mortality.
Obstetrics Risk Management in 5 Iranian Hospitals (Tehran-2012)  [PDF]
Nasrin Changizi, Farah Babaee, Hamid Ravaghi, Zahra Farahani
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.55038

Background: Risk management is improving quality of health care services and creating a safer system of care. We determined the main maternal and fetal risks in five Hospitals (Tehran-Iran) to offer some practical strategies to decline obstetric adverse events and provide better pregnancy outcome. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 5 Iranian hospitals (2011-2012).Twelve Obstetricians/perinatalogists and midwives from 5 hospitalswho were in charge of Maternity Units, were our assistants in these hospitals. We organized a secretariat including Obstetricians/perinatalogists and midwives. The principles of Obstetrics Risk Management were introduced to them in a 2 days’ workshop. Then the delegates from each hospital were asked to report the most common obstetrical complications of their hospitals. The main results were 24 complications. Then for sorting these risks we asked them to do scoring of the 24 complication with 1 - 10 grading in 4 aspects of probability of occurrence, possibility of prevention, priority of interventions and short term response to interventions. Post partum haemorrhage, labor management problems, and neonatal hypothermia got the highest scores in these regards, and then these 24 items were categorized in 2 groups of risk assessment and hospital management. Finally based on Risk Management Rules in Clinical Governance, the complications analysis was done with use of failure mode, effects analysis and practical strategies to decline obstetrical adverse events were suggested. Results: We understood all reported complications had common infrastructural problems: defects in Risk Assessment and Hospital Management Policies. We focused on basic infrastructural management in these 2 main subjects and in these two: our main problems were related to staff management and hospital management issues. Conclusion: Since managerial and staff dependent problems were our main problems, these two should be considered as our main priorities in risk management program.

Implementing of Electronic Medical Record in Pelvic Floor Ward: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Zinat Ghanbari, Nasrin Changizi, Seyyed Reza Mazhari, Tahereh Eftekhar
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.56046
Abstract: The electronic medical record is an essential technology tool to improve the quality of care. In present study we reported on the design and feasibility of electronic medical records in Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Ward. Our main goal was documentation with the least possible missed data, evidence-based decision making, documented active patient follow up and increasing patient’s satisfaction. The Electronic Registry System of Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (Vali e Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran) was designed in mid 2014 and tested till March 2015. The software description was designed based on previous paper questionnaire used in this ward. The electronic questionnaires were filled in upon hospitalization and thereafter including follow ups. The questionnaire included 10 demographic and 15 main questions. A digital analog scale (1 - 10) in each part quantified the effects of problem on patient’s quality of life and also the effects of interventions as well. Entered information in each step was available for those with defined access. Reporting design was dependent on the needed data. Our supervised data entry was a guarantee to the quality of information with the least errors. Access to all para clinical data made rapid and evidence-based decision making. Patient satisfaction was achieved because of unified approach. The most interesting part was access to evidence-based results and data to be used in research projects. This study showed that EMRs in Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Wards could provide valuable information, improve the quality of care and increase patient’s satisfaction.
Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Saharnaz Nedjat, Kazem Mohammad, Arash Rashidian, Nasrin Changizi, Reza Majdzadeh
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-159
Abstract: A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis.After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable.Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package.In recent years the cesarean section (C/S) rate has increased in different parts of the world, both in developed and in developing countries. The rate is considered as an index of healthcare coverage in different nations. While mothers' higher access to healthcare services is linked with the reported increase in the C-section rate, the high prevalence o
Influence of Rice Straw Incorporation on the Microbial Biomass and Activity in Coastal Saline Soils of Bangladesh  [PDF]
Nasrin Chowdhury
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.610016
Abstract: Coastal soils of Bangladesh are affected by salinity. This study investigated salinity as a stress factor on coastal soils in Bangladesh. It was also observed if incorporation of rice straw could remediate negative impacts of soil salinity (if any) on microbial activ-ity. The microbial biomass carbon ranged from 137.85 to 614.88 μg/g among the soils (n = 11). Microbial biomass carbon content and number of both cultivable bacteria and fungi decreased in the soils with higher ECes (electrical conductivity). Respiration was measured over 30 days with each soil pre incubated at 50% of water holding capacity. Basal respiration rate as well as soil organic carbon content (r = 0.88, p < 0.05) increased with increasing ECe of soils. The cumulative basal soil respiration was higher in the soils with higher salinity (4.81 - 37.73 mS/cm) (12.91 - 16.89 mg CO2/g dry soil) than in the nonsaline soils (0.98 - 2.33 mS/cm) (5.79 - 6.51 mg CO2/g dry soil). Application of rice straw at 0.50%, 1.00%, 1.50% and 2.00% reduced the negative impact of soil salinity especially at higher ECes (6.63 - 37.73 mS/cm). Application of 1.00% rice straw appeared to be acceptable for successful amelioration of saline soils of the study area.
Determination of Superficial Dose Profile in Z-Line for Each Slice in CT.Scan Machines
V Changizi,MA Oghabian
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2004,
Abstract: CT.Scan examinations cause high patient absorbed dose from x-ray ionizing radiation. Therefore it is necessary to obtain superficial dose profile in Z-line. In this research 11 thermoluminecent dosimeter (TLD), after calibration were located on Z line perpendicular to slice thickness. CT.Scan machines did X-ray exposures. The resultant dose profiles showed gussian shape apperience, which has severed dose reduction off the slice thickness. By attention to high patient absorbed dose in CT.Scan machines, it is better to referre that patients towards any other diagnostic methods with lower risk and reasonable quality.
A New Historical Approach to John Donne’s A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
Pooyan Changizi,Parvin Ghasemi
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2010,
Abstract: A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning is one of John Donne’s most celebrated and most significant poems in which he declares, quite ingeniously, his ideal of spiritual love which transcends the ordinary and inferior love of others that is based on mere physicality. This essay applies New Historicism, a school of literary theory since the early 1980s, to Donne’s seventeenth-century poem. The study begins with elaborating on the major concepts and principles of New Historicism. Then, the historical, cultural and biographical circumstances that surrounded and motivated the composition of Donne’s poem are discussed. Finally, the discourses of religion, science, love, sexuality, space and time and the circulation of power implicit in the compass imagery, the metaphysical conceit used in this poem, are explored.
Ceramic Laminate Veneers: Materials Advances and Selection  [PDF]
Nasrin R. Sadaqah
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.45038
Abstract: Porcelain laminate veneers have been a common treatment strategy in dental clinics. It is a conservative method for treatment of esthetic and functional problems in anterior region of oral cavity. Wide range of dental ceramics is now available on market for fabrication of laminate veneers. Clinician should have enough knowledge regarding the composition and properties of these materials in order to be able to choose the appropriate one according to clinical situations.
Density dependence of the pairing interaction and pairing correlation in unstable nuclei
S. A. Changizi,Chong Qi
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.024305
Abstract: This work aims at a global assessment of the effect of the density dependence of the zero-range pairing interaction. Systematic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the volume, surface and mixed pairing forces are carried out to study the pairing gaps in even-even nuclei over the whole nuclear chart. Calculations are also done in coordinate representation for unstable semi-magic even-even nuclei. The calculated pairing gaps are compared with empirical values from four different odd-even staggering formulae. Calculations with the three pairing interactions are comparable for most nuclei close to $\beta$-stability line. However, the surface interaction calculations predict neutron pairing gaps in neutron-rich nuclei that are significantly stronger than those given by the mixed and volume pairing. On the other hand, calculations with volume and mixed pairing forces show noticeable reduction of neutron pairing gaps in nuclei far from the stability.
Surveying the Relationship between Psychological Disorders and Spending Time on Facebook  [PDF]
Nasrin Yeganeh Rad, Toozandehjani Hassan
Social Networking (SN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2017.62012
Abstract: Introduction: This research is a descriptive and correlational research which has been done with the purpose of surveying the relationship between mental disorders and the amount of time that people spend on Facebook. 147 members out of Facebook active users were chosen randomly. Then epidemiology questionnaire of mental disorders (SCL-90-R) was used to collect data. Data analysis was done using Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The results showed that there was a significant relation between characters such as aggression, obsession, psychosis, paranoia, depression and using Facebook (p < 0.05), but this relation was not significant in anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, physical complaints and phobia. Furthermore, this relationship was significant regarding to subjects’ gender and marital status (p < 0.05), but there was no relationship regarding to their age.
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