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Pharmacist-documented interventions during the dispensing process in a primary health care facility in Qatar
Richard Hooper, Abdullah Adam, Nadir Kheir
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S5534
Abstract: rmacist-documented interventions during the dispensing process in a primary health care facility in Qatar Original Research (5309) Total Article Views Authors: Richard Hooper, Abdullah Adam, Nadir Kheir Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 73 - 80 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S5534 Richard Hooper1, Abdullah Adam2, Nadir Kheir3 1Medical Services Department, 2Pharmacy Department, Medical Services, Qatar Petroleum, Doha, Qatar; 3Qatar University, College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To characterize prescribing error interventions documented by pharmacists in four pharmacies in a primary health care service in Qatar. Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care service in the State of Qatar in the period from January to March 2008. Pharmacists in four clinics within the service used online, integrated health care software to document all clinical interventions made. Documented information included: patient’s age and gender, drug therapy details, the intervention’s details, its category, and its outcome. Interventions were categorized according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification of drug-related problems (DRP). Results: The number of patients who had their prescriptions intercepted were 589 (0.71% of the total 82,800 prescriptions received). The intercepted prescriptions generated 890 DRP-related interventions (an average of 1.9% DRPs identified across the four clinics). Fifty-four percent of all interventions were classified as drug choice problems, and 42% had safety problems (dose too high, potential significant interaction). The prescriber accepted the intervention in 53% of all interventions, and the treatment was changed accordingly. Interventions as a result of transcription errors, legality and formulary issues were eliminated from this study through the use of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Conclusions: Documenting and analyzing interventions should be a routine activity in pharmacy practice setting in primary health care services. Educational outreach visits and other strategies can improve prescribing practices and enhance patient safety.
Pharmacist-documented interventions during the dispensing process in a primary health care facility in Qatar
Richard Hooper,Abdullah Adam,Nadir Kheir
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2009,
Abstract: Richard Hooper1, Abdullah Adam2, Nadir Kheir31Medical Services Department, 2Pharmacy Department, Medical Services, Qatar Petroleum, Doha, Qatar; 3Qatar University, College of Pharmacy, Doha, QatarObjectives: To characterize prescribing error interventions documented by pharmacists in four pharmacies in a primary health care service in Qatar.Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care service in the State of Qatar in the period from January to March 2008. Pharmacists in four clinics within the service used online, integrated health care software to document all clinical interventions made. Documented information included: patient’s age and gender, drug therapy details, the intervention’s details, its category, and its outcome. Interventions were categorized according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification of drug-related problems (DRP).Results: The number of patients who had their prescriptions intercepted were 589 (0.71% of the total 82,800 prescriptions received). The intercepted prescriptions generated 890 DRP-related interventions (an average of 1.9% DRPs identified across the four clinics). Fifty-four percent of all interventions were classified as drug choice problems, and 42% had safety problems (dose too high, potential significant interaction). The prescriber accepted the intervention in 53% of all interventions, and the treatment was changed accordingly. Interventions as a result of transcription errors, legality and formulary issues were eliminated from this study through the use of computerized physician order entry (CPOE).Conclusions: Documenting and analyzing interventions should be a routine activity in pharmacy practice setting in primary health care services. Educational outreach visits and other strategies can improve prescribing practices and enhance patient safety.Keywords: pharmacists, interventions, prescribing errors
Pharmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Nadir Kheir, Manal Zaidan, et al
Journal of Healthcare Leadership , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S11700
Abstract: rmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar Original Research (3449) Total Article Views Authors: Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Nadir Kheir, Manal Zaidan, et al Published Date February 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 9 - 28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S11700 Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson1 1College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar. Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar. Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan). Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents). The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%), and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%). The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement pertained to patients' satisfaction with the waiting time required to obtain their medications (35%). Forty percent of all respondents rated themselves as professionally dissatisfied. Improvements to their professional role, greater opportunities for professional development, and enhancements in human resource-related conditions were identified as potential remedies to this situation. Conclusion: This study represents the first known attempt to formally solicit the opinions of pharmacists in Qatar. The study results have provided valuable information regarding the demographic characteristics, pharmacist perceptions about the medication use process, and professional sa
The utility of an electronic adherence assessment device in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study of single medication
Nadir Kheir, William Greer, Adil Yousif, et al
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S10347
Abstract: tility of an electronic adherence assessment device in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study of single medication Original Research (4042) Total Article Views Authors: Nadir Kheir, William Greer, Adil Yousif, et al Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 247 - 254 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S10347 Nadir Kheir1, William Greer2, Adil Yousif3, Hajer Al-Geed1, Randa Al Okkah1, Mahmoud Zirie4, Amy Sandridge5, Manal Zaidan6 1College of Pharmacy, 2Sidra Medical and Research Centre, 3Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, 4Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 5Private Research Consultant, 6Al Amal Cancer Centre, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objectives: The primary objective of this pilot study was to determine if the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) is capable of providing meaningful estimates of compliance within the indigenous Qatari population. The secondary objective was to highlight any specific problems which might be associated with the use of MEMS within this population. Method: A sample of adult diabetic Qatari patients attending an outpatient diabetic clinic were administered a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) questionnaire and then dispensed one of their regular medications in a MEMS -fitted bottle. Data contained in the MEMS were downloaded after the patients returned for a refill and adherence was estimated using 2 methods: pill count and MEMS data. Results: A total of 54 patients agreed to participate in this pilot study. Adherence to daily doses was 67.7% and with regimen 13.7%. No correlation was found between adherence assessed by pill count and MEMS . The association between KAP and adherence was generally poor. A number of other issues and challenges in the use of MEMS that could affect its utility were noted and will be discussed. Conclusions: Our results revealed problems associated with the use of MEMS that could affect its usefulness in assessing adherence in this part of the world. Some issues identified in this pilot study included retrieving the MEMS , registering extra opening of MEMS , desire to hoard medicine by taking doses at different frequency than recorded in MEMS . All these issues could be closely associated with the attitudes and practices of the patients, as demonstrated by our KAP analysis and correlations.
The utility of an electronic adherence assessment device in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study of single medication
Nadir Kheir,William Greer,Adil Yousif,et al
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2010,
Abstract: Nadir Kheir1, William Greer2, Adil Yousif3, Hajer Al-Geed1, Randa Al Okkah1, Mahmoud Zirie4, Amy Sandridge5, Manal Zaidan61College of Pharmacy, 2Sidra Medical and Research Centre, 3Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, 4Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 5Private Research Consultant, 6Al Amal Cancer Centre, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarObjectives: The primary objective of this pilot study was to determine if the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) is capable of providing meaningful estimates of compliance within the indigenous Qatari population. The secondary objective was to highlight any specific problems which might be associated with the use of MEMS within this population.Method: A sample of adult diabetic Qatari patients attending an outpatient diabetic clinic were administered a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) questionnaire and then dispensed one of their regular medications in a MEMS -fitted bottle. Data contained in the MEMS were downloaded after the patients returned for a refill and adherence was estimated using 2 methods: pill count and MEMS data.Results: A total of 54 patients agreed to participate in this pilot study. Adherence to daily doses was 67.7% and with regimen 13.7%. No correlation was found between adherence assessed by pill count and MEMS . The association between KAP and adherence was generally poor. A number of other issues and challenges in the use of MEMS that could affect its utility were noted and will be discussed.Conclusions: Our results revealed problems associated with the use of MEMS that could affect its usefulness in assessing adherence in this part of the world. Some issues identified in this pilot study included retrieving the MEMS , registering extra opening of MEMS , desire to hoard medicine by taking doses at different frequency than recorded in MEMS . All these issues could be closely associated with the attitudes and practices of the patients, as demonstrated by our KAP analysis and correlations.Keywords: Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS), type 2 diabetes mellitus, drug therapy, medication adherence
Pharmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj,Nadir Kheir,Manal Zaidan,et al
Journal of Healthcare Leadership , 2011,
Abstract: Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson11College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, QatarPurpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar.Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan). Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents). The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%), and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%). The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement pertained to patients' satisfaction with the waiting time required to obtain their medications (35%). Forty percent of all respondents rated themselves as professionally dissatisfied. Improvements to their professional role, greater opportunities for professional development, and enhancements in human resource-related conditions were identified as potential remedies to this situation.Conclusion: This study represents the first known attempt to formally solicit the opinions of pharmacists in Qatar. The study results have provided valuable information regarding the demographic characteristics, pharmacist percept
Utilizing GIS in Nonprofit Organizations for Urban Planning Applications: Experiences from the Field  [PDF]
Kheir Al-Kodmany
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.44034
Abstract: This paper provides detailed examinations on the use of GIS in nonprofit organizations. We interviewed planners and GIS experts in key nonprofit organizations in the City of Chicago to comprehend their actual usages of GIS, faced challenges, and accumulated experiences. Organizations reported on dozens of projects where GIS was used for practical urban planning applications. Findings indicate that nonprofit organizations offer extremely useful lessons on using GIS for projects at the local, regional, and national levels. They provide extensive experiences on GIS technical problems and solutions, methodologies, and data issues. Their projects often support philanthropic efforts and respond to the needs of low-income communities. However, the organizations’ resources are dwindling. This paper raises a concern about the importance of sustaining their GIS operations particularly with the current economic downturn. We call on government officials to support nonprofit organizations in order to ensure the continuity of their GIS activities.
Concerns and considerations among caregivers of a child with autism in Qatar
Nadir M Kheir, Ola M Ghoneim, Amy L Sandridge, Sara A Hayder, Muna S Al-Ismail, Fadhila Al-Rawi
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-290
Abstract: Caregivers of a child who was between the age of 3 to17 years old at the time of the study and who was diagnosed with ASD (Autistic Group or AG) were recruited from the two main developmental pediatric and children rehabilitation clinics in Qatar. The control group (non-autism group, or NAG) was represented by caregivers of a non-autistic child between the age of 3 to 17 years old at the time of the study and who were visiting a family clinic of a primary health care facility for routine medical check-up. Data collected from both groups included related to the child (e.g. the child’s date of birth, his/her relation to the caregiver, number of siblings, number of hours of sleep in a day, number of hours spent watching television or videos prior to age 3, time spent indoors prior to age 3, absenteeism from school, and use of a nanny to care for the child) and to the caregiver (education level, profession, level of consanguinity using the phylogram method). In addition to these questions, caregivers in the AG were asked specific questions around maternal concern and considerations in respect to the future of their children and the specialized services they receive.Children in the autism group spent more time indoors, watching television, or sleeping than children in the non-autism group. Only around 40% of caregivers in the autism group said they would encourage their child to get married and become a parent when s/he grows up. A number of caregivers of children with autism frequently utilize specialized rehabilitation services; others did express their needs for these services and made comments about having to wait a long time before they were provided with some of the services. Religious faith helped caregivers in accepting having a child with autism. General health-related quality of life did not differ significantly between the caregivers of the two groups, although mental health was consistently poorer in the autism group of caregivers.The study draws attention to
Enslavement of Wireless Sensor Network to an RF Energy Harvesting System  [PDF]
Alex Mouapi, Nadir Hakem
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2017.52006
Abstract: The abundance of telecommunications systems makes it possible to have somewhat significant quantity of radiofrequency energy in the environment. This energy can be recycled to power ultra-low-power devices such as Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). In this paper, the performance of a miniature RF/DC converter is evaluated in order to enslave a WSN’s per-formance to the amount of the recovered energy. More precisely, a highly sensitive and efficient rectifier is designed to achieve optimum performance in the GSM band. The design method relies on a judicious choice of the rectifying diode which is the basis of most losses in a rectifying antenna (rectenna). Optimum performance is achieved by using the gradient method search proposed in the Advanced Design System (ADS) software. A rectifier based on Schottky diodes HSMS 2850 used in a voltage doubler topology is thus obtained. A maximum RF/DC conversion efficiency of 36% is reached for an RF input power level of 10 dBm. An energy budget of a sensor node in a WSN having an equitable distribution of network loads is then defined and used to evaluate the performance of the WSN regarding the distance at which the Base Station (BS) can be located. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol is used for this purpose. The distance separating the WSN from the BS is used as the enslavement parameter. Our analysis shows that increasing the duration of each round results in an increase in the range of the WSN. As an example, a network with 100 nodes distributed over an area of may be located at 1.3 km from the base station when each node of the WSN must perform measurements every 1 min.
Infantile colic, facts and fiction
Kheir Abdelmoneim E M
The Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-38-34
Abstract: Infantile colic is one of the major challenges of parenthood. It is one of the common reasons parents seek medical advice during their child’s first 3 months of life. It is defined as paroxysms of crying lasting more than 3 hours a day, occurring more than 3 days in any week for 3 weeks in a healthy baby aged 2 weeks to 4 months. Colic is a poorly understood phenomenon affecting up to 30% of babies, underlying organic causes of excessive crying account for less than 5%. Laboratory tests and radiological examinations are unnecessary if the infant is gaining weight normally and has a normal physical examination. Treatment is limited and drug treatment has no role in management. Probiotics are now emerging as promising agents in the treatment of infantile colic. Alternative medicine (Herbal tea, fennel, glucose and massage therapy) have not proved to be consistently helpful and some might even be dangerous. In conclusion infantile colic is a common cause of maternal distress and family disturbance, the cornerstone of management remains reassurance of parents regarding the benign and self-limiting nature of the illness. There is a critical need for more evidence based treatment protocols.
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