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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 90850 matches for " Mustafa I Elbashir "
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Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan
Ishag Adam, Amar H Khamis, Mustafa I Elbashir
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-18
Abstract: The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004.A total 102 (13.7%) had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6%) of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P < 0.05).Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P < 0.05). A significantly lower haemoglobin was observed in those with severe falciparum malaria compared to non-severe form (8.3 g/dl, 95% CI 7.6–9.1 versus 9.4, 95% CI 9.1–9.7, P = < 0.05).The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets) may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes serious adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. It is the leading cause maternal mortality in Sudan [1-7].The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the pre-existing immunity of the mother. Women living in areas of low transmission have little immunity to malaria which can cause severe syndromes, such as cerebral malaria and pulmonary oedema. In contrast, those who live in areas of stable malaria transmission enjoy greater immunity and experience fewer symptoms during episodes of malaria, although they commonly develop severe anaemia as consequence of the infection [1,2,5,8,9].Understanding the epidemiology of malaria during pregnancy provides important insight into relevant immunological pr
Polymerase chain reaction and histology in diagnosis of placental malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in Central Sudan
Haggar M Elbashir, Magdi M Salih, Elhassan M Elhassan, Ahmed A Mohmmed, Mustafa I Elbashir, Ishag Adam
Diagnostic Pathology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-6-128
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted at Medani Hospital, which serves catchment area which is characterized by unstable malaria transmission. One hundred and seven placentae were investigated for malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histology.out of 107 investigated placentae, 33 (30.8%) and 34 (31.8%) were positive for malaria by histology (two (2%) and 31(29.0%) were acute and past infections, respectively) and PCR, respectively. Out of 33 positive by histology, 15 were positive by the PCR while 18 were negative. The sensitivity of the PCR was 45.5% (95% CI: 29.2%- 62.5%). Out of 74 which were negative by histology, 19 were positive by the PCR. This is translated in specificity of 74.3% (95% CI: 63.5%- 83.3%). Of those tested positive by the PCR, 15 were positive by the histology, while 19 were negative. This is translated into a positive predictive value of 44.1% (95% CI: 28.3%- 61.0%). Of those 73 tested negative by the PCR, 55 were negative according to histology while 23 were positive. This is translated into a negative predictive value of 75.3% (95% CI: 64.5%-84.2%).PCR had low sensitivity and specificity in comparison to placental histology, perhaps because the vast majority of the placental infections were past infections. Further research is needed.Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1]. It has been estimated that, of 85.3 million pregnancies in areas with Plasmodium falciparum transmission, 54.7 million occurred in areas with stable transmission and 30.6 million in areas with unstable transmission [2]. In Sudan, malaria during pregnancy is a major health problem where pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria regardless to their age or parity [3-5]. Malaria has serious adverse effects on pregnancy and it is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality in Sudan [6-8].During pregnancy, adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to syncytiotrophob
Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan
AbdelAziem A Ali, Duria A Rayis, Tajeldin M Abdallah, Mustafa I Elbashir, Ishag Adam
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-311
Abstract: This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) < 7 g/dl, n = 303) who delivered from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Socio-demographic and obstetric data were analysed and compared with a similar number of women with mild/moderate anaemia (Hb = 7-10.9 g/dl, n = 303) and with no anaemia (Hb > 11 g/dl, n = 303). Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and stillbirth.There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8%) women had anaemia and 303 (3.2%) had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007). Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7), and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0). The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia). The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P < 0.001).The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.Anaemia during pregnancy is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries [1]. It affects 41.8% of pregnant women globally, with the highest prevalence in Africa [2]. There is however significant variation in the prevalence of anaemia both within and between countries, necessitating a need for local data to help to improve preventive programmes. Anaemia during pregnancy, especially severe anaemia, is associat
Malaria and pre-eclampsia in an area with unstable malaria transmission in Central Sudan
Ishag Adam, Elhassan M Elhassan, Ahmed A Mohmmed, Magdi M Salih, Mustafa I Elbashir
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-258
Abstract: A case control study was conducted in Medani Hospital, which locates in an area of unstable malaria transmission in Central Sudan. Case (N = 143) were women with pre-eclampsia, which was defined as systolic blood presure≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg and proteinuria. Controls were parturient women (N = 143) without any blood pressure values > 139/89 mm Hg or proteinuria. Obstetrical and medical characteristics were gathered from both groups through structured questionnaires. Placental histopathology examinations for malaria were performed.Twenty-eight (19.6%) vs. 16 (11.2%); P = 0.04 of the cases vs. controls, had placental malaria infections. Five (2%), 1 (2%) and 22 (28.0%) vs. 1, 2 and 13 of the placentae showed acute, chronic and past infection on histopathology examination in the two groups respectively, while 115 (80.4%) vs.127 (88.8%) of them showed no infection, P = 0.04. In multivariate analysis, while there were no associations between age, parity, educational level, lack of antenatal care, blood groups and body mass index and pre-eclampsia; family history of hypertension and placental malaria (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.0-5.2; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with pre-eclampsia.Placental malaria was associated with pre-eclampsia. Further research is needed.Pre-eclampsia, one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy, it affects approximately 10% of all human births [1]. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, as well as an important cause of perinatal mortality [2]. It has been estimated that 90% of the global malaria burden occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, where during pregnancy 40% women are exposed to malaria infections [3]. Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to the mother, her fetus and the neonate [4]. Although pre-eclampsia and maternal malaria would be expected frequently to occur concurrently in malarious areas, their interaction on the health of the mother and her baby has been little stu
Hypoglycaemia and severe plasmodium falciparum malaria among pregnant sudanese women in an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission
Aziem A Ali, Elhassan M Elhassan, Mamoun M Magzoub, Mustafa I Elbashir, Ishag Adam
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-88
Abstract: A hospital-based study was carried out to assess the pattern of severe P. falciparum malaria among pregnant women at the Kassala and Medani maternity hospitals, which are located in areas of unstable malaria transmission, in eastern and central Sudan, respectively. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic, clinical and obstetrical data. Suitable tests were performed for clinical and biochemical investigations.Among 222 pregnant women diagnosed with malaria at the two hospitals, 40 (18.0%) women at mean (SD) gestational age of 29.3 (6.7) weeks fulfilled one or more of the WHO criteria for severe P. falciparum malaria. These were hypoglycaemia (14; 35.5%), severe anaemia (12; 30%), hypotension (10; 25%), jaundice (9; 22.5%), cerebral malaria (6; 15%), repeated convulsions (4; 10%), hyperparasitaemia (4; 10.0%) and more than one manifestation (9; 22.5%). While the mean (SD) presenting temperature was significantly lower for women presenting with hypoglycaemia [38.2(0.6) versus 38.8(0.7) °C, P = 0.04], other clinical and biochemical characteristics were not significantly different among women with different manifestations of severe P. falciparum malaria.Preventive measures for pregnant women such as insecticide-treated bednets and chemoprophylaxis may be beneficial in areas of unstable malaria transmission. Early detection and prompt treatment of severe malaria, especially in pregnant women with hypoglycaemia, are needed.Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Africa, millions of women living in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year [1,2]. Malaria in pregnancy contributes to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Each year, more than 500,000 women die during pregnancy or childbirth [1]. Severe malaria is a medical emergency associated with high mortality, especially in cases with multiple organ dysfunction [3]. Cerebral malaria and severe malarial ana
Thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan
Adam Mayyada B,Adam Gamal K,Rayis Duria A,Elbashir Mustafa I
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-12-10
Abstract: Background Blood platelet levels are being evaluated as predictive and prognostic indicators of the severity of malaria infections in humans. However, there are few studies on platelets and Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy. Methods A case–control study was conducted at Gadarif Hospital in Eastern Sudan, an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria (cases) and healthy pregnant women (controls). Results The median (interquartile) platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with malaria (N = 60) than in the controls (N = 60), 61, 000 (43,000–85,000) vs. 249,000 (204,000–300,000)/μL, respectively, p < 0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the platelet counts in patients with severe P. falciparum malaria (N = 12) compared with those patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (N = 48), 68, 000 (33,000-88,000)/μL vs. 61, 000 (45,000–85,000)/μL, respectively, p = 0.8. While none of the control group had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <75, 000/μL), it was found that 6/12 (50%) and 27/48 (56.2%) (p <0.001) of the patients with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria had thrombocytopenia, respectively. Pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria, compared with the pregnant healthy control group, were at higher risk (OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 4.1–25.18; p < 0.001) of thrombocytopenia. Two patients experienced bleeding, and there was one maternal death due to cerebral malaria where the patient’s platelet count was only 28,000/μL. Conclusion P. falciparum malaria is associated with thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this setting. More research is needed.
Biochemical Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour Supplemented with Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolaba L.): Influence of Fermentation and/or Cooking
Hayat Z. Elbashir,AbdelMoniem,I. Mustafa,Abdullahi H. El-Tinay
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of cluster bean supplementation followed by fermentation and cooking on biochemical characteristics of sorghum cultivars flour. Two Sudanese sorghum cultivars (Dabar and WadAhmed) were supplemented with cluster bean. The flour of the two cultivars and supplements were fermented for different periods of time and then cooked. The proximate composition of the cultivars flour and cluster bean showed that the protein was found to be 8.36, 9.76 and 44.65% for Dabar, WadAhmed and cluster bean, respectively. Fermentation of the cultivars flour for different periods of time significantly (p<=0.05) changed the titratable acidity, non protein nitrogen, crude protein and the dry matter for both cultivars. The protein digestibility of the cultivars flour and supplements was significantly (p<=0.05) increased with fermentation time even after cooking. The protein fractions contents of the flour before and after cooking and that of the supplements were fluctuating for both cultivars. Lysine content of the cultivars flour was significantly (p<=0.05) increased with fermentation time even after supplementation. However, other amino acids contents were fluctuating with fermentation time before and after supplementation for both cultivars.
Monocytes and macrophages and placental malaria infections in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan
Magdi M Salih, Amal H Mohammed, Ahmed A Mohmmed, Gamal K Adam, Mustafa I Elbashir, Ishag Adam
Diagnostic Pathology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-6-83
Abstract: Ninety three placentae were investigated for malaria histological changes and immunohistochemical study for monocytes and macrophages (CD68).While 1(1.1%), 2(2.2%) and 20(21.5%) of the 93 placentae had acute, chronic and past malaria infections, 70(75.2%) had no malaria infections. Monocytes and macrophage (CD 68) were detected in 29 (31.2%) of these 93 placentae. Significantly higher rate of monocytes and macrophage were detected in placentae with malaria infections [11/23 (47.8%) vs. 18/70 (25.7%); P = 0.047] especially in placentae with past malaria infections. Placental malaria infections and monocytes and macrophages cells infiltration were not different between primiparae and multiparae. There was no significant difference in the birth weight between the women with placental malaria infections/monocytes and macrophages cells infiltration and those who had no placental malaria infections/cellular infiltrations.Significantly higher rate of monocytes and macrophage were detected in placentae with malaria infections. Neither placental malaria infections nor cellular infiltrates were associated with parity or lead to reduction of birth weight.Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; each year 25 million African women become pregnant in malaria endemic areas [1]. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria than their non-pregnant counterparts [2]. Malaria infections are associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes [3,4]. Malaria during pregnancy is a huge burden in Sudan [3,5] and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality [6].During pregnancy, adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to syncytiotrophoblast leads to parasite sequestration in the intervillous space. The parasite adheres specifically to chondroitin sulfate-A expressed on syncytiotrophoblast [7]. The increased susceptibility of pregnant women to malaria was thought to result from pregnancy-related immunomodulation an
The implication of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase gene mutations in modification of Plasmodium falciparum characteristics
Ishraga E A-Elbasit, Michael Alifrangis, Insaf F Khalil, Ib C Bygbjerg, Emad M Masuadi, Mustafa I Elbashir, Hayder A Giha
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-108
Abstract: To investigate the effects of dhfr/dhps mutations on parasite characteristics other than SP resistance.Parasite infections obtained from 153 Sudanese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with SP or SP + chloroquine, were successfully genotyped at nine codons in the dhfr/dhps genes by PCR-ELISA.Mutations were detected in dhfr at N51I, S108N and C59R, and in at dhps at A/S436F, A437G, K540E and A581G, the maximum number of mutations per infection were five. Based on number of mutant codons per infection (multiplicity of mutation, MOM), the infections were organized into six grades: wild-types (grade 0; frequency, 0.03) and infections with MOM grades of 1 to 5, with the following cumulative frequency; 0.97, 0.931, 0.866, 0.719, 0.121, respectively. There was no significant association between the MOM and SP response. Importantly, immunity, using age as a surrogate marker, contributed significantly to the clearance of parasites with multiple dhfr/dhps mutations. However, these mutations have a survival advantage as they were associated with increased gametocytogenesis. The above implications of dhfr/dhps mutations were associated with MOM 2 to 5, regardless of the gene/codon locus.Falciparum malaria is still out of control, primarily because of the ability of the parasite to develop resistance against the used drugs. But, also the fast disseminations of the resistant parasites and possibly the accelerated ability of the parasite to develop resistance against new drugs, are important factors [1]. Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP), has been an alternative to CQ for treatment and control of uncomplicated malaria in endemic countries, it was effective, affordable and complying drug. The fixed combination in SP inhibits the action of two enzymes, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) in folate metabolism pathway [2,3]. Mutations in the parasite genes coding for the two enzymes, dhfr and dhps, lead to SP resistance, however, the
A nosocomial transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north kordufan, Sudan
Afraa T Elata, Mubarak S Karsany, Rehab M Elageb, Marwa A Hussain, Kamal H Eltom, Mustafa I Elbashir, Imadeldin E Aradaib
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-303
Abstract: To confirm CCHF in an index patient and attending physician in North Kordufan region, Sudan, and to provide some information on virus genetic lineages.Antibody captured ELISA, reverse transcription PCR, partial S segment sequences of the virus and subsequent phylogenetic analysis were used to confirm the CCHFV infection and to determine the virus genetic lineages.CCHF was confirmed by monitoring specific IgM antibody and by detection of the viral genome using RT-PCR. Treatment with oral ribavirin, replacement with fluid therapy, blood transfusion and administration of platelets concentrate resulted in rapid improvement of the health condition of the female physician. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial S segment sequences of the 2 CCHFV indicates that both strains are identical and belong to Group III virus lineage, which includes viruses from Africa including, Sudan, Mauritania, South Africa and Nigeria.Further epidemiologic studies including, CCHFV complete genome analysis and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently needed to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreaks in the Kordufan region, Sudan.Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. CCHFV can be transmitted to humans by bites of Ixodid ticks or by contact with blood, bodily fluids or tissue from viraemic livestock and infected humans [1]. CCHFV is one of the rare hemorrhagic fever viruses capable of inducing nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals with resource-poor setting and person to person transmission is not uncommon [2,3]. CCHF is a public health problem in many regions of the world including the Sudan [4-13]. In remote areas and rural hospitals of Kordufan, Sudan, diagnosis of the disease is primarily based on clinical presentation. The laboratory diagnosis of CCHF includes the serological tests for the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and mol
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