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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 785 matches for " Naomi Ogano "
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Efforts to Improve the Images from 67Ga Whole-Body Scintigraphy  [PDF]
Kyoko Saito, Yasuyuki Takahashi, Naomi Ogano, Hirotaka Shimada, Takao Kanzaki, Hiroki Okada, Kei Yokota, Kaori Hatano, Yuki Yoshida, Tetsuya Higuchi
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2015.51001
Abstract: The acquisition method for planar 67Ga imaging has hardly changed for 30 years. In this study, in order to improve image quality and diagnostic accuracy, we take steps to optimize the acquisition method, and to choose a scatter correction. First, we acquired individual images from the 93 keV, 185 keV, and 300 keV photopeak; then the images were added together and compared to the individual images. Second, we compared results from a low-medium-energy (LME) collimator with those from a conventional medium-energy (ME) collimator. Also, we examined whether to combine the data from all three of the usual window locations (set about 93 keV, 185 keV, and 300 keV) or to use the data from only two. Third, we compared results from a conventional photopeak ± 10 window with those from a photopeak ± 9 keV window. Fourth, for scatter correction we compared results using the triple energy window (TEW) method with those using the multi-photopeak dual window (MDW) method. The phantoms studied were cold rods in a uniform background, and hot spheres within a cylinder containing uniformly radioactive water. The clinical study involved 22 patients with lung lesions. By the comparison by the contrast ratio in cold rods phantom, 15.6% is improved in LME (2 peaks) than ME (3 peaks), and 3.2% is improved in photopeak ± 9 keV than photopeak ± 10%, 10.2% is improved in TEW than MDW. However, the TEW scatter correction method recognized unstable to the contrast ratio in a clinical study. In addition, a body outline might disappear.
Outside the Cage: Exploring Everyday Interactions between Government Workers and Residents in a Place-Based Health Initiative  [PDF]
Naomi Sunderland
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31008
Abstract: This paper presents an ethnographic case study of the daily lived experience of place by government health and community workers in a place-based chronic disease initiative (PBI) located in a disadvantaged peri-urban area in Australia. The case study focused on the place at which the PBI staff members interfaced with the community informally as opposed to the deliberate interactions described in the formal community engagement strategy. Subtle social phenomena, such as social positioning and the contrasting cultures of bureaucracy and community, generated outcomes that were the antithesis of those sought by the PBI. If these characteristics of place are not attended to during the development of PBIs, we risk recreating existing social divides and jeopardizing the potential of these initiatives to build community capacity. This case study provides an important conceptual-theoretical understanding of the place-based approach, which can augment existing empirical studies of place. The findings are also relevant for those who are exploring the physical co-location of diverse professional groups in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It also exposes the inherent complexity of place and the futility of poorly designed bureaucratic responses.


Psychological Preparation of Children for Surgery: Awareness Survey Targeting Medical Professionals  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47059
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to conduct a nation-wide survey to investigate the state of: 1) the prevalence of psychological preparation of children undergoing surgery; and 2) the awareness of psychological preparation of children by medical professionals (physicians and nurses). We also aimed to identify the issues that need to be addressed next. A total of 178 physicians and 291 nurses working in hospitals where children undergo surgeries participated in this study. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey. Physicians and nurses in Japan are aware of the need to provide age-appropriate psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures. In current practice, however, our study revealed that surgical orientations are given solely to parents in the absence of the child in approximately 30% of cases. While approximately 60% of respondents felt that the uses of “children’s picture books and booklets” are good methods for delivering explanations to children, only about 20% of respondents were implementing psychological preparation specific to each age group, and half of the respondents were providing verbal explanations alone. Meanwhile, 77% responded that it is “time-consuming” and 48% said, “on the contrary, it may heighten their anxiety”. Also 34.3% said that they “do not know how to explain to a child” and 54.8% of these medical professionals worked in mixed wards. We observed a gap between ideal requirements and current practices. We found that it is essential to: 1) organize training sessions for knowledge acquisition; 2) consciously strive to be informed of the actual post-surgery conditions and outcomes of the children; and 3) acquire physical and financial support.

QUALITY PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN THE ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY IN KENYA
N.O. Ogano,L. Pretorius
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Pressure from the Government of Kenya to have citizens connected to electricity as a means of improving their standard of living has resulted in a focus on the electricity utilities to expand the power distribution network. Contractors have therefore been approved to expedite the process. This has, however, resulted in sub-standard work being done by some of the contractors. The main objective of the research is to determine the critical factors that are instrumental in the delivery of quality construction projects for the electricity industry of Kenya. The results of the research reveal that there are areas in which the electricity utilities and the associated contractors perform poorly, indicating the need to improve the quality of completed projects. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Druk van die regering van Kenia om sy burgers se lewenstandaard te verhoog, het aanleiding gegee tot ’n behoefte aan die vermeerdering van elektriese aansluitings. Dit het verder daartoe aanleiding gegee dat elektrisiteitsverskaffers die elektrisiteitsverspreidingsnetwerk voortdurend moes vergroot. Om die proses te verhaas, is kontrakteurs aangestel om sekere werk te doen. Dit het egter daartoe gelei dat sekere subkontrakteurs substandaard werk lewer. Die hoofdoel van die navorsing is om kritiese faktore te identifiseer wat aflewering van kwaliteit konstruksieprojekte in die elektrisiteitsindustrie van Kenia be nvloed. Die resultate van die navorsing dui daarop dat daar areas is waar die elektrisiteitsverskaffers self asook die kontrakteurs nie na wense presteer nie. Die behoefte aan kwaliteits-verbetering in die voltooiing van projekte word ge llustreer.
Dietary γ-Aminobutyric Acid Shortens the Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Nakamichi Watanabe, Naomi Washio
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24043
Abstract: Dietary γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) has been suggested to decrease systolic blood pressure. This study aimed to ex-amine the effects of dietary GABA on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs). In this study, life span was determined for SHRSPs provided 1% NaCl solution or 0.01% GABA in 1% NaCl solution as drinking water. The life span of the GABA-fed group (76.3 ± 1.65 days) was significantly shorter than that of the control group (81.6 ± 0.88 days). The results of this study may not be applicable to humans. Future studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.
Empirical Analysis for High Quality Software Development  [PDF]
Naomi Honda, Shigeru Yamada
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.21004
Abstract: It remains important for a development organization to configure a software process that enables it to develop software products with the least possible number of defects after shipment. A development organization of CMMI level 5 has, over three years, been strived to improve those software projects that had been noted as having many defects after shipment. In this paper, we discuss our organization’s improvement (Kaizen) activities, to analyze the important matters of software process to be considered when developing a software product with the least possible number of defects after shipment. Our results are identified by three important points; 1) early ensured quality by defect detection during design or code review; 2) quality assurance for both process quality and product one; and 3) quantitative management by which data of the appropriate resolution can be collected at an appropriate timing.
Psychological preparation practices for children undergoing medical procedures in Japan and Germany  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori, Michael Isfort
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.32038
Abstract:

The present study aimed to clarify the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures in pediatric nursing in Japan as compared with that in Germany. An original questionnaire about the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children in hospitals was distributed by mail to nurses’ working on Japanese pediatric wards in 2010. The same questionnaire, translated into German, was distributed to nurses working on German pediatric wards via the internet in 2010. A large majority of respondents strongly agreed that children have a right to informed consent. German nurses expressed a longer-term viewpoint on the effects of preparation than Japanese nurses. Japanese nurses recognized a greater need for improvement in their duties than German nurses. The results suggest that we should consider our own country’s nursing practices and need for improvement, but also learn from studies of other countries to address each culture and medical situation appropriately.

The allure of the epigenome
Naomi Attar
Genome Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-10-419
Abstract: The present-day proliferation in epigenomics, in the exploration of the dynamic regulatory layers that insulate the genome's static DNA sequence, has been enabled by novel high-throughput techniques for interrogating the positioning of DNA (hydroxy)methylation, histone marks and open chromatin. The ready availability of genomic data, without which we could not map the location of these features, has provided the essential context needed to make biological sense of the high-throughput data, and so propel epigenomics to the forefront of mainstream biology.In this special issue, Genome Biology presents a collection of articles that describe a diverse range of novel insights into epigenomes, from human disease to ciliate reproduction to the containment of endogenous retroviruses. We also include a number of methods that will improve and simplify the study of epigenomics, in particular the computational steps that follow data generation. Finally, a selection of review and comment articles give an overview of current and future directions in epigenomics research.The availability of new high-throughput methods creates a demand for software tools to process and analyze the overwhelming flow of unintelligible raw data that will inevitably be produced. Genome Biology has a proud history of publishing the most popular examples of such tools, with high profile examples including Bowtie [1] (next-generation sequencing data), MACS [2] (ChIP-seq data) and DEseq [3] (RNA-seq data). The challenge of designing bioinformatics tools for the ever expanding number of DNA methylation genome-wide profiling methods has been taken up by many bioinformatics labs [4]. In the past few months, for example, Genome Biology has published SWAN [5], a method for reducing technical variation in data from the cutting-edge Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform, and Bis-SNP [6], a method for calling SNPs in bisulfite sequencing data, which also has the advantage of improving the accuracy of meth
Can ultrasonography make identification of asymptomatic hyperuricemic individuals at risk for developing gouty arthritis more crystal clear?
Naomi Schlesinger
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3290
Abstract: In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Pineda and colleagues present an interesting study evaluating the use of ultrasonography (US) to help identify hyperuricemic individuals at risk for gouty arthritis [1]. Hyperuricemia is the most important risk factor for gouty arthritis. The number of adults with hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis is increasing.The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007 to 2008 showed a hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥7 mg/dl) prevalence of 21.1% in men and 4.7% in women [2]. Most individuals with hyperuricemia, however, do not develop gouty arthritis [3]. The reported gouty arthritis prevalence in the 2007 to 2008 NHANES data was 5.9% in men and 2% in women, with an overall prevalence of 3.9% (8.3 million adults) [4]. The risk of developing gouty arthritis is dependent on the severity of hyperuricemia. In the Normative Aging Study, healthy patients with serum urate levels ≥9 mg/dl upon entry into the study had a cumulative incidence of acute flares that reached 22% after 5 years, whereas those with serum urate levels ≤7 mg/dl had an annual incidence of only 0.5% [5]. In yet another study, the 5-year prevalence of gouty arthritis was 30% in individuals with serum urate levels >10 g/dl [6]. These numbers correlate with the recently reported NHANES data.The quandary is how to predict which patient with asymptomatic hyperuricemia will develop gouty arthritis, and thus who will benefit from-long term anti-inflammatory and urate-lowering therapy. Serum urate levels and gouty arthritis prevalence are related to genetic variations in the SLC2A9, ABCG2 and SLC17A3 genes. Dehghan and colleagues developed a risk score based on variations of these three genetic loci. They suggested that their genetic risk score is associated with up to a 40-fold increased risk of developing gouty arthritis, suggesting that knowledge of the genotype may help identify hyperuricemic individuals at risk for developing gouty arthri
How hemp got high
Naomi Attar
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-409
Abstract: While Genome Biology captured the millennial zeitgeist of genomics brought about by the project(s) to sequence the human genome, the breathtaking progress of this field in the intervening decade has brought us to a new frontier: the transcriptome.The development of RNA-seq, which applies high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology to cDNA generated from RNA samples, has resulted in an explosion of transcriptome sequences. Not only does RNA-seq benefit from higher sensitivity than microarrays, it also does not require the a priori knowledge needed for constructing chips; this flexibility has infused the transcriptome explosion with a biologically diverse character and encompassed many species not well covered by commercially available microarrays.Species such as Cannabis sativa, a plant with a 'split personality', whose Dr Jekyll, hemp, is an innocent source of textiles, but whose Mr Hyde, marijuana, is chiefly used to alter the mind. Until now, Cannabis sativa was not one of the many species whose genome had been published during Genome Biology's lifetime. In common with many plants, genome assembly of cannabis DNA sequence is technically challenging, and so the publication of a 534 Mbp [1] draft genome in this month's issue is in itself a landmark achievement.However, a comparison of the draft genome, which is that of the Purple Kush marijuana strain, with genes in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway in hemp strains did not point to any variants likely to result in a functional difference in the production of THCA - the chemical underlying marijuana's psychoactivity. But, as with Genome Biology's recent article on the kangaroo [2], a fruitful decision was made to analyze cannabis's transcriptome while completing its genome project.Gene expression levels observed in the plant's flower made the likely reason for phenotypic differences between hemp and marijuana strikingly apparent. While transcripts for the THCA synthase enzyme were abundant in marijuana,
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