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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 809 matches for " Naomi Nartey "
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First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, William K. Ampofo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Naomi Nartey, Gloria I. Mensah, Samuel O. Addo, Kofi Bonney, Justice Kumi, Adukwei Hesse, Nii A. Addo, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62013
Abstract: Background: To better understand the extent of the magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in Ghana, a baseline study was conducted to establish the national prevalence of the dual infection. The study aimed to determine the most prevalent HIV serotype (HIV-1 or HIV-2) in TB patients (new and old cases); genotype mycobacterial species causing TB/HIV co-infection and determine their drug susceptibility patterns. Methods: Sputum and dried blood samples were collected from 503 TB patients from 67 health facilities nationwide between December 2007 and November 2008. All samples were processed for mycobacterial and HIV testing using conventional and molecular methods. Results: A total of 517 paired sputum samples were received from 517 patients. A total 503 patients [335 (66.6%) males; 168 (33.4%) females] had at least one culture positive sample. Majority (93.0%) of the patients were new cases while 7.0% were old cases. All 503 TB isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Of 503 blood samples, 74 were positive for HIV (14.7%), comprising 71 (14.1%) and 3 (0.6%) for HIV-1 and HIV-1 & 2 respectively; none was positive for HIV-2 alone. The seroprevalence of HIV in newly diagnosed TB patients and those already on treatment, was 69/468 (14.7%) and 5/35 (14.3%) respectively (p > 0.05). Differentiation of isolates from TB/HIV co-infected patients showed that 70/74 (94.6%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4/74 (5.4%) were Mycobacterium africanum. Monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 4/74 (5.4%) and 1/74 (1.4%) respectively; resistance to both drugs (multi-drug resistant-MDR) was not observed. Sixty nine (93.2%) isolates were susceptible to both drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients was 14.7%. TB/HIV was common among the sexually active age group (25 - 34 years). Majority of the TB isolates were M. tuberculosis which were susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV-1 was the common serotype infecting TB patients in Ghana.
Outside the Cage: Exploring Everyday Interactions between Government Workers and Residents in a Place-Based Health Initiative  [PDF]
Naomi Sunderland
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31008
Abstract: This paper presents an ethnographic case study of the daily lived experience of place by government health and community workers in a place-based chronic disease initiative (PBI) located in a disadvantaged peri-urban area in Australia. The case study focused on the place at which the PBI staff members interfaced with the community informally as opposed to the deliberate interactions described in the formal community engagement strategy. Subtle social phenomena, such as social positioning and the contrasting cultures of bureaucracy and community, generated outcomes that were the antithesis of those sought by the PBI. If these characteristics of place are not attended to during the development of PBIs, we risk recreating existing social divides and jeopardizing the potential of these initiatives to build community capacity. This case study provides an important conceptual-theoretical understanding of the place-based approach, which can augment existing empirical studies of place. The findings are also relevant for those who are exploring the physical co-location of diverse professional groups in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It also exposes the inherent complexity of place and the futility of poorly designed bureaucratic responses.


Psychological Preparation of Children for Surgery: Awareness Survey Targeting Medical Professionals  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47059
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to conduct a nation-wide survey to investigate the state of: 1) the prevalence of psychological preparation of children undergoing surgery; and 2) the awareness of psychological preparation of children by medical professionals (physicians and nurses). We also aimed to identify the issues that need to be addressed next. A total of 178 physicians and 291 nurses working in hospitals where children undergo surgeries participated in this study. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey. Physicians and nurses in Japan are aware of the need to provide age-appropriate psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures. In current practice, however, our study revealed that surgical orientations are given solely to parents in the absence of the child in approximately 30% of cases. While approximately 60% of respondents felt that the uses of “children’s picture books and booklets” are good methods for delivering explanations to children, only about 20% of respondents were implementing psychological preparation specific to each age group, and half of the respondents were providing verbal explanations alone. Meanwhile, 77% responded that it is “time-consuming” and 48% said, “on the contrary, it may heighten their anxiety”. Also 34.3% said that they “do not know how to explain to a child” and 54.8% of these medical professionals worked in mixed wards. We observed a gap between ideal requirements and current practices. We found that it is essential to: 1) organize training sessions for knowledge acquisition; 2) consciously strive to be informed of the actual post-surgery conditions and outcomes of the children; and 3) acquire physical and financial support.

Effects of Quarry Activities on some Selected Communities in the Lower Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Vincent Kodzo Nartey, Joseph Nii Nanor, Raphael Kweku Klake
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.23032
Abstract: Extraction of Limestone is an economically important and widespread activity in Ghana and has existed since historical times. However, in spite of its remarkable contribution towards economic development, some adverse impacts have been noticed, especially where extraction is carried out without proper planning and use of modern technology and scientific methods. We have carried out an assessment on the environmental effects of limestone quarrying on some communities in the Lower Manya Krobo District in the Eastern region of Ghana. Dust emission is one of the major effects of the practice of limestone extraction and as such, dust (PM10) sampling was conducted at the affected communities. Mean dry season results recorded in these communities stand at 125.0 μg/m3 or Bueryonye, 116.0 μg/m3 at Odugblase and 109.3 μg/m3 at Klo-Begoro. Oterkpolu community which served as the control recorded an average of 50.5 μg/m3. Average rainy season values recorded for the communities were 83.3 μg/m3 for Bueryonye, 113.1 μg/m3 at Odugblase and 74.4 μg/m3 at Klo-Begoro. The control community, Oterkpolu, had 43.3 μg/m3. These values are above the EPA, Ghana daily guideline level of 70 μg/m3 over a time-weighted average per 24 hours. Questionnaires administration and health records obtained from the health facilities in the communities revealed notable deteriorations in the health of the people as a result of the quarrying activities in the area. Notable among these is the prevalence of malaria though not related to dust emissions, it results from mosquitoes breeding in the stagnant pools of water found in pits created as a result of the mining activity. Other common health cases recorded were acute respiratory tract infection, ear and eye infections, cough and pneumonia.
Assessment of the Impact of Solid Waste Dumpsites on Some Surface Water Systems in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana  [PDF]
Vincent Kodzo Nartey, Ebenezer Kofi Hayford, Smile Kwami Ametsi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.48070
Abstract: Water samples from four water bodies that flow through some solid waste dump sites in the Accra metropolitan area of Ghana were analysed over a period of six months for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn contents; coliform bacteria and helminth eggs. Other water quality parameters such as BOD, DO, suspended solids and turbidity were also assessed. Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Faecal coliforms, total coliforms and helminth eggs were determined by the membrane filtration (MF) method. The water samples contain various levels of Cd, Pb and Mn; Zn and Cu levels were low and found to be below the detection levels of the instrument in most cases. Helminth egg counts in water samples were high; an indication that the water bodies were polluted with pathogens. It has been observed that the major sources of pollutants into the water bodies were organic waste as well as coliform bacteria derived from these waste dumps. The elevated levels of bacteria make the water bodies unsafe for both primary and secondary contacts.
Dietary γ-Aminobutyric Acid Shortens the Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Nakamichi Watanabe, Naomi Washio
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24043
Abstract: Dietary γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) has been suggested to decrease systolic blood pressure. This study aimed to ex-amine the effects of dietary GABA on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs). In this study, life span was determined for SHRSPs provided 1% NaCl solution or 0.01% GABA in 1% NaCl solution as drinking water. The life span of the GABA-fed group (76.3 ± 1.65 days) was significantly shorter than that of the control group (81.6 ± 0.88 days). The results of this study may not be applicable to humans. Future studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.
Empirical Analysis for High Quality Software Development  [PDF]
Naomi Honda, Shigeru Yamada
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.21004
Abstract: It remains important for a development organization to configure a software process that enables it to develop software products with the least possible number of defects after shipment. A development organization of CMMI level 5 has, over three years, been strived to improve those software projects that had been noted as having many defects after shipment. In this paper, we discuss our organization’s improvement (Kaizen) activities, to analyze the important matters of software process to be considered when developing a software product with the least possible number of defects after shipment. Our results are identified by three important points; 1) early ensured quality by defect detection during design or code review; 2) quality assurance for both process quality and product one; and 3) quantitative management by which data of the appropriate resolution can be collected at an appropriate timing.
Psychological preparation practices for children undergoing medical procedures in Japan and Germany  [PDF]
Naomi Matsumori, Michael Isfort
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.32038
Abstract:

The present study aimed to clarify the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children undergoing medical procedures in pediatric nursing in Japan as compared with that in Germany. An original questionnaire about the current status and awareness of psychological preparation for children in hospitals was distributed by mail to nurses’ working on Japanese pediatric wards in 2010. The same questionnaire, translated into German, was distributed to nurses working on German pediatric wards via the internet in 2010. A large majority of respondents strongly agreed that children have a right to informed consent. German nurses expressed a longer-term viewpoint on the effects of preparation than Japanese nurses. Japanese nurses recognized a greater need for improvement in their duties than German nurses. The results suggest that we should consider our own country’s nursing practices and need for improvement, but also learn from studies of other countries to address each culture and medical situation appropriately.

Assessment of Mercury Pollution in Rivers and Streams around Artisanal Gold Mining Areas of the Birim North District of Ghana  [PDF]
Vincent K. Nartey, Raphael K. Klake, Ebenezer K. Hayford, Louis K. Doamekpor, Richard K. Appoh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29141
Abstract: Artisanal gold mining in local communities is on the increase. This has led to concerns about mercury pollution resulting from these mining activities. This study was conducted to assess the level of mercury pollution in rivers and streams around artisanal gold mining areas of the Birim North District of Ghana. Rivers, streams, sediments and boreholes were sampled to determine total mercury levels during the wet and dry seasons and to explore the potential impact of the mercury levels on water quality in the area. The results show that the total mercury concentrations measured upstream were significantly lower than concentrations in samples taken downstream. Also, the total mercury concentrations measured in the stream water samples in both seasons exceeded the WHO guideline limit (1.0 µg/L) for drinking water. However, one downstream total mercury concentration exceeded the guideline limit in the dry season. The total mercury concentrations in sediments upstream and downstream in both seasons exceeded the US-EPA guideline value of 0.2 mg/kg. The boreholes in the study area have total mercury concentrations exceeding the WHO guideline limit during both seasons. Total mercury concentrations in the boreholes in the wet season were lower than the dry season.
Synthesis and Conformational Studies of Some Metacyclophane Compounds  [PDF]
Louis Korbla Doamekpor, Vincent Kodzo Nartey, Raphael Kwaku Klake, Takehiko Yamato
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.22023
Abstract: Various [3.3.3]metacyclophane derivatives were synthesized from 6,15,24-tri-tert-butyl-9,18,27-trimethoxy [3.3.3] metacyclophane-2,11,20-trione 1 using simple chemical reactions. The conformations of the synthesized compounds were studied using mainly solution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopic methods. Two of the synthesized compounds 5, 6, were found to have a partial cone conformation with the third, 4, having the cone conformation. Detailed variable temperature Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance studies further confirmed the partialcone conformation for the two products, 5, 6. During the variable temperature nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies, 6,15,24-tri-tert-butyl-9,18,27-trimethoxy[3.3.3]metacyclophane-2,11,20-triol was found to have a coalescence temperature of about 0?C.
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