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Post-Stroke Depression at Teaching Hospital Center of Libreville  [PDF]
I. A. Camara, C. M. Coulibaly, N. Diouf Mbourou, P. M. Gnigone, G. A. G. Mambila Matsalou, A. Nsounda Mandzela, L. Oura, J. Nyangui Mapaga, U. D. Kombila, M. M. Moubecka, P. N. Kouna
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105049
Abstract:
Introduction: Post-stroke depression occurs in a context of stroke characterized by sadness, loss of interest, feelings of guilt, loss of appetite, a feeling of tiredness, and a lack of concentration. Material and Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2016. For the diagnosis of post-stroke depression, neuropsychological tests (DSM-IV and MADRS) were used. The collection approach was a maintenance survey followed by an examination. Results: From 153 stroke patients, 48.4% (n = 74) had post-stroke depression. Depressed mood was noted in 50.3% and 43.8% had a marked decrease in interest. 67.9% of these patients had a primary level of education. Widows had 4.2 times the risk of post-stroke depression, and married and retired patients were 3 times more likely than public servants. The occurrence of post-stroke depression was significantly related to the presence of motor deficit in our patients, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: These results suggest that the risk of developing depression after stroke increases with the motor deficit. The DSM-IV and MADRS scores remain neuropsychological examinations of choice for the diagnostic approach.
Tail Behavior of Threshold Models with Innovations in the Domain of Attraction of the Double Exponential Distribution  [PDF]
Aliou Diop, Saliou Diouf
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.25067
Abstract: We consider a two-regime threshold autoregressive model where the driving noises are sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables with common distribution function which belongs to the domain of attraction of double exponential distribution. If in addition, for each and where denotes the convolution of the distribution function and we determine the tail behavior of the process and give the exact values of the coefficient.
Evaluation of the Effects of Irradiation of Peanut Grain by a Gamma-Ray Beam on Culture  [PDF]
G. Mbaye, M. Soumboundou, L. A. D. Diouf, B. Ndong, A. R. Djiboune, P. M. Sy, S. M. Dieng, M. Diouf, N. N. Diouf, A. Barry, M. Diarra
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.73008
Abstract: The problems of agriculture in Senegal result in a low yield per hectare and poor seed quality contributing strongly to the decline in productivity. Mutagenesis by X- or Y-ray irradiation makes it possible to obtain genetic mutants necessary to improve production. It is in this context that we undertook this study to evaluate the effects induced on the cultivation of peanut seeds irradiated by X-rays at low doses applied in radiotherapy. X-ray irradiation of four (2, 3, 4, 5) lots of peanuts are performed with respectively 0.5, 1.5, 2 and 4 Gray using the cobalt 60 therapy device (Alcyon II). The seeding of the seeds and then the following-up of the crops during 35 days allowed us to study the parameters of germination, growth and yield. The results obtained after monitoring revealed that the irradiation did not have any significant impact on germination and would appear to temporarily inhibit the growth rate compared to the control batch. However, the decrease in weight of the harvested seeds can be explained by the absence of fertilizer during the cultivation.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Intervention for Malaria Control in Rural Areas in China
Gorgui Diouf,Yihua Xu,Patrick N. Kpanyen,Li Cai
Global Journal of Health Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n241
Abstract: Malaria can be prevented at the individual level by taking personal protections. However, effective preventive action is a result of public health programs that adequately teach preventive measures to the population. This study was carried out in 2007 to evaluate the knowledge on malaria control and prevention and to evaluate the effects of intervention for malaria control in rural community in China. An interventional study followed approximately 1971 randomly selected respondents over a period of four months. According to the level of endemicity of the areas, this particular study was carried out in a rural community. Two surveys were performed for the study in point. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were used as predictor variables in logistic regression analysis. Different patterns of malaria behavior were found in the closely situated households and at the school level. Gender, age, length of residence time in the areas, and health seeking behaviors was found to be statistically significant predictors of health behaviors (P <0.001). The likelihood between male and female to admit that malaria is a threat for human health was 96.3% and 97.1% respectively, (Odds Ratio = 0.782; 95% Confidence Interval 0.458, 1.335; P-value = 0.368). The use of mosquito nets was approximately evenly split between genders (OR = 0.813; 95% C.I.: 0.645, 1.025; P = 0.080). Public health campaigns through iterative actions should be maintained in the region to strengthen the awareness of the population for malaria prevention and control.
Genetic transformation of forest trees
Diaga Diouf
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants.
Le cahier de doléances des Habitants de Saint-Louis Contexte et signi cation
Mamadou Diouf
Synergies Afrique Centrale et de l'Ouest , 2006,
Abstract:
Mosquito salivary gland protein preservation in the field for immunological and biochemical analysis
A Fontaine, A Pascual, I Diouf, N Bakkali, S Bourdon, T Fusai, C Rogier, L Almeras
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-33
Abstract: Mosquitoes are responsible for a wide range of important diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in tropical and temperate regions [1,2]. Pathogen transmission occurs during the blood-feeding of infected mosquitoes, concomitant with salivary protein release [3]. Analysis of salivary mosquito contents using transcriptomic and proteomic tools [4-6] have revealed a panel of salivary molecules with anti-hemostatic and immuno-modulatory properties which facilitate blood meals by counteracting host's defences [6,7]. It was repeatedly demonstrated that mosquito salivary proteins could also elicit a host IgG response in natural conditions [8-10]. Thus, the potential use of these antigenic proteins as epidemiological markers for evaluating individual human exposure level to specific mosquito species is a major research area. Additionally, the identification of such vector-borne immunogenic proteins can lead to a panel of promising applications such as the evaluation of anti-mosquito strategies effectiveness, the mapping of new infestation areas, the estimation of disease transmission risk or the development of vaccines protecting the host against the transmission and establishment of pathogens [11,12]. As our aim is to identify biological markers of individual exposure to arthropod bites using correspondent antigenic materials, it was necessary to develop a convenient protocol to collect and preserve biological samples in the field.The most common method used to obtain salivary proteins is salivary gland (SG) dissection [13-15]. Mosquito SGs contain a cocktail of enzymes and active proteins necessary for their blood-feeding that could alter salivary protein integrity [3,16]. To avoid protein degradation, SGs are generally collected on ice and stored at or below -20°C until needed [15,17]. However, maintaining samples in a frozen environment can be hard to achieve in field conditions.Although hundreds of mosquito species have been reared in laboratories, relatively few ha
Impact of daily consumption of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) dry leaf powder on iron status of Senegalese lactating women
N Idohou-Dossou, A Diouf, AL Gueye, AT Guiro, S Wade
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: A randomized study was conducted to test the efficacy of Moringa powder on iron status and weight gain in women. In an open-labelled randomized trial, 82 moderately anaemic, lactating women, aged 26.7 6.5 years, received a weekly dose of either 100g of Moringa powder(Moringa group) or 120 mg iron sulphate with 0.5 mg folicacid (Control group). Data from 64 women (33 from Moringa group and 31 from Control group) were analyzed. Baseline parameters, socio-economic, anthropometry, haematology, plasma ferritin, and acute phase proteins were comparable in both groups. Low plasma ferritin (< 12 g/l) indicating iron deficiency was found in 13 and 14 women from the Moringa and Control groups, respectively. After 3 months oftreatment, mean haemoglobin concentrations significantly increased in both groups (p<0.001) but iron stores were unchanged in the Moringa group while they significantly increased in the Control group indicating that consumption of Moringa leaves failed to restore iron stores in anaemic subjects. A slight improvement was observed in the prevalence of anaemia in both groups but anaemia still persisted due to other reasons than iron deficiency anaemia. None of the groups gained weightduring the 3 months. However, the average weight lost was less important in the Moringa group (-0.8 2.1 kg) compared to the control group (-1.2 2.3 kg) but the difference was not significant (p=0.45).The amount of digestible protein in the powder could suggest that the consumption of Moringa was beneficial to the rural women by preventing weight loss during the rainy season. Micronutrient status improvement of vulnerable people in developing countries like Senegal shouldcombine diet-based strategies through production and consumption of animal derived food, vegetable, fruits and food fortification program. However, Moringa Oleifera is one example of local food that can be used in nutritional intervention program, but its use needs additional rigorous clinical trials to confirm its nutritional benefits.
A Retrospective Study to Determine the Prevalence and Outcome of Tuberculosis among Patients Who Visited the TB Annex Hospital in Congo Town, Monrovia, Liberia from July 2009 to July 2010
Patrick N. Kpanyen,Gorgui Diouf,Augustine F. Tokpa,Moses W. Toe
Global Journal of Health Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v3n1p110
Abstract: This study was conducted at the TB Annex Hospital in Monrovia; the capital city for Liberia. The Annex is the only public health center build currently to treat TB and its related complications. The major aim of this paper was to determine the rate of sputum positive cases among those who visited the TB Annex Hospital from July 2009 to July 2010 and factors (age, gender, education, time and season) associated with this probability. Additionally, it was meant to find the rate of treatment compliance and various factors also associated with its probability. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used and all the 299 patients who visited the Center to seek health care’s hospital charts were thoroughly reviewed. Results showed in Figure 1 that the prevalence of TB was very high among those who visited the TB Annex Hospital. The Exact Binomial Test was used with p<0.05 and CI (0.864 – 0.934).Accordingly, the monthly incidence of the disease remains very high ranging from 75% to 100% respectively. Amazingly, in January 2010 alone, all 42 patients who visited the Annex were sputum positive. During the period under study according to Table 1 and looking at the sputum screening test by age distribution as a variable, the various age range were set at 0-6,7-12,13-18,19-24, 25-30and 31years and above respectively. Accordingly, the latter recorded the highest number of patients 126 out of 299 yet with p>0.05.Out of the 299 patients, 172 was males with 127 females. For their educational level, its corresponding p is < 0.05 indicating that the disease was distributed based on their level of education. The dry season recorded 133 patients out of which 124 were sputum positive cases. According to Table 2, age group 31 and above completed their TB treatment(66.09%) and the rest closely dispersed but p>0.05. For gender, the females did extremely well (80.18%) in complying with treatment than their male counterparts p<0.05. There was no difference seen with regards to the distribution of the disease by season as a factor.
Effect of GammaRay in the Progeny of Trispecific Hybrid [(Gossypium hirsutum x G. raimondii)2 x G. sturtianum]
Fatimata Bintou Hassedine DIOUF,Halima BENBOUZA,N’Guessan Olivier KONAN,Djibril SARR
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyse the possibilities of fixing in the progeny of the [(Gossypium hirsutum x G. raimondii)2 x G. sturtianum] (HRS) trispecies hybrid, the glandless-seed and glanded-plant trait. The expression of the character was analysed in progenies obtained by selfing the HRS BC2S5/9/6/1/51/15 genetic stock. This character is controlled by one or more genes located on introgressed chromosome fragments of G. sturtianum. These foreign DNA fragments seem also carriers of gametes terminators genes on the same chromosome fragments and there would be a possible existence of negative interactions between some of the introgressed G. sturtianum alleles and the G. hirsutum genetic background inducing post-zygotic mortality. In order to break existing lethal links, some of the studied seeds were treated with 15 krad of gamma radiation. The transfer of G. sturtianum chromosome fragments introgressed stocks was assessed using ten mapped SSR markers, carried out on 78 plants HRS ‘BC2S6’. Gamma irradiation used to overcome lethality in HRS hybrid did not give expected results in M2 because of high rate of abortion observed in HRS ‘BC2S6’ seeds. However, gamma ray did not induce the appearance of chimeric tissues in the HRS ‘BC2S5/9/6/1/51/15’ in M1 plants. Moreover, the notable fertility improvement observed for some plants issued from irradiated seeds constitutes a clue of the achievement of favourables recombinations due to the gamma ray treatment. The perspectives opened by the results obtained for the stabilization of the glandless-seed and glanded-plant trait in a G. hirsutum commercial variety are discussed.
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