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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 197842 matches for " N. Amidu "
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Bacterial contamination of donor blood at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana.
C Opoku-Okrah, P Feglo, N Amidu, MP Dakorah
African Health Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood can result in sepsis and will constitute a substantial health burden to the patient. Objective: To assess the level of transfusion related sepsis and the bacterial types responsible for the contamination at the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Method: We sampled 80 refrigerated donor blood at the blood bank and cultured them for bacteria. The antimicrobial sensitivities of the isolates were also determined. Results: 14 blood bags representing 17.5% grew isolates of various bacteria. Ten (10) of the 14 isolates were Gram positive cocci representing 71.42% making it the commonest contaminant. 50% of the gram positive cocci were identified to be coagulase negative staphylococci and 21.42% were Staphylococcus aureus. There were 14.28% isolates which were Gram positive rods, and were identified to be Corynebacterium diphtheroids. There were two isolates which were Gram negative rods; one was identified as Escherichia coli and the other one Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sensitivity among the organisms were varied; as all the 14 (100%) of the organisms isolated were sensitive to amikacin, only 14.28% of the coagulase negative staphylococci were sensitive to co-trimoxazole, 28.5% were sensitive to ampicillin, 42.8% were sensitive to cefuroxime and 71.4% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Sensitivity to gentamicin was observed to be 85.7% and 28.5% were sensitive to Tetracycline. Only the 10 Gram positive cocci were tested against erythromycin and Cloxacillin; where 70.00% were sensitive to cloxacillin and 90% were sensitive to erythromycin. Conclusion: All the Staphylococcus aureus isolated were resistant to both ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Potential dangers and consequences of transfusing multidrug resistance bacteria have been discussed.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen/sportswomen and sedentary workers in the Kumasi metropolis
WKBA Owiredu, N Amidu, E Gockah-Adapoe, RKD Ephraim
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2011,
Abstract: This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active sportsmen/sportswomen and sedentary workers in the Kumasi Metropolis using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study was conducted between March and April, 2010. One hundred and eighty six (186) participants were involved with eighty five (85) being active sportsmen/sportswomen as study control and one hundred and one (101) sedentary workers from the Kumasi metropolis as study subjects. The study participants were recruited from a population of young and adult individuals between the ages of 19-82 years. The percentage prevalence of MetS was 1.6%, 7.4% and 14.4% when the WHO, NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively were applied on the total population. Generally, the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among the sedentary group i.e. 3.5%, 14.0% and 26.7% for WHO, NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively as compared to the active population i.e. 0.0%, 2.0% and 3.9% for WHO, NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively. The prevalence of the MetS varied greatly between the active and sedentary subjects depending on the criteria used. Central obesity appears to be the key determinant of the prevalence of the MetS in Ghana. Preventive actions such as exercise, active lifestyles and healthy eating habits have to be implemented to reduce the tendency to obesity and MetS in the Ghanaian populace.
Detection of Weak D (Du) Phenotype among Rh-D Negative Males and Females in Kumasi, Ghana
C Opoku-Okrah, N Amidu, S Amoah-Sakyi
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Weak Rh D phenotypes are very frequent in Africans. They are capable of causing alloimmunization in Rh D-negative individuals. Some weak Ds may elude routine typing using direct agglutination techniques. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of weak D phenotype among Rhnegatives, using indirect antiglobulin technique. A total of 400 donors between the ages of 16 and 35 years who were grouped by the blood bank were randomly sampled over a period of 2 months. Three hundred and sixty nine (92.25%) were typed as Rh D-positive and 31 (7.75%) RhD-negative. Two (6.45%) of the Rh D-negative donors were weak D positive while 29 (93.55%) were weak D negative. Among the males 25 (9.43%) were Rh D-negative and 240 (90.57%) RhD-positive. Two (8%) of the 25 males were weak D positive. Among the females, 6 (4.44%) were Rh D-negative and 129 (95.56%) RhD- positive. This implies that, there are people in Kumasi with weak D phenotype which cannot be detected by the direct monoclonal anti-D agglutination. Consequently, indirect antiglobulin test may be indicated for such individuals typed Rh D-negative. This study has shown the need for a comprehensive policy on appropriate testing of donors and newborns, and management of Rh D-negative mothers in the Region. This should include weak D testing of all Rh Dnegative blood donors before transfusion in Rh D-negative patient.
An External Quality Assessment Of Haematology Laboratories-A Ghanaian Experience
C Opoku-Okrah, N Amidu, A Alhassan, S Mohammed
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Developed countries have guaranteed the quality of clinical laboratories through quality assurance programmes. However, these programmes have not received the needed attention in Ghanaian haematology laboratories, as is the case in many developing countries where visual counting of blood cells are the usual procedures. To assess the level of analytical quality of haematology laboratories in the Ashanti region of Ghana, form of an external quality assessment scheme was undertaken. The survey covered twelve haematology laboratories in both the public and the private sectors. Control blood samples were sent to the laboratories to be analyzed. The study, which lasted for five months, covered such routine haematological parameters as Hb, PCV, Total WBC and platelets. The results from these laboratories were compared to that of an automated cell counter using the Cell-Dyn 3700 (Abbot Diagnostic Division, USA). About 80% of the laboratories studied which were using the manual counting, achieved the medically accepted analytical performance for all the parameters except platelets, where the percentage of the laboratories dropped to about 70%. The study has established the need for a continuous internal and external quality assessment in haematology. Such practice together with continuous education of laboratory personnel and the provision of automated instruments will help to achieve optimum laboratory quality needed for proper health care delivery in the country.
Metabolic syndrome among garage workers in the automobile industry in Kumasi, Ghana
N Amidu, WKBA Owiredu, EK Mireku, C Agyemang
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes but little is known about its prevalence among the active healthy population whose occupational activity is mainly manual and energy based. The aim of this study therefore, was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its components among garage workers in the automobile industry using three existing definitions. Two hundred garage workers were recruited from Bantama (86) and Sofoline (114) in Kumasi, Ghana. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were measured. Blood pressure of subjects was also taken. Laboratory analysis included fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The prevalence of MetS among the studied population was 18%, 16% and 13% using NCEP ATP III, WHO and IDF criteria respectively. Reduced HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component for ATP III (38.5%); central obesity was the most prevalent component for WHO (53.0%) and raised FBS was the most prevalent component for the IDF definition (54.0%). MetS seems to be on the increase among the manually active population even in the absence of obesity. There is therefore, an urgent need for a health policy shift towards control and prevention of MetS in Ghanaians.
Residual Risk of Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus through Blood Transfusion in Ghana: Evaluation of the performance of Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
WKBA Owiredu, J Osei-Yeboah, N Amidu, EF Laing
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Blood transfusion necessitates screening of transmissible infectious pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) to curtail post transfusion risk of infection. The study re-examined this approach by evaluating the efficiency of solely testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) marker for blood transfusion, the efficacy of the various immunochromatographic assays in the screening process and the residual risk of hepatitis B viral transmission through transfusion in Ghana. A convenient purposive sampling technique was used in selecting ten hospitals, from each of the 10 regions. A total of 480 aliquots of blood were collected anonymously, from blood already tested for HbsAg with immunochromatographic assay in the blood banks of the chosen facilities and declared nega-tive. Plasma from the blood was obtained through centrifugation, separated into well labeled micro-tubes and transported in cold boxes to the Molecular Medicine Department-KNUST. The samples were then re-examined for all six hepatitis B virus (HBV) (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc and IgM anti-HBc) serological markers using ELISA assay. When a total of 480 plasma samples from the blood banks of the ten chosen facilities were re-examined with the ELISA assay, 39(8.13%) samples reacted positive for HBsAg, 60(12.5%) reacted for Anti-HBs, 13(2.71%) reacted for HBeAg, 51(10.63%) for Anti-HBe and 329(68.54%) reacted positively for Anti-HBc. None of the samples reacted positive for IgM anti-HBc. The estimated sero-prevalence for all HBV serological markers is 76.67% whereas the estimated residual risk of HBV infection through blood transfusion caused by the use of immunochromatographic methods in the screening of blood for transfusion was 8.47%(5.98% - 10.94% at 95% CI). An additional risk of 3.10%(1.54% - 4.62% at 95% CI) of HBV infection through transfusion was also estimated for the non-testing of other HBV infectious sero-logical markers. The total residual risk for transfusion transmitted HBV was 11.16%(8.34% - 13.95% at 95% CI). The study revealed that neither the kits in use nor the testing strategy in place now is adequate to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus through transfusion in Ghana due to the high residual risk of transmission of HBV. There is therefore an urgent need for a sustainable quality control system on the screening of HBsAg in blood for donation in Ghana.
Putative risk factors of pregnancy-induced hypertension among Ghanaian pregnant women
WKBA Owiredu, L Ahenkorah, CA Turpin, N Amidu, EF Laing
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Hypertensive pregnancy is an important cause of maternal mortality with several risk factors which can be related to regional and ethnic factors. Although there have been many studies worldwide on preeclampsia, not many have come from black Africa and for that matter Ghana. This study sought to identify some putative risk factors of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension among Ghanaian pregnant women. A case-control study was conducted among pregnant women visiting Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana between November, 2006 and December, 2007 to determine the risk factors for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and previous obstetric history were obtained by facetoface interviews and assessed through medical records. One hundred PIH women (thirty with preeclampsia (PE) and seventy with gestational hypertension (GH) and fifty normotensive pregnant women (controls) in the second half of pregnancy were recruited for the study. Advanced maternal age was a significant risk for developing PIH (PE+GH). Obesity increased the risk of PIH. Family history of hypertension increased the risk of developing PIH (aOR 6.8; 95% CI 2.3-19.6). Nulliparity was not a risk factor for PE (cOR 0.0; 95% CI 0.0–0.2) but was a risk factor for GH (cOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2-7.4) from this study. Condom use in the male partner, contraceptive use in females, change of partner as well as placental hormonal imbalance were also associated with PIH. The findings of this study suggest that, besides maternal aberrations posing risk for PIH, change of partner and placental roles could also be linked to the aetiology of PIH. Furthermore, some risk factors for PIH are similar for both non-African populations as well as black Africans.
The impact of seminal zinc and fructose concentration on human sperm characteristic
N Amidu, WKBA Owiredu, MAT Bekoe, L Quaye
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study assessed the association between the estimated fructose and zinc concentration and various seminal characteristics. The study participants include 90 male subjects visiting the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between January and July, 2010 for semen analysis as part of routine fertility investigations prior to treatment. Seminal fructose concentration was significantly lower when the normozoospermic group was compared to the oligozoospermic group (P < .0001) and in the normozoospermic group compared to the azoospermic group (P = 0.0096). A comparison be-tween the oligospermic group and the azoospermic group gave no statistically significant differ-ence. Fructose correlated positively with volume (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001) and head defect (r = 0.07, P > 0.05) and negatively with count (r = -0.21, P < 0.05). Zinc correlated negatively with volume (r = -0.09) and head defect (r = -0.20) and positively with motility (r = 0.18), count (r = 0.15) and tail de-fect (r = 0.11). Seminal fructose and zinc concentrations correlated negatively (r = -0.26, P < 0.05). The role of seminal fructose concentration does not only lie in the assessment of seminal vesicle dysfunction but in conjunction with other seminal properties could give a useful indication of male reproductive function whilst seminal zinc concentration might not be most appropriate for the as-sessment of male reproductive dysfunction. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2012) 1(1), 14-20
Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of a Leaf Extract of Palisota hirsuta K. Schum. (Commelinaceae) in Mice
E. Woode,E. Boakye-Gyasi,N. Amidu,C. Ansah
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: The effect of a 70% (v/v) ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a traditional West African plant used for CNS disorders and pain, in animal models of anxiety and depression-the open field test, the light/dark box, the Elevated plus Maze (EPM), the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. P. hirsuta (30-300 mg kg-1) treated mice exhibited anxiolytic activity in all the anxiety models used by significantly increasing the percentage of center entries and the percentage time spent in the center of the open field. P. hirsuta also significantly increased the time spent in the lit area in comparison to the time spent in the dark area of the light/dark box. In the EPM, it significantly increased open arm activity which was completely reversed by flumazenil (3 mg kg-1), a specific antagonist of the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor complex. In the antidepressant test, the extract also dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 114.55±72.69 mg kg-1) and TST (70.42±0.06 mg kg-1). Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.), reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) or a combination of the two drugs attenuated the anti-immobility effects of both imipramime and the extract but not fluoxetine. Neither the extract nor the standard drugs used modified motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. These results suggest that the extract has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the models employed possibly by GABAergic activation and/or effect on monoamine levels in the CNS.
Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) antigen in three densely populated communities in Kumasi, Ghana
Amidu, N.,Alhassan, A.,Obirikorang, C.,Feglo, P.
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in many developing countries including Ghana. It is also known that there are differences in the prevalence in communities of different socioeconomic levels. Re-ports are scanty on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B-virus in densely populated suburbs in Kumasi, Ghana. This study was conducted in three densely populated communities in Kumasi to determine the relative seroprevalence of hepatitis B. Serum samples were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals from Aboabo, Tafo and Garrison and tested for HBsAg using a commercial test kit (One Step HBsAg Test Device, InTEC Products, INC, China) after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 783 subjects (mean age: 37.93 ± 0.62) had their samples collected for testing. There were 376 females and 407 males. A higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was detected among the males (11.79%) as compared to the females (5.33%). Prevalence of sero-positivity was highest among adolescents (19-24 years, 14.14%; 25-34 years, 13.10%) and children (<19 years, 12.26%) and lowest among the aged >54 years old. Of all the three sub-populations sampled, only Garrison was determined to be in the intermediate endemicity class for HBsAg (6.78%); both Aboabo (9.02%) and Tafo (10.0%) are in the high endemicity class. However, overall prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was 8.68%. Our study suggests that in Ghana, local prevalence of the disease may vary widely, possibly as a consequence of lifestyle and socioeconomic variations even in closely related settlements.
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