Abstract:
Bangladesh, with a forest cover estimated at 17.08% of all land surface area, has experienced massive degradation of its natural resources and a conside-rable change in its land cover. While deforestation in Bangladesh is obviously a complex issue, one important aspect emerges from previous research findings in explaining deforestation: industrialization. This study focuses on the causes of deforestation in Bangladesh, particularly in tropical moist deciduous Sal forests, using multi levels factor analysis framework. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, formal and informal discussions with local people, expert interviews and literature reviews. The main findings of defore-station framework show that illegal logging and forest land conversion were the ultimate causes of Sal forests deforestation in Bangladesh. Illegal logging is a complex phenomenon and is being patronized by a local syndicate, functio-ning from behind the scenes. On the other hand, land conversion into different commercial activities has direct influence on national policy and the predispo-sing conditions of this country. Therefore, the immediate task of the nation would be to stop illegal logging and land conversion of Sal forests. This can be done by involving all relevant stakeholders in the form of effective forest policy formulation and execution of strict environmental protection law.

Abstract:
The heart is a vital organ that provides essential circulation throughout the body. Malfunction of cardiac pumping, thus, leads to serious and most of the times, to fatal diseases. Mechanics of cardiac pumping is a complex process, and many experimental and theoretical approaches have been undertaken to understand this process. We have taken advantage of the simplicity of the embryonic heart of an invertebrate, Drosophila melanogaster, to understand the fundamental mechanics of the beating heart. We applied a live imaging technique to the beating embryonic heart combined with analytical imaging tools to study the dynamic mechanics of the pumping. Furthermore, we have identified one mutant line that exhibits aberrant pumping mechanics. The Drosophila embryonic heart consists of only 104 cardiac cells forming a simple straight tube that can be easily accessed for real-time imaging. Therefore, combined with the wealth of available genetic tools, the embryonic Drosophila heart may serve as a powerful model system for studies of human heart diseases, such as arrhythmia and congenital heart diseases. We, furthermore, believe our mechanistic data provides important information that is useful for our further understanding of the design of biological structure and function and for engineering the pumps for medical uses.

Abstract:
We discuss a spectrum generating algebra in the supersymmetric quantum mechanical system which is defined as a series of solutions to a specific differential equation. All Hamiltonians have equally spaced eigenvalues, and we realize both positive and negative mode generators of a subalgebra of $W_{1+\infty}$ without use of negative power of raising/lowering operators of the system. All features in the supersymmetric case are generalized to the parasupersymmetric systems of order 2.

Abstract:
We discuss quantum deformation of the affine transformation algebra. It is shown that the quantum algebra has a non-cocommutative Hopf algebra structure, simple realizations and quantum tensor operators.

Abstract:
We discuss quantum deformation of the affine transformation group and its Lie algebra. It is shown that the quantum algebra has a non-cocommutative Hopf algebra structure, simple realizations and quantum tensor operators. The deformation of the group is achieved by using the adjoint representation. The elements of quantum matrix form a Hopf algebra. Furthermore, we construct a differential calculus which is covariant with respect to the action of the quantum matrix.

Abstract:
We propose a lattice version of Chern-Simons gravity and show that the partition function coincides with Ponzano-Regge model and the action leads to the Chern-Simons gravity in the continuum limit. The action is explicitly constructed by lattice dreibein and spin connection and is shown to be invariant under lattice local Lorentz transformation and gauge diffeomorphism. The action includes the constraint which can be interpreted as a gauge fixing condition of the lattice gauge diffeomorphism.

Abstract:
Multi-frequency observations of E-region coherent backscatter from decametre waves reveal that auroral echoes tend to comprise two spectral components superimposed, one at low Doppler shifts, below 250 ms-1, and the other Doppler shifted to near the ion-acoustic speed or above, up to 800 ms-1. The low Doppler shift component occurs at all look directions; Doppler shifts near the ion acoustic speed occur when looking at low flow angles along the direction of the electron drift in the electrojet, and Doppler shifts in excess of the ion acoustic speed occur at intermediate flow angles. The latter population appears most commonly at radar frequencies near 10–12 MHz, with its occurrence decreasing dramatically at higher frequencies. The velocity of the high Doppler shift echoes increases with increasing radar frequency, or irregularity wave number k. The velocity of the low Doppler shift population appears to be suppressed significantly below the line-of-sight component of the electron drift. Initial estimates of the altitude from which scatter occurs suggest that the high Doppler shift echoes originate from higher in the E-region than the low Doppler shift echoes, certainly in the eastward electrojet. We discuss these observations with reference to the theories of de/stabilization of two-stream waves by electron density gradients and electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited by field-parallel electron drifts. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities)

Abstract:
This paper presents a sensor system to predict behavior patterns that occur when patients leave their beds. We originally developed plate-shaped sensors using piezoelectric elements. Existing sensors such as clip sensors and mat sensors require restraint of patients. Moreover, these sensors present privacy problems. The features of our sensors are that they require no power supply or patient restraint. We evaluated our system using a basic experiment to predict seven behavior patterns. We obtained a result of predicted behavior patterns related to bed-leaving using only six sensors installed under a bed. Especially, our system can correctly detect behavior patterns of lateral sitting, which is a position that occurs when a patient tries to leave from the bed, and terminal sitting, which is the position immediately before bed-leaving. They were discerned from other behavior patterns.

Abstract:
A method is presented for realizing logic operations in a micromechanical cantilever array based on the timed application of a lattice disturbance to control the properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs). The application of a specific inhomogeneous field destroys a driver-locked ILM, while the same operation can create an ILM if initially no-ILM exists. Logic states "1" and "0" correspond to "present" or "absent" ILM.

Abstract:
We have investigated the crystal and magnetic structures of the trigonal iron-boracite Fe3B7O13X with X = OH by neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction enables us to locate the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group and determine the magnetic ground state of this member of the multiferroic boracite family. No evidence was found for a monoclinic distortion in the magnetic ordered state. The magnetic symmetry allows for magnetoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The N/'eel tempera- ture TN of 4.86(4) K confi?rms the general trends within the boracites that TN decreases from X = I > Br > Cl > OH. Surprisingly while Fe3B7O13OH exhibits the largest frustration with |theta/?=TN| = 5.6 within the Fe3B7O13X series, no reduction of the magnetic moment is found using neutron diffraction.