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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2981 matches for " Nancy Porterfield "
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Trauma is danger
Paul F Hwang, Nancy Porterfield, Dylan Pannell, Thomas A Davis, Eric A Elster
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-92
Abstract: A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma.Our knowledge of Danger signals in relation to traumatic injury is still limited. Danger/alarmin signals are the most proximal molecules in the immune response that have many possibilities for effector function in the innate and acquired immune systems. Having a full understanding of these molecules and their pathways would give us the ability to intervene at such an early stage and may prove to be more effective in blunting the post-injury inflammatory response unlike previously failed cytokine experiments.The immune system has two effector arms, innate and adaptive, which mediate the response to pathogens and injury. The innate system is a non-specific response while the adaptive system is pathogen and antigen specific. This system has evolved to respond appropriately to pathogen or injury, but may be maladaptive in the setting of overwhelming injury as seen in complex traumatic war wounds or multisystem civilian trauma. In the setting of severe traumatic injury, the immune system is overwhelmed by the massive release of endogenous signals from injured tissue. Once systemically activated, the immune system reacts against the host, potentiating tissue damage and leading to organ failure [1]. In this situation, the immunologic response to injury, not the actual injury itself, leads to undue morbidity, and in some cases mortality.While immune mediated responses have classically been thought to center on self and non-self interactions and thereby neglect most traumatic injuries, the Danger model abandons this classical concept [2]. The Danger model theorizes that the immune system's primary driving force is the need to detect and protect against danger and does not discriminate between self and non-self [2]. This concept states that the mechanism by which a cell dies governs whether the immune response is initiated. Therefore, tissue damage or an
The Determinants of Turkish Outward Foreign Direct Investment  [PDF]
?brahim An?l, Ismail Armutlulu, Cem Canel, Rebecca Porterfield
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25080
Abstract: The general theory of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been built on the experience of developed countries’ investors. Therefore, there is an extensive amount of literature about firm behaviors in developed countries. Some researchers have started investigating why, how and when developing countries’ firms engage in outward FDI. All of these studies have shown that the FDI determinants of firms in newly industrialized economies (NIEs) are different from the FDI determinants of firms in developed economies. This study investigates the entry mode and location choice determinants of Turkish firms’ outward direct investments, which are operating in Central Asia, Russia and Balkan Countries, over the period of 1989 to 2005. We find that these investments are associated with high levels of economic and political risks, cultural proximity and lack of ownership advantages. The main purpose of this study is to provide new evidence for these NIE’s outward determinants.
Investors Perception Regarding Depository Services
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Depository is an organization which holds securities of investors in electronic form. The objectives ofdepository system are to reduce the time for transfer of securities, to avoid the risk of settlement of securities, toenhance liquidity and efficiency, to reduce cost of transaction for the investor, to create a system for the centralhandling of all securities, to promote the county's competitiveness by complying with global standards, to provideservice infrastructure in a capital market.In this article, Investigator gave brief overview about depository participants, eligibility criteria for DPsand the legal framework of Depository system in India. In research, investigator has used a structured questionnairefor eliciting the required responses relating to Depository Services from the general public. For the purpose ofsecondary data books, articles, reports, annual reports of the stock exchanges, news papers and internet has beenused.
Predictors of Retention and Passing the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses  [PDF]
Nancy Elkins
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53026
Abstract: Using Seidman’s retention formula as a theoretical foundation, this study investigated historical data from a Bachelor of Science (BSN) nursing program to determine whether the admission variables of the preprogram grade point averages (GPA), American College Testing (ACT) scores, anatomy and physiology course grades, and/or the Health Education System Inc. (HESI) Exit Exam scores could predict completing the nursing program, as well as passing the NCLEX-RN. A significant relationship (p < 0.01) was identified between the preprogram GPA, ACT scores, anatomy grades, and the HESI Exit Exam scores with the completion of the BSN program and passing the NCLEX-RN.
Identification of novel light-induced genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Veronica M Porterfield, Helen Piontkivska, Eric M Mintz
BMC Neuroscience , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-8-98
Abstract: The results of the microarray screen successfully identified previously known light-induced genes as well as several novel genes that may be important in the circadian clock. Newly identified light-induced genes include early growth response 2, proviral integration site 3, growth-arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta, and TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Comparative analysis of promoter sequences revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved CRE and associated TATA box elements in most of the light-induced genes, while other core clock genes generally lack this combination of promoter elements.The photic signalling cascade in the suprachiasmatic nucleus activates an array of immediate-early genes, most of which have unknown functions in the circadian clock. Detected evolutionary conservation of CRE and TATA box elements in promoters of light-induced genes suggest that the functional role of these elements has likely remained the same over evolutionary time across mammalian orders.Circadian rhythms in mammals are driven by a clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN) [1]. The SCN is directly innervated by the retinas and photic information is transmitted to the SCN via a NMDA and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-dependent mechanism [2]. Photic input to the circadian clock has differential effects on circadian rhythms depending on the timing of exposure to light. Light presented in the early night delays the phase of the clock, light during the late night advances the clock, and light presented during the subjective day has little or no effect on clock phase [3]. Photic signals during the subjective night activate a MAP kinase signaling pathway leading to increased transcription of several immediate-early genes [4] and the core clock gene Per1 [2].The roles of light-induced genes in the circadian clock mechanism, other than the period genes, are not well understood. For example, the best characterized of these
Pharmacogenomics: The Significance of Genetics in the Metabolism of Natural Medicines  [PDF]
Nancy W. Hanna
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.34046
Abstract: Natural products have been implemented in medicine through use as herbal medications, chemical compound extraction for prescription medication, or a natural source of food to fight various infections and diseases. Genetics has played a role in identifying various interactions between existing drugs and side effects. In addition, various food allergies have been identified with children in recent years, suggesting genetic associations between certain populations carrying specific genetic alleles. The recent availability of genomic data and our increased understanding of the effects of genetic variations permit a quantitative examination of the contribution of genetic variation to efficacy or toxicity of compounds derived from natural sources. The identification of target molecules relevant for diseases allows screening for natural products capable of inhibiting targets which can lead to the development of rational treatment of various diseases including neurobiological disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. This allows for more opportunities to predict the response of individual patients. Identification of genetic variations that arose as a consequence of naturally occurring compounds will help identify gene alleles, or protein ligands that can affect the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics of the natural products in question. In addition, diet modification and precautions to food products can be identified to help consumers limit or increase certain food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions and their modification by genetic variation is expected to result in the development of new drugs that optimize individual health. We expect that strategies for individualized therapies will lead to improved results for patients.
Building Trust: Children Experiences with Food Allergies at Summer Camp  [PDF]
Sydney Leibel, Nancy Fenton
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814143
Abstract: Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of children with food allergies at summer camp. Methods: Qualitative draw-and-tell interviews were conducted with 14 food allergic individuals aged 5 - 12 years to capture their lived experience with food allergies at summer camp. Results: Four key interdependent themes: trust, accommodation, proactive parents and coping strategies were identified in how children perceive their food allergies in unregulated summer camp environments.
Development and Preliminary Validation of the Older Adult Service Usage Assessment  [PDF]
Nancy J. Karlin
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2017.64007
This study provides information on the development and factor scaling, validity, and reliability of a newly developed community service utilization measure (Older Adult Service Usage Assessment-OASUA). Analyzes indicate the OASUA can be used to assess current perceived community service use and satisfaction, as well as providing an indication for future service use and potential service needs with older persons. Additional data collection sites should be identified and a broader sample obtained so as to confirm the psychometric properties of the instrument in conjunction with further development of the OASUA.
Large naturally-produced electric currents and voltage traverse damaged mammalian spinal cord
Mahvash Zuberi, Peishan Liu-Snyder, Aeraj ul Haque, David M Porterfield, Richard B Borgens
Journal of Biological Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1754-1611-2-17
Abstract: An enormous (≤ mA/cm2) bioelectric current transverses the site of injury to the mammalian spinal cord. This endogenous current declines with time and with distance from the local site of injury but eventually maintains a much lower but stable value (< 50 μA/cm2).The calcium component of this net current, about 2.0 pmoles/cm2/sec entering the site of damage for a minimum of an hour, is significant. Curiously, injury currents entering the ventral portion of the spinal cord may be as high as 10 fold greater than those entering the dorsal surface, and there is little difference in the magnitude of currents associated with crush injuries compared to cord transection. Physiological measurements were performed with non-invasive sensors: one and two-dimensional extracellular vibrating electrodes in real time. The calcium measurement was performed with a self-referencing calcium selective electrode.The enormous bioelectric current, carried in part by free calcium, is the major initiator of secondary injury processes and causes significant damage after breach of the membranes of vulnerable cells adjacent to the injury site. The large intra-cellular voltages, polarized along the length of axons in particular, are believed to be associated with zones of organelle death, distortion, and asymmetry observed in acutely injured nerve fibers. These data enlarge our understanding of secondary mechanisms and provide new ways to consider interfering with this catabolic and progressive loss of tissue.It is the early events following severe injury to the brain and spinal cord that have received significant attention. In part this is to better understand the progression of tissue damage and to develop means to interfere with it. Many factors have been considered to play a role in the collapse of the spinal cord and brain architecture within hours to days post-injury. This period of time, variable in extent, is usually referred to as "secondary injury" [1], the primary injury being the acu
The Swift/UVOT Stars Survey. II. RR Lyrae Stars in M 3 and M 15
Michael H. Siegel,Blair L. Porterfield,Benjamin G. Balzer,Lea M. Z. Hagen
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/150/4/129
Abstract: We present the first results of an near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT's unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M 3 and M 15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprising 275 RR Lyrae, two anomalous Cepheids, one classical Cepheid, one SX Phoenicis star and one possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period-metallicity-luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.
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