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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 46 matches for " Nafiu Amidu "
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Investigating Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Relative Risk of Tuberculosis in Kenya Using Bayesian Hierarchical Approaches  [PDF]
Abdul-Karim Iddrisu, Abukari Alhassan, Nafiu Amidu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62017
Abstract: Proper understanding of global distribution of infectious diseases is an important part of disease management and policy making. However, data are subject to complexities caused by heterogeneities across host classes and space-time epidemic processes. This paper seeks to suggest or propose Bayesian spatio-temporal model for modeling and mapping tuberculosis relative risks in space and time as well identify risks factors associated with the tuberculosis and counties in Kenya with high tuberculosis relative risks. In this paper, we used spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical models to study the pattern of tuberculosis relative risks in Kenya. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo method via WinBUGS and R packages were used for simulations and estimation of the parameter estimates. The best fitting model is selected using the Deviance Information Criterion proposed by Spiegelhalter and colleagues. Among the spatio-temporal models used, the Knorr-Held model with space-time interaction type III and IV fit the data well but type IV appears better than type III. Variation in tuberculosis risk is observed among Kenya counties and clustering among counties with high tuberculosis relative risks. The prevalence of HIV is identified as the determinant of TB. We found clustering and heterogeneity of TB risk among high rate counties and the overall tuberculosis risk is slightly decreasing from 2002-2009. We proposed that the Knorr-Held model with interaction type IV should be used to model and map Kenyan tuberculosis relative risks. Interaction of TB relative risk in space and time increases among rural counties that share boundaries with urban counties with high tuberculosis risk. This is due to the ability of models to borrow strength from neighboring counties, such that nearby counties have similar risk. Although the approaches are less than ideal, we hope that our study provide a useful stepping stone in the development of spatial and spatio-temporal methodology for the statistical analysis of risk from tuberculosis in Kenya.
Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana
Nafiu Amidu, William KBA Owiredu, Christian K Gyasi-Sarpong, Eric Woode, Lawrence Quaye
BMC Urology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-11-3
Abstract: The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type) scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010.Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 ± 8.6 years and 7.8 ± 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 ± 8.6) were significantly older (p < 0.0001) than their corresponding wives (32.5 ± 7.9). After adjusting for age, 13-18 years of marriage life poses about 10 times significant risk of developing SD compared to 1-6 years of married life among the wives (OR: 10.8; CI: 1.1 - 49.1; p = 0.04). The total scores (6.0) as well as the percentage above the cut-off (59.2) obtained by the husbands compared to the total score (6.2) and the percentage above cut-off (61.5) obtained by the wives, indicates the likely presence of sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of impotence and premature ejaculation were 60.9% and 65.4% respectively from this study and the prevalence of vaginismus and anorgasmia were 69.3% and 74.9% respectively. The highest prevalence of SD subscales among the men was dissatisfaction with sexual act followed by infrequency, whereas the highest among the women was infrequency followed by anorgasmia. Dissatisfaction with sexual intercourse a
Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients
William KBA Owiredu, Nafiu Amidu, Huseini Alidu, Charity Sarpong, Christian K Gyasi-Sarpong
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-70
Abstract: Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years) visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study.Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%), non-sensuality (74.5%), dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%), non-communication (70.8%) and impotence (67.9%). Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6%) and avoidance (42.7%) were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c), FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference.SD rate from this study is high but similar to that reported among self-reported diabetic patients in Kumasi, Ghana and vary according to the condition and age. The determinants of SD from this study are income level, exercise, obesity, higher perception of "desirable" and "too short" IELT.Some of the consequences of diabetes include various medical [1], psychological [2], and sexual [3] dysfunctions. Among diabetic
Sexual dysfunction among Ghanaian men presenting with various medical conditions
Nafiu Amidu, William KBA Owiredu, Eric Woode, Roselyn Appiah, Lawrence Quaye, Christian K Gyasi-Sarpong
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-118
Abstract: The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was administered to 150 Ghanaian men with various medical conditions between 19 and 66 years old (mean ± standard deviation: 40.01 ± 12.32 years) domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis.Out of the total 150 questionnaires administered, 105 (70.0%) men returned the questionnaires. Questionnaires from 3 men were incomplete, leaving 102 complete and evaluable questionnaires, indicating a 68.0% response rate. Of the remaining 102 men, 88.2% were married, 70.6% had attained higher education, 88.2% were non-smokers. Whereas 54.9% were engaged in exercise, 61.8% indulged in alcoholic beverages. The prevalence of the various medical conditions include: diabetes (18%), hypertension (24.5%), migraine (11.8%), ulcer (7.8%), surgery (6.9%), STD (3.9) and others (26.5%). The prevalence of SD among the respondents in the study was 59.8%. The highest prevalence of SD was seen among ulcer patients (100%), followed by patients who have undergone surgery (75%), diabetes (70%), hypertension (50%), STD (50%) and the lowest was seen among migraine patients (41.7%).SD rate is high among Ghanaian men with medical conditions (about 60%) and vary according to the condition and age.Sexual dysfunction (SD) is an important public health problem that compromises the overall quality of life of the patients and their sexual partners [1,2]. This consequently leads to loss of emotional and physical intimacy and at times leads to divorce. Customarily, male SD has been attributed to psychogenic factors, however, advances in pathophysiology research indicate vascular malfunction in the majority of patients. The vascular malfunction could be as a result of atherosclerotic lesions in the penile arteries that consequently lead to diminished blood flow.About 322 million men worldwide are projected to develop erectile dysfunction (ED) by the year 2025 with the largest projection increases in the developing world that is Africa, Asia, and South America.
An Evaluation of Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Sphenocentrum jollyanum
Amidu Nafiu,Woode Eric,Owiredu K.B.A. William,Asare A. George
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of S. jollyanum using Fischer 344 male rats and the genotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract of the roots. In experiment 1, haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were determined after 30, 60 and 90 days of oral administration. Experiment 2 involved determinations of total hepatic cytochrome P-450 content. Pentobarbitone induced sleeping times was measured in experiment 3. These are indices of organ specific toxicity or potential for drug interactions. The mutagenic potential was assessed by reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains in experiment 4. There were no significant differences found in most of the hematological, serum biochemical parameters and organ/body weight ratio. No abnormality of any organ was found during histopathological examination and no mutagenicity evidence was detected in any of the mutagenic tests. It, however, caused a significant increase in cytochrome P-450 which correlates well with the decreased pentobarbitone induced sleeping times. The results showed that the no-observed adverse- effect level (NOAEL) of S. jollyanum extract (SJE) was >1000 mg kg-1 body weight per day in rats, which can be regarded as virtually non-toxic. In conclusion, SJE had no overt organ specific toxicity but demonstrates a potential for drug interactions via cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism in the rat.
Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females
Nafiu Amidu, William KBA Owiredu, Eric Woode, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Lawrence Quaye, Abass Alhassan, Edmond A Tagoe
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-106
Abstract: The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was administered to 400 healthy women between 18 and 58 years old (mean +/- SD: 30.1 +/- 7.9) domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis.The response rate was 75.3% after 99 were excluded. Of the remaining 301 women, 50% were engaged in exercise, 26.7% indulge in alcoholic beverages and only 2% were smokers. A total of 62.1% of the women had attained high education, whilst, 28.9% were married. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol emerged (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0 - 3.8; p = 0.04) as the main risk factor for SD. The overall prevalence of SD in these subjects was 72.8%. Severe difficulties with sexual function were identified in 3.3% of the studied population. The most prevalent areas of difficulty were anorgasmia (72.4%), sexual infrequency (71.4%), dissatisfaction (77.7%), vaginismus (68.1%), avoidance of sexual intercourse (62.5%), non-sensuality (61.5%) and non-communication (54.2%). Whereas 8% had severe difficulties with anorgasmia, only 6% had severe difficulties with vaginismus.SD affects more than 70% of Ghanaian women who are sexually active. Alcohol significantly influences sexual activity.Human sexuality is a complex process which is coordinated by the neurologic, vascular and endocrine systems [1]. Sexuality does not only include family, societal and religious beliefs, it can also be influenced by aging, health status and personal experience as well as socio-economic status. Sexual dysfunction (SD) is an important public health problem that is more prevalent in women than in men [2]. Previous studies have established that up to about 76% of women experience some form of SD - that is, a sexual problem that they find distressing [3].The study and knowledge of SD has been largely unexplored and its incidence is said to vary widely possibly due to differences in criteria for defining SD: the population involved, cultural background, socio-economic level, quality of psychosexual relationships and income. An imp
Anaemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Richard K.D. Ephraim,William K.B.A. Owiredu,Edwin F. Laing,Nafiu Amidu
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study evaluated whether anaemia poses a cardiovascular risk and whether the risk is modified by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration ≤11.0 for both males and females. The study population included 50 individuals with various chronic kidney diseases and/or with serum creatinine ≥200 μmol L-1. Another 55 subjects with similar age and sex distribution but without kidney pathology were studied as controls. Thirty percent of the subjects had CKD with an estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, estimated with the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and were more likely to be anaemic and nondiabetic, higher mean values for serum creatinine (CRT), lower values for haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT) and red blood cells (RBC). CKD subjects with anaemia had a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors; age, male sex, diabetes and hypertension and lower haematological parameters and estimated GFR. However, they had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) level. In persons with CKD, anaemia poses a further cardiovascular risk as it increases some of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Hypogonadism and Decreased Sexual Function in Ghanaian Diabetics  [PDF]
Huseini Alidu, William K. B. A. Owiredu, Nafiu Amidu, Christian Kofi Gyasi-Sarpong, Peter Paul Mwinsanga Dapare, Ahmed Tijani Bawah, Arnold Togiwe Luuse, Emmanuel Barima Agyemang Prempeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.73009
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol usage has largely been seen as a risk factor for the development of sexual dysfunction as well as erectile dysfunction. Others have reported that prolonged alcohol usage and abuse is compatible with normal sexual function in the absence of endocrinological problems as well as hepatic dysfunction. About seventy five (75) percent of alcoholics have various sexual difficulties with improvements in sexual functions occurring after treatment of alcoholism and psychosexual therapy. It is evident from the various reports over the years that mild and occasional alcohol usage is not as much implicated in the causation of SD and its other forms as heavy, addictive or dependent alcohol usage. Alcohol usage has also long been linked to hypogonadism, testicular atrophy as well as leydig cell toxicity. Alcohol induced hypogonadism has been reported to resolve after withdrawal of alcohol use. Since both diabetes and alcohol usage have been strongly associated with both hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction, it is logical to expect that diabetics who frequently consume alcohol will have a worsened hypogonadal state and sexual function. This research therefore seeks to provide evidence of an association between alcohol consumption in diabetics and a worsened sexual dysfunction in comparison to diabetics who did not consume alcohol. Methods: Type II diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Clinic at the Maamobi General Hospital between the periods of January 2010 and March 2011 were consecutively recruited for this study. Diabetics with other known endocrinological diseases and physical disabilities were excluded from the study. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M. Early morning fasting samples were used in lipid and testosterone profile assays. Results: Study participants who consumed alcohol recorded higher levels of triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol. They also recorded significantly lower levels of bioavailable testosterone. Furthermore they also recorded higher scores for impotence, premature ejaculation, non-sensuality and infrequency but lower scores for avoidance and were about six times more likely to be infrequent in their sexual activity in comparison with those who did not consume alcohol. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption among diabetic males is associated with hypogonadism and has an impact on several domains of male sexual function. Diabetic males should be advised to avoid alcohol abuse in order to facilitate the management of diabetes associated sexual
Large Clothing Size in Children Is Associated with High Body Mass Index and Clustering of Medical Comorbidities
Olubukola O. Nafiu,Constance Burke
ISRN Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/582967
Abstract:
Large Clothing Size in Children Is Associated with High Body Mass Index and Clustering of Medical Comorbidities
Olubukola O. Nafiu,Constance Burke
ISRN Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/582967
Abstract: Background. Since most people are aware of their clothing size (CS), this prospective study explored the potential utility of CS as a proxy for body size and as a predictor of incident obesity-related health conditions in children. Methods. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 725 children aged 6–18 yr. We collected clinical, anthropometric, and sartorial data on all study subjects. Parents reported their children’s usual CS. This was compared with US clothing chart for children. Based on this we determined whether a child’s CS was appropriate or large for age. Results. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 31.4%. Among the study subjects, 36% usually wore large CS. Children who wore large CS were more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those in the normal CS group (OR?=?5.6; 95% CI?=?4.0–8.0, ). Similarly, large CS was associated with higher rates of incident asthma ( ), obstructive sleep apnea ( ), habitual snoring ( ), and elevated preoperative blood pressure ( ). Conclusion. CS in children is associated with higher indices of adiposity and increased rates of obesity-related comorbidities. 1. Introduction Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in American adults and children and in most parts of the developed world [1, 2]. Childhood obesity has indeed become one of the foremost issues in contemporary biomedical research particularly because of its importance in predicting adult overweight and obesity as well as its association with various cardiovascular risk factors [2]. The most common descriptor of obesity (used for health promotion information and risk stratification) is the body mass index (BMI), defined as an individual’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters (BMI =??kg/m2) [3, 4]. It is however becoming increasingly clear from clinical and epidemiologic studies that BMI may not be an accurate proxy for obesity-associated risks [5–7]. This is because BMI does not specify fat distribution and compared to other indices of adiposity, it correlates poorly with visceral (central) obesity, which tends to be more pathogenic given its close association with cardiovascular and metabolic risks [8–10]. Furthermore, central adiposity is associated with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults [11] and central apnea with severe nocturnal oxygenation desaturation in children [12, 13]. Due to the many limitations of BMI as a risk stratifier, other indices of adiposity are being explored. Waist circumference (WC) measurement is the most commonly used measure of central adiposity and has become the
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