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A Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Carrier Coinfected with Mycobacterium intracellulare and Pneumocystis jirovecii with a Characteristic Compositional Change of Bone Marrow Cells  [PDF]
Sayaka Uda, Shinsuke Shiotsu, Ayaka Omura, Ryosuke Hamashima, Akihiro Yoshimura, Naoko Kurisu, Tomoya Sagawa, Koichi Hasegawa, Tatsuya Yuba, Chieko Takumi, Seiko Ono, Noriya Hiraoka, Noriya Hiraoka
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.73011
Abstract: Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in the southern part of Japan. Infection of the virus can cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), while most infected individuals remain in a carrier state for a long period of time. Although rare cases of carriers, like ATL patients, who developed opportunistic infections, have been reported, hematological changes of carriers who are prone to opportunistic infections have not been well defined. Here, we present a case of an HTLV-1 carrier who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) simultaneously. Flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow cells revealed an aberrant compositional change similar to that in ATL patients. This suggests the presence of a pre-ATL state prior to the development of ATL, which is notable in terms of underlying cellular immunodeficiency.
Influential Factors on Pro-Environmental Behaviors—A Case Study in Tokyo and Seoul  [PDF]
Hyunsook Lee, Kiyo Kurisu, Keisuke Hanaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.43011

To develop the low-carbon society, in addition to the efforts by industrial and commercial sectors, promotion of people’s pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) has become one of the key issues. Some PEBs have been investigated in previous studies, however, the targets were limited to particular behaviors (i.e., recycling, water saving, electricity saving). The holistic view of understanding the characteristics of PEBs has remained insufficient. In this study, we selected 58 daily PEBs from various fields and investigated people’s practice rates and attitudes in Seoul and Tokyo. The questionnaire surveys were conducted and 2393 (Seoul) and 2220 (Tokyo) valid responses were analyzed. Most PEBs had significantly different practice rates between Seoul and Tokyo. It can be concluded that the surrounding conditions, such as policy and infrastructure, have some influences on these differences. The positions of the reasons to practice or not to practice PEBs were visualized using multiple correspondence analyses. The results indicated that the monetary reason was the common factor for many PEBs, while some PEBs showed different reasons. The socio-demographic effects were not significantly

Application of LCA by Using Midpoint and Endpoint Interpretations for Urban Solid Waste Management  [PDF]
Sora Yi, Kiyo H. Kurisu, Keisuke Hanaki
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512107
Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely used methods of decision support. However, few studies have examined whether stakeholders prefer midpoint or endpoint approaches. In this regard, the present study examines the attitudes toward urban solid waste management, environmental issues, and scenario evaluations by using midpoint and endpoint interpretations of LCA results. This study introduces three types of social groups that typically respond to environmental conflicts: the individualist, hierarchist, and egalitarian groups. Although residents are likely to recognize global impacts as the most important issue, their view is likely to change depending on system and avoided emissions. Consistent with the Seoul Metropolitan Area’s new policy designed to increase the incineration ratio, almost half of all respondents preferred the scenario. Noteworthy is that the respondents’ preference for midpoint and endpoint decision-making tools is not consistent with that in previous studies. Most of the respondents indicated that the midpoint approach would be better in evaluating environmental systems.
The Effect of Information Provision on Pro-Environmental Behaviors  [PDF]
Hyunsook Lee, Kiyo Kurisu, Keisuke Hanaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2015.62005
Abstract: To reduce the environmental load of the household sector, it is important to enhance people’s pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs). Information provision has been considered as one of the possible methods for fostering PEBs. However, previous studies have seldom discussed what type of information is most appropriate for the target behavior. Effective media through which to provide such information should be also discussed. In order to identify the most effective such information, as well as the effectiveness of free papers as media through which to disseminate it, environmental information regarding two behaviors—“My Cup” and “Carbon Cashbag”—was provided through online questionnaires and free papers. Even though the same information was provided in both sources, it was found that the effectiveness of the content depended on the target behavior and region. As lack of information was one of the barriers to “Carbon Cashbag” behavior, it was found that the provision of very basic information improved the intention and practice of the behavior. Higher scores for intention and practice were observed when information was provided through free papers, which could therefore be considered as effective media through which to deliver information about PEBs.
Effects of Emotional Valence (Positive or Negative Visual Images) and Arousal Levels (High or Low Arousal Levels) on the Useful Field of View  [PDF]
Naoko Masuda
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.64045
Abstract: One of two emotional valence (positive or negative) images and two arousal (high or low) images was presented for 500 ms to participants. After the image vanished from the screen, a letter was presented in the central visual field, while a number was also presented in one of the peripheral visual fields (upper right, upper left, bottom right, and bottom left). There were four conditions of degree of eccentricity of the presented number. The participants identified both the letter and number simultaneously. By calculating the correct performance rate of the peripheral identification task, the range of the useful field of view (UFOV) was speculated. Results showed that performance rates of the central and peripheral tasks were worse for the high arousal, negative emotion stimuli compared with the other three conditions. Moreover, performance rates of the peripheral task were better for the positive emotion conditions than those for the negative emotion conditions when the stimulus eccentricities were 3 or 12 degrees. We concluded that the range of the UFOV could be affected by the interaction between the emotional valence and arousal level of visual stimuli. This study was the first report that emotional valence and arousal level interacted each other and did affect our human visual cognition.
The WASP and WAVE family proteins
Shusaku Kurisu, Tadaomi Takenawa
Genome Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-6-226
Abstract: The human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) gene was the first of the WASP and WAVE family genes to be isolated, in 1994, as a mutated gene associated with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked recessive disease characterized by immunodeficiency, thrombocytopenia and eczema, clinical features caused by complex defects in lymphocyte and platelet function [1]. Another WASP family member, neural (N-) WASP, was then identified from a proteomic search for mammalian proteins that interact with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2, also known as Ash) [2]. Although expressed ubiquitously, N-WASP is most abundant in the brain - hence its name. The first WAVE protein was identified in humans by our group and another group independently as a WASP-like molecule and was named WAVE and SCAR1, respectively [3,4]. Currently, it is agreed that mammals possess five genes for the WASP and WAVE family, WASP, N-WASP, WAVE1/SCAR1, WAVE2, and WAVE3 [5-9]. Human WASP and WAVE family genes are located on different chromosomes, with each gene showing a unique expression pattern (Figure 1). The human WASP gene is carried on the X chromosome and is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells, which explains the inheritance pattern and the immunodeficiency and platelet deficiency characteristic of WAS. WAVE1 and WAVE3 are strongly enriched in the brain and are moderately expressed in some hematopoietic lineages, whereas WAVE2 appears to be ubiquitous.Human WASP and WAVE proteins are between 498 and 559 amino acids long and are encoded by 9 to 12 exons. The length of the genes is relatively similar, ranging from 67.1 kb for N-WASP to 131.2 kb for WAVE3, with the exception of WASP, which is a compact 7.6 kb. The restricted expression of WASP in hematopoietic cells is dependent on a 137-bp region upstream of the transcription start site [10]. It is unclear how brain-specific expression of WAVE1 and WAVE3 is regulated, but the proximal promo
Evaluation of Rice Husk Use Scenarios Incorporating Stakeholders’ Preferences Revealed through the Analytic Hierarchy Process in An Giang Province, Vietnam  [PDF]
Pham Thi Mai Thao, Kiyo H. Kurisu, Keisuke Hanaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.53010

To process biomass energy successfully, it is necessary to incorporate a number of criteria that can be assessed either quantitatively or qualitatively for various biomass scenarios. It is also important to take into account the local people’s preferences and interests in the decision-making process. In this study, preferences of various stakeholders on rice husk use, such as urban households, rural households, rice mill owners, brick kiln owners, government officials, and scientists, were investigated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The results were incorporated with objective evaluation that was derived from Life Cycle Assessment. A holistic evaluation of rice-husk use scenarios was conducted. The results showed that rural households, rice mill owners, and brick kiln owners still want to use rice husk in conventional ways, while urban households, government officials, and scientists prefer to use rice husk with new technologies. The results reveal the aspects that each stakeholder thinks important and the conflicts between stakeholders. These can help government officials grasp the preferences of the local people which is important information for decision-making.

Spillover Effect on Families Derived from Environmental Education for Children  [PDF]
Ai Hiramatsu, Kiyo Kurisu, Hiroshi Nakamura, Shuichi Teraki, Keisuke Hanaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.52005

Facing the challenge of global warming, greater importance has been placed on learning energy and environment in schools and the energy-saving behaviors of children and their families are encouraged. The authors implemented energy environmental education programs with visualization in elementary and junior high schools, and surveyed changes in the awareness and behavior of children and their families. As for children, the results showed that the programs increased the awareness of effectiveness, while almost no change was observed in other factors. The psychological factors impacting intention and behavior in children were attitude, expectations from parents and expansion of interest. Indicating spillover effect on families derived from education of children, psychological factors and behavior of parents were improved. Awareness of effectiveness and behavior of children had significant effects to the most psychological factors of parents, leading to intentional and behavioral change. Furthermore, behavior of parents got influenced by expectations from children. It was also indicated that the higher the awareness of the child is, the greater the spillover effect on the family as a result of education is.

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
Qualitative Study of Wives of Husbands with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Subjective Experience of Wives from Marriage to Marital Crisis  [PDF]
Naoko Deguchi, Takashi Asakura
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.91002
Abstract: Despite increasing recognition of the involvement of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in intimate relationships, little is known about the dynamics of marriages where one partner has ASD. This study aimed to clarify the subjective experiences of wives of husbands with ASD from marriage to marital crisis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women married to men with ASD in Japan, in 2016-17. The analysis conducted in this study was based on a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Our investigation revealed how the wives of ASD husbands respond to a crisis after their marriage. The findings describe a process beginning with wives perceiving their husbands as attractive before marriage and then progressing to feeling discomfort with their husbands and struggling with loneliness after marriage. Experiences with social exclusion/inclusion affected this progression. The wives’ repeated discomfort with their husbands and struggles with loneliness eventually led to a major crisis. Finally, the work discusses how these findings may contribute to improving the lives of women with partners with ASD and advances the family stress model.
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