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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 269957 matches for " N. I. Dim "
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Assessment of Genetic Relationship and Application of Computational Algorithm to Assess Functionality of Non-Synonymous Substitutions in DQA2 Gene of Cattle, Sheep and Goats  [PDF]
Steven B. Ugbo, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Jude N. Omeje, Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Ibrahim S. Musa, Joseph O. Egahi, N. I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.54011
Abstract: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the immune system in nearly all vertebrates. DQA2 is a member of the MHC complex and an important candidate gene involved in susceptibility/resistance to various diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating computationally molecular genetic variation of DQA2 gene of cattle, sheep and goats especially on its evolution and differentiation within and among species as well as the attendant effects of the polymorphism on the function of DQA2 gene. A total of thirty three DQA2 nucleotide sequences comprising cattle (10), sheep (12) and goats (11) were retrieved from the GenBank. Forty seven amino acid substitutions of the wild type alleles located in the putative peptide coding region of caprine DQA2 alleles were obtained from the alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of goats. Out of these, eleven amino acid substitutions (H14L, H14R, L34M, E35L, G56S, G56R, 161V, A62E, D69Q, T72N and T72G) were returned neutral; an indication that they did not impair protein function. The Expected Accuracy (EA) ranged from 53% - 87%. For sheep, sixteen amino acid substitutions (A11P, A11T, A11G, A11M, L14S, L14T, V27L, V27S, G35S, S46T, D55E, L57T, L57A, L57G, K65Q and V68I) appeared beneficial while the rest forty seven appeared harmful (EA ranged from 53% - 93%). Twenty four amino acid substitutions did not impair the function of protein while seventy seven substitutions appeared to have a negative effect on the function of protein of cattle (EA ranged from 53% - 94%). The phylogeny based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DQA2 gene revealed the close relatedness of the caprine, ovine and bovine species. The present knowledge would be relevant for performing further genotype-phenotype research as well as pharmacogenetics studies in order to show association between caprine, ovine and bovine DQA2 allelic variation and the clinical progression of infectious diseases especially in a developing country such as Nigeria.
Hatching Characteristics of Japanese Quail Eggs in a Tropical Environment
S.I. Daikwo,N.I. Dim,M.O. Momoh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: A study to evaluate hatching characteristics of incubated Japanese quail eggs in Nigeria was conducted. A total of 1,116 eggs were incubated in 3 batches in a still-air kerosene incubator. The results showed that mean early and late embryonic mortality on the basis of fertile eggs were 18.59±1.85 and 9.89±1.31%, respectively. Mean fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of total eggs set and weight of newly hatched chicks were 85.41±1.25%, 71.52±1.94%, 61.31±1.93% and 6.47±0.10 g, respectively. Hatching chick weight was found positively and significantly (p<0.001) correlated with egg weight (r = 0.96), egg length (r = 0.79) and egg width (r = 0.74). Generally, there was negative correlation between embryo mortality (Early and Late) and external egg quality traits considered. It was concluded that the Japanese quails used in this study have high reproductive efficiency and the still-air kerosene incubator used is recommended for use in rural areas where electricity is irregular or not available to hatch quail eggs.
Variations in Qualitative Traits in the Nigerian Local Chicken
J.O. Egahi,N.I. Dim,O.M. Momoh,D.S. Gwaza
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Ninety (90) captive adult normal feathering female Nigerian local chicken in an ongoing study were scored for phenotypic characteristics (variation in plumage and shank colour, presence of ear lobe, ear lobe colour, comb type, head shape and ptilopody). Sole (black, white and light brown) and mottled plumages were dominant and had an occurrence of 54.38 and 38.46% respectively. Shank colour was predominantly black (42.22%). Comb type varied from pea, rose, walnut to single with a percentage occurrence of 18.18, 22.08, 15.58 and 44.16 respectively in the population studied. 82.05% of the population had plain head shape while 70% showed the presence of ear lobes dominated by white colour (73.21%). Ptilopody was observed in 5.41% of the population. The population of Nigerian local chicken studied showed heterogeneity in the phenotypic traits considered and therefore present a genetic pool from which selection could be made.
Genetic and Phenotypic Relationships Between Mcnally Model Parameters and Egg Production Traits
O.O. Oni,B.Y. Abubakar,N.I. Dim,O.E. Asiribo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: The monthly egg production data of Rhode Island Red (strain A) and White (strain B) chickens were used to estimate the genetic and phenotypic relationships between egg production traits and curve parameters obtained from fitting the McNally model to 52-wk laying records. A total of 356 and 292 records for strains A and B, respectively, were included in a variance component analysis of a two factor nested classification - dams within sire. The estimates of heritabilities and correlations for production traits were moderate to high, while the values obtained for the curve parameters varied from low to moderate. The estimates of correlations of part-productions with 52-week total were comparatively higher than the values obtained for curve parameters with 52-week total. The low estimates of heritability obtained for curve parameters indicated that it would be better to select on functions of the parameters (such as total production or part-year production), which had higher estimates, rather than individual curve parameters. The high genetic correlation between part-year production and total annual production suggests that selection for the latter based on the former would not diminish genetic progress. The decreased generation interval that would result from selection on part record will probably more than offset the loss in efficiency if records are taken for about half of the full laying year.
Computational Molecular Analysis of the Sequences of BMP15 Gene of Ruminants and Non-Ruminants  [PDF]
Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Steven B. Ugbo, Ndu I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2016.62005
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) super family that is expressed by oocytes and plays key roles in granulosa cell development and fertility in animal. This study investigated the molecular genetic variation of BMP15 gene of some selected mammalian species with a view to providing relevant genetic information for breeding and selection programmes in the studied species using computational methods. A total of thirty seven (37) BMP15 nucleotide sequences comprising goats (18), sheep (6), cattle (6), swine (4) and chicken (3) were retrieved from the GenBank. Sequence alignment, translation and comparison of the BMP15 gene of the various species were done with ClustalW. High degree of polymorphism of BMP15 gene was observed among the studied species. The significant value (P < 0.01) for relative proportions of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) and the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) symbolized that non-synonymous sites evolved faster than the synonymous sites and positive selection effect over shadowed purifying selection. Functional analysis of missense mutations using PROVEAN showed that twelve amino acid substitutions (L10S, W13A, E20L, V28S, P31R, P31G, P40Q, L42W, Q46N, A52V, R58C and G64T) in goats, nine in sheep (H21R, S32R, I33A, A39W, Q46W, E51A, G54S, R61D and E72A), six in cattle (Q30M, T41W, E50R, I62R, H65E, and E72S), seven in swine (I7L, T9I, V33I, L35H, C40P, R46P and Q61R) and five in chickens (A20H, L27H, W43L, A47P and G50Y) appeared beneficial. The phylogenetic trees from nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed the close relatedness of members of the bovidae family (goat, sheep and cattle). The present information could guide future efforts involving selection of markers of fecundity to improve genetically livestock species in Nigeria.
Level of knowledge, attitudes and substance use among students of primary and secondary schools in Belgrade 2010/2011: Pilot study
Dimitrijevi? Ivan,,Brkovi? Danijela,Dimi?-Tasi? Gorica,An?eli? Spaso
SANAMED , 2011,
Abstract: In order to organize prevention of substance abuse in the community, it is necessary to provide research on the level of knowledge, attitudes and patterns of use of particular substances within youth. In Belgrade, the Commission for the prevention of substance abuse among youth has done the research during the 2010/2011. The representative sample consisted of 1103 students from 16 primary and secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. We applied a specially designed questionnaire on the level of knowledge for particular classes of substances as well as new forms of addiction (internet, gambling). Important are data on different levels of students' knowledge about certain classes of substances. The low level of correct answers was noted for the way of cannabis use (5.3%), the consequences of amphetamines use (0.8%), the effects of opiates (1.9%), ways of using opiates (1.4%), effects of steroids (0.7%), the types of inhalants (3.8%), types of synthetic drugs (18.7%) and the ability to detect substances in the urine (0.5%). The high level of correct answers was noted on the issue of the consequences of using marijuana (84.4%), sedatives (89.4%), possibility the Internet addiction (85.7%), computer games dependence (86.4%) and betting (90.9%). This work provide guidelines for educational programs in order to improve students' knowledge in this field.
Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation
J. R. Dim,T. Y. Nakajima,T. Takamura,N. Kikuchi
Advances in Meteorology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/872857
Abstract: Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity) are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from satellite observations and those simulated by atmospheric models are compared. The models studied are the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) and the National Center for Environmental Protection/Department Of Energy (NCEP/DOE). The satellite observations are from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra/MODIS) satellite. The simulations performed are obtained through a forward radiative transfer calculation procedure. The resulting radiances are transformed into the upper tropospheric brightness temperature (UTBT) and relative humidity (UTRH). The discrepancies between the simulated data and the observations are analyzed. These analyses show that both the NICAM and the NCEP/DOE simulated UTBT and UTRH have comparable distribution patterns. However the simulations’ differences with the observations are generally lower with the NCEP/DOE than with the NICAM. The NCEP/DOE model outputs very often overestimate the UTBT and therefore present a drier upper troposphere. The impact of the lower troposphere instability (dry convection) on the upper tropospheric moisture and the consequences on the models’ results are evaluated through a thunderstorm and moisture predictor (the K-stability index). The results obtained show a positive relation between the instability and the root mean square error (RMSE: observation versus models). The study of the impact of convective clouds shows that the area covered by these clouds increases with the humidity of the upper troposphere in clear sky and above low clouds, and at the same time, the error between the observations and the models also increases. The impact of the above low clouds heat distribution on the models is studied through the relation between the low clouds cover and their effective emissivity. The models’ error appears to be high at midrange effective emissivity clouds.
Emergence of an environmental citizenship in Senegalese rural areas: local development initiatives by the Fannabara association in Missirah (Fatick, Senegal)
M. Fall, M. N. Dimé,C. O. Sarr
Field Actions Science Reports (FACTS) , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/facts-2-79-2009
Abstract: In Missirah, a village in Senegal, a group of young ecologists who are part of an association called {Fannabara}, developed initiatives with the objective of restoring deteriorating ecosystems and promoting local culture. Along with the many numerous to their credit, in cooperation with partners such as the IUCN and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), Fannabara is trying to establish itself as a framework within which the interests of the Missirah communities can be defended. The projects undertaken are in line with a perspective that promotes public-awareness, education and actions for a sustainable development. The project is dependent on obtaining the necessary resources to meet the ecological, economic, social and cultural challenges faced in Missirah. This research shows that the decentralization and accountability context for community-level players – associated with the changes taking place in rural areas, namely as they relate to the participation of populations in the governance of biodiversity – has greatly contributed to the promotion of new local development dynamics.
Emergence of an environmental citizenship in Senegalese rural areas: local development initiatives by the Fannabara association in Missirah (Fatick, Senegal) émergence d’une écocitoyenneté en milieu rural sénégalais : initiatives de gouvernance locale de la biodiversité par l’Association Fannabara à Missirah (Région de Fatick, Sénégal)
M. Fall,M. N. Dimé,C. O. Sarr
Field Actions Science Reports , 2010,
Abstract: In Missirah, a village in Senegal, a group of young ecologists who are part of an association called Fannabara, developed initiatives with the objective of restoring deteriorating ecosystems and promoting local culture. Along with the many numerous to their credit, in cooperation with partners such as the IUCN and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), Fannabara is trying to establish itself as a framework within which the interests of the Missirah communities can be defended. The projects undertaken are in line with a perspective that promotes public-awareness, education and actions for a sustainable development. The project is dependent on obtaining the necessary resources to meet the ecological, economic, social and cultural challenges faced in Missirah. This research shows that the decentralization and accountability context for community-level players – associated with the changes taking place in rural areas, namely as they relate to the participation of populations in the governance of biodiversity – has greatly contributed to the promotion of new local development dynamics. à Missirah, village du Sénégal, des initiatives ont été développées par un groupe de jeunes écologistes regroupés au sein de l’association Fannabara. Leurs objectifs visent la restauration des écosystèmes en dégradation et la promotion de la culture locale. Tout en comptant à son actif de nombreuses réalisations, avec des partenaires comme l’UICN et le Fonds pour l’Environnement Mondial (FEM), Fannabara cherche à se positionner comme le cadre de défense des intérêts des populations de Missirah. Les projets initiés s’inscrivent dans une perspective de sensibilisation, d’éducation et d’actions pour un environnement durable. Le tout étant conditionné par l’obtention de moyens permettant de les réaliser pour répondre aux défis écologiques, économiques, sociaux et culturels à Missirah. Cette recherche montre que le contexte de décentralisation et de responsabilisation des acteurs à la base, associé aux mutations dans les zones rurales, notamment dans leurs dimensions liées à la participation des populations dans la gouvernance de la biodiversité, ont grandement favorisé les nouvelles dynamiques de développement local. En Missirah, una aldea de Senegal, un grupo de jóvenes ecologistas que forman parte de una asociación llamada Fannabara, desarrolló iniciativas con el objetivo de restaurar los deteriorados ecosistemas y promover la cultura local. Contando en su haber con numerosas realizaciones, en cooperación con socios como el IUCN y el Fondo Mundial para el Medio Ambiente (FMMA),
Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation
J. R. Dim,T. Y. Nakajima,T. Takamura,N. Kikuchi
Advances in Meteorology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/872857
Abstract: Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity) are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from satellite observations and those simulated by atmospheric models are compared. The models studied are the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) and the National Center for Environmental Protection/Department Of Energy (NCEP/DOE). The satellite observations are from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra/MODIS) satellite. The simulations performed are obtained through a forward radiative transfer calculation procedure. The resulting radiances are transformed into the upper tropospheric brightness temperature (UTBT) and relative humidity (UTRH). The discrepancies between the simulated data and the observations are analyzed. These analyses show that both the NICAM and the NCEP/DOE simulated UTBT and UTRH have comparable distribution patterns. However the simulations’ differences with the observations are generally lower with the NCEP/DOE than with the NICAM. The NCEP/DOE model outputs very often overestimate the UTBT and therefore present a drier upper troposphere. The impact of the lower troposphere instability (dry convection) on the upper tropospheric moisture and the consequences on the models’ results are evaluated through a thunderstorm and moisture predictor (the K-stability index). The results obtained show a positive relation between the instability and the root mean square error (RMSE: observation versus models). The study of the impact of convective clouds shows that the area covered by these clouds increases with the humidity of the upper troposphere in clear sky and above low clouds, and at the same time, the error between the observations and the models also increases. The impact of the above low clouds heat distribution on the models is studied through the relation between the low clouds cover and their effective emissivity. The models’ error appears to be high at midrange effective emissivity clouds. 1. Introduction For a reliable computation of the Earth radiation budget, the accuracy of the upper tropospheric relative humidity (UTRH) is essential. The UTRH is a widely varying parameter in the water vapour
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