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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210886 matches for " Nancy L. Haigwood "
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HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Resistance to Monoclonal Antibody 2G12 Is Subject-Specific and Context-Dependent in Macaques and Humans
Delphine C. Malherbe, Rogier W. Sanders, Marit J. van Gils, Byung Park, Michelle M. Gomes, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Susan Barnett, Nancy L. Haigwood
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075277
Abstract: HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS). Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIVSF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.
Co-Immunization with Multimeric Scaffolds and DNA Rapidly Induces Potent Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies and CD8+ T Cells
Juan Pablo Jaworski, Shelly J. Krebs, Maria Trovato, Dina N. Kovarik, Zachary Brower, William F. Sutton, Garrett Waagmeester, Rossella Sartorius, Luciana D'Apice, Antonella Caivano, Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Delphine Malherbe, David C. Montefiori, Susan Barnett, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis, Nancy L. Haigwood
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031464
Abstract: To obtain proof of concept for HIV vaccines, we generated recombinant multimeric particles displaying the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) third hypervariable region (V3) as an N-terminal fusion protein on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 scaffold self-assembles into a 60-mer core that is 24 nm in diameter, with a molecular weight of 1.5 MDa, similar to a virus like particle with up to 60 copies of a heterologous protein accessible on the surface. Env(V3)-E2 multimers were tested alone and in combination with Env(gp160) DNA in mice and rabbits. Following two or more co-immunizations with Env(V3)-E2 and Env gp160 DNA, all 18 rabbits developed potent autologous neutralizing antibodies specific for V3 in six weeks. These neutralizing antibodies were sustained for 16 weeks without boosting, and comparable responses were obtained when lipopolysaccharide, a contaminant from expression in E. coli, was removed. Co-immunizations of Env(V3)-E2 and DNA expressing gp160 elicited moderate CD8-specific responses and Env-specific antibodies in mice. Co-immunization with DNA and E2 was superior to individual or sequential vaccination with these components in eliciting both neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and CD8+ T cell responses in mice. Co-immunization with DNA and multimeric E2 scaffolds appears to offer a highly effective means of eliciting rapid, specific, and sustained immune responses that may be a useful approach for other vaccine targets.
Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation
Nancy L. Morse
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4070799
Abstract: Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.
Infertility in Men with Spinal Cord Injury: Research and Treatment
Nancy L. Brackett
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/578257
Abstract:
Concept mapping for learners of all ages
Nancy L. Gallenstein
Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers , 2013,
Abstract: Concept mapping is an inquiry technique that provides students at all ages with opportunities to demonstrate learning through performance. A concept map refers to a graphic/visual representation of concepts with linking connections that show various relationships between concepts (Novak & Gowin, 1984). Assessment is an ongoing process integrated with instruction across subject areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) emphasizes that assessment should focus on both the enhancement of student learning as well as serve as a valuable tool for making instructional decisions (NCTM, 2000). Assessment activities can take on a variety of forms, one being performance tasks. In this manuscript, an explanation of concept mapping is provided for learners ages 3 – 12 along with several examples of concept maps for young learners, including examples from an assessment project in the subject area of mathematics. Also presented are the numerous benefits of the concept mapping technique for both students and teachers.
Infertility in Men with Spinal Cord Injury: Research and Treatment
Nancy L. Brackett
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/578257
Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. 1. Introduction Spinal cord injury occurs most often to young men at the peak of their reproductive health [1]. In the United States, 80% of new injuries occur to men between the ages of 16 and 45 [2]. Similar statistics are found worldwide [3–12]. Owing to the fact that the most common causes of injury include motor vehicle accidents, violence, sport-related injuries, and falls, it has been assumed that the gender disparity is due to more men than women engaging risk-taking behavior that leads to injury. The actual reason for the disparity is unknown. There is some evidence suggesting that hormones, rather than behavior, may contribute to the disparity. For example, it has been shown that estrogen may be neuroprotective and/or that testosterone may be neurotoxic after injury [13, 14]. Following SCI, most men have severely impaired fertility characterized by erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction, and semen abnormalities [15–18]. This paper will discuss current treatments for infertility in men with SCI, including treatments for ED as well as methods of semen retrieval. A discussion of the latest research findings regarding causes of abnormal semen quality will also be presented. The paper will conclude with recommendations for treating infertile couples with a male
Phantom study of the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiRTM) on image quality for paediatric computed tomography  [PDF]
Angjelina Protik, Karen Thomas, Paul Babyn, Nancy L. Ford
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A100
Abstract:

Quantitative analysis of image quality will be helpful for designing ASiRTM-enhanced paediatric CT protocols, balancing image quality and radiation dose. Catphan600 phantom studies were performed on a GE Discovery HD750 64-slice CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with 0% - 100% ASiRTM (tube current 150 mA, variable kVp 80 - 140) in order to determine the optimal ASiRTM-Filtered Back Projection (FBP) blend. Images reconstructed with a 50% ASiRTM-50% FBP blend were compared to FBP images (0% ASiRTM) over a wide range of kVp (80 - 140) and mA (10 - 400) values. Measurements of image noise, CT number accuracy and uniformity, spatial and contrast resolution, and low contrast detectability were performed on axial and reformatted coronal images. Improvements in CNR, low contrast detectability and radial uniformity were observed in ASiRTM images compared to FBP images. 50% ASiRTM was associated with a 26% - 30% reduction in image noise. Changes in noise texture were observed at higher %

Monitoring vascular changes induced by photodynamic therapy using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography  [PDF]
Otilia C. Nasui, Stuart K. Bisland, Nancy L. Ford
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.62016
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography can be used for non-invasive imaging of the early-stage changes in the vasculature of tumours that have been treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). The subjects used were C3H mice with an RIF-1 tumour implanted subcutaneously and allowed to grow for 3 weeks prior to treatment. The experimental groups were PDT-treated (150 J/cm2 and 50 J/cm2) and control (150 J/cm2 light-only and untreated). The laser light exposure was performed at 15 - 30 minutes after the administration of the photosensitizer (BPD-MA). The contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography imaging procedure consisted of eight-second scans taking place before treatment and up to 24 hours after treatment. The 150 J/cm2 PDT group showed a significant increase in the ratio of blood volume to tumour volume at 2, 8 and 24 hours after treatment when compared to pre-treatment measurements (p < 0.01). The observed increase in the blood volume to tumour volume at the later time points corresponds to a decrease in epithelial coverage on immunohistochemical stained (CD31) slides for the 150 J/cm2 PDT group at 24 hours after treatment. This preliminary study indicates that micro-CT can detect compromised vasculature in tumours treated with high-fluence photodynamic therapy as early as 2 hours post treatment.

Does Resampled Image Data Offer Quantitative Image Quality Benefit for Pediatric CT?  [PDF]
Nancy L. Ford, Angjelina Protik, Paul Babyn, Karen Thomas
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.76036
Abstract: Acquiring CT images with thin slices can improve resolution and detectability, but cause an increase in the image noise. To compensate for the additional image noise, the kVp or mA can be increased, which carries a dose penalty to the patient. We investigate the image quality achieved in MPR images reformatted from different slice thicknesses 0.625 mm and 5 mm, to determine if a thicker slice could be resampled to smaller thickness with minimal loss of image information. Catphan?600 phantom was imaged using selected kVp/mA settings (80 kVp/250 mA, 100 kVp/ 150 mA and 120 kVp/200 mA) to generate slices with thicknesses of 0.625 mm and 5 mm using a GE Discovery HD750 64-slice CT scanner to investigate the impact of the acquisition slice thickness on the overall image quality in MPRs. Measurements of image noise, uniformity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), low contrast detectability and limiting spatial resolution were performed on axial and coronal multiplanar reformatted images (MPRs). Increased noise, reduced contrast-to-noise ratio, and improved limiting spatial resolution and low contrast detection were observed in 2 mm coronal MPRs generated with 0.625 mm thin slices when compared to the MPRs from 5 mm thick slices. If the 2 mm coronal MPRs acquired with 5 mm slices are resampled to 0.6 mm slice thickness, the reductions in limiting resolution and low contrast detection are compensated, although with reduced uniformity and increased image noise. Thick slice image acquisitions yield better CNR and less noise in the images, whereas thin slices exhibited improved spatial resolution and low contrast detectability. Retrospectively resampling into thinner slices before obtaining the coronal MPRs provided a balance between image smoothness and identifying fine image detail. Which approach provides the optimal image quality may also depend on the imaging task, size and composition of the features of interest, and radiologist preference.
Physician versus Patient Perception of Physician Hospital Discharge Communication: A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Michael J. Maniaci, Michael G. Heckman, Nancy L. Dawson
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2014.44016
Abstract: Background: Physician discharge instructions are critical to patient care because they are the link transitioning the hospital care plan to the home. We hypothesize that physician perception of discharge instructions communication is better than patient perception. Objective: In a preliminary study, to compare patient and physician perception of communication at discharge. Design: Observational, survey-based. Setting: 330-bed adult teaching hospital. Participants: Surveys were mailed to 100 patients discharged home and 49 internal medicine physicians responsible for those patients’ care. Each physician had between 1 and 4 patients surveyed. Measurements: Patients and physicians received anonymous 5-item questionnaires concerning physician communication at discharge. Patient surveys inquired about their physicians’ communication at the specific physician encounter, while physician surveys asked about the physicians’ overall self-perception of discharge communication skills. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 59 patients and 40 physicians. Physicians reported a noticeably better perception of communication than their patients regarding spending adequate time reviewing the discharge plan (83% vs. 61%, P = 0.027), speaking slowly enough to understand (98% vs. 80%, P = 0.013), using wording that could be easily understood (100% vs. 68%, P < 0.001) and taking time to answer questions before discharge (85% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). Perception of discharge communication improved with physician experience for several survey items. Conclusions: This study provides evidence suggesting that physician perception of communication at discharge is better than patient perception. Future studies of larger sample size and direct patient-physician pairing focusing on patient satisfaction and outcomes are needed.
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