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OALib Journal期刊

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GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of the Seeds of Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst  [PDF]
Mussie Sium Demoz, Kareru Patrick Gachoki, Keriko Joseph Mungai, Berhane Girmay Negusse
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526392
Abstract: Background: Steganotaenia araliacea is a multipurpose plant and has wider applications in the folklore for the treatment of various ailments. Previously the presence of antileukemic lignan lactones and saponins was detected in the stem bark, root and leaf of Steganotaenia araliacea. Besides, the diuretic and antibacterial activities of the plant were reported. However, there has been no attempt to examine the constituents of the seeds of Steganotaenia araliacea. This paper reports the first such study of both the essential oil and methanol extract of the seeds of the plant. Methods: The seeds of the plant were shade dried, pounded and thus extracted using methanol. Besides, the essential oil of the seeds was collected using steam distillation. The components of the methanol extract were studied both by GC-MS and preliminary phytochemical studies; the essential oil was running on GC-MS for analysis. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the seeds identified the presence of α-linalool, α-pinene, m-cresol, p-menth-1-en-4-ol, p-menth-1-en-8-ol, myristicin and others. Besides, the methanol extract of the seeds showed the presence of falcarinol, apiol, scoparone, stigmasterol, myristicin etc. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract of the seeds confirms the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarines, steroids, and phenols. Conclusion: This plant contains bioactive metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative and complementary medicine in treatment of different ailments. However, further studies on the bioactivity and toxicity of the plant should be done.
Evaluation of the Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Methanol Extracts of Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera and a Polyherb  [PDF]
Mussie Sium Demoz, Kareru Patrick Gachoki, Keriko Joseph Mungai, Berhane Girmay Negusse
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2015.54033
Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of methanol extracts of Aloe camperi (AC), Meriandra dianthera (MD) and a polyherbal drug (PH) in diabetes induced Wistar albino rats. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes was confirmed by the elevated blood glucose levels determined after 72 h of induction. Animals with mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) level more than 200 mg/dl were recruited for the experiment. The herbal extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and standard drugmetformin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to the diabetic rats for 21 days and the FBG level was estimated on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The herbal extracts showed dose-dependent fall in FBG levels and the result exhibited very significant (P < 0.001) decreases in FBG level by the end of the experimental day as compared to the diabetic control. The highest antihyperglycemic effect was observed by MD extract at 400 mg/kg and was comparable to the standard drug. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also conducted on normal rats and thus glucose at 2 g/kg per body weight was loaded via oral gavage to all groups 30 min after extract administration. All the groups showed significant increase (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in FBG level at 30 min following glucose loading.
Assessment of the Levels of Brominated Flame Retardants in Computers and Televisions in Selected Regions of Eritrea  [PDF]
Afewerki Tesfagabr, Tesfamichael Haile, Mussie Sium, Teame Tekleab
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105061
Abstract:
During recent years, electronic waste (e-waste) around the world is growing at a fast rate and has become a matter of concern due to the presence of toxic brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and certain heavy metals. Currently, in Eritrea there is low awareness on the harmful effects of e-wastes, lack of proper storage facilities and no proper policy and legislative framework related to e-wastes. Thus, in most cases e-wastes still reside in homes, offices, and some are stored with other materials in different places. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the levels of BFRs in obsolete as well as in lately imported computers and televisions using hand held hazardous substances analyzer—Genius 3000 XRF. The survey was done in selected regions of Eritrea and thus a total of 223 samples of computers and TVs from 78 different products were screened. Three readings at forty seconds were conducted for each sample and the average value was calculated. From 173 sampled computers, both oldest and lately imported products, different levels of Br were measured varying from the lowest detectable amount (0.3689 ppm) to the highest (87,821 ppm). Similarly, out of 50 screened old and new models of TVs various levels of Br were determined with minimum detectable level (1.5793 ppm) and highest level (80,916 ppm). The analysis displayed high levels of Br both in the obsolete and lately manufactured products. The concentration of Br didn’t show any consistency either to the product type or manufacturing time. This is a very first preliminary study conducted related to the levels of BFRs in electronic wastes in the country and thus in order to evaluate the environmental impacts and health hazards caused by BFRs and other toxic materials of e-wastes, further study using advanced analytical methods is mandatory.
In Vitro Anti-Diabetic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Bioactive Fractions Present in Meriandra dianthera, Aloe camperi and a Polyherb  [PDF]
Mussie Sium, Patrick Kareru, Beatrice Kiage-Mokua, Kaushal Sood, John Langley, Julie Herniman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.83037
Abstract: This paper reports the in vitro anti-diabetic profile of certain medicinal plants traditionally used in Eritrea for the management of type 2 diabetes. The crude methanolic extracts and fractions of Meriandra dianthera, Aloe camperi, a Polyherb and their fractions were investigated. The in vitro screening of the crude extracts has generally elicited a dose dependent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities. M. dianthera displayed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 0.074 ± 0.032 mg/mL) at the highest concentration tested (0.800 mg/mL) relative to A. camperi, the Polyherb and Acarbose (IC50: 0.37 ± 0.052, 0.56 ± 0.024 and 0.55 ± 0.029 respectively). The α-glucosidase inhibition activities of A. camperi and M. dianthera, except for the Polyherb and Acarbose, were significantly different (P < 0.05) at various ranges of concentrations (0.025 - 0.800 mg/mL). The percentage α-amylase inhibitions of M. dianthera,
Speaking truth to power: Indigenous storytelling as an act of living resistance
Aman Sium,Eric Ritskes
Decolonization : Indigeneity, Education & Society , 2013,
Abstract: In our preparation for this issue, we had particular expectations and beliefs about what it meant to theorize and map out decolonization. We saw decolonization as under theorized and needing more attention. What the authors of this issue reminded us of is that decolonization does not fit the demands and expectations of the Western Euroversity – it is alive and vibrant, being theorized and enacted in Indigenous communities around the globe through practices such as story telling. In this editorial we examine the role that Indigenous storytelling plays as resurgence and insurgence, as Indigenous knowledge production, and as disruptive of Eurocentric, colonial norms of ‘objectivity’ and knowledge. As the authors in this issue explore the specific and located knowledges that work to decolonization, we finish by asking what the role of the reader is in bearing witness to these profound, powerful, and complex articulations of decolonization and Indigenous being.
Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea
Mussie G. Tewolde,Pedro Cabral
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3102148
Abstract: The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA), the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), Landuse Cover Change (LUCC) analysis and urban sprawl analysis using Shannon Entropy were carried out. The Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to develop a model of urban growth. The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network was employed to model the transition potential maps with an accuracy of 85.9% and these were used as an input for the ‘actual’ urban modeling with Markov chains. Model validation was assessed and a scenario of urban land use change of the GAA up to year 2020 was presented. The result of the study indicated that the built-up area has tripled in size (increased by 4,441 ha) between 1989 and 2009. Specially, after year 2000 urban sprawl in GAA caused large scale encroachment on high potential agricultural lands and plantation cover. The scenario for year 2020 shows an increase of the built-up areas by 1,484 ha (25%) which may cause further loss. The study indicated that the land allocation system in the GAA overrode the landuse plan, which caused the loss of agricultural land and plantation cover. The recommended policy options might support decision makers to resolve further loss of agricultural land and plantation cover and to achieve sustainable urban development planning in the GAA.
Towards the 'tangible unknown': Decolonization and the Indigenous future
Aman Sium,Chandni Desai,Eric Ritskes
Decolonization : Indigeneity, Education & Society , 2012,
Abstract: On the occasion of the inaugural issue of Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, we examine the many contradictions, contestations and possible pathways to decolonization. In working to explore the many themes that the articles in this issue bring forth, we recognize that, despite our certainty that decolonization centers Indigenous methods, peoples, and lands, the future is a ‘tangible unknown’, a constant (re)negotiating of power, place, identity and sovereignty. In these contestations, decolonization and Indigeneity are not merely reactionary nor in a binary relationship with colonial power. Decolonization is indeed oppositional to colonial ways of thinking and acting but demands an Indigenous starting point and an articulation of what decolonization means for Indigenous peoples around the globe. This editorial works towards the possibility of a global Indigenous movement that strengthens and supports local moments for decolonization, and does so by exploring some of the many layers and questions that this necessarily entails.
Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia
Mussie Alemayehu, Tefera Belachew, Tizta Tilahun
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-6
Abstract: A cross sectional community based survey was conducted from March 9-20, 2011. Multistage sample technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative methods whereas purposive sampling was used for the qualitative part of the study. Binary descriptive statistics and multiple variable regressions were done.The study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. From the quantitative part of the study the response rate of the study was 95.6%. Of the qualitative part two FGDs were conducted for each married women and married men. 64% of the married women heard about LAPMs. More than half (53.6%) of the married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAPMs. The overall prevalence of LAPMs use was 12.3% however; there were no users for female or male sterilization. The main reason cited by the majority of the married women for not using LAPMs was using another method of contraception 360 (93.3%). Mothers who had high knowledge were 8 times more likely to use LAPMs as compared with those who had low knowledge (AOR = 7.9, 95% CI of (3.1, 18.3). Mothers who had two or more pregnancies were 3 times more likely to use LAPM as compared with those who had one pregnancy (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI of (1.4, 5.1).A significant amount of the participants had low knowledge on permanent contraceptive particularly vasectomy. More than half (53.6%) of married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAMPs. Few of married women use female sterilization and none use of female sterilization and or vasectomy. Positive knowledge of LAMPs, women who had two and above pregnancies and women who do not want to have additional child were significantly associated. Information education communication should focus on alleviating factors hinder from practicing of LAPMs.An estimated 358 000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide in 2008, a 34% decline from the levels of 1990. Despite this decline, developing countries continued to account for 99% (355 000) of the deaths. Sub-Saha
Differential Effects of Single-Dose Escitalopram on Cognitive and Affective Interference during Stroop Task
Christoffer Rahm,Benny Liberg,Mussie Msghina
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00021
Abstract: Background and objective: Our aim was to study the regulatory role of serotonin [(5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] on two key nodes in the cognitive control networks – the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We hypothesized that increasing the levels of 5-HT would preferentially modulate the activity in ACC during cognitive control during interference by negative affects compared to cognitive control during interference by a superimposed cognitive task.
Reproductive Performance and Mortality Rate in Local and Dorper × Local Crossbred Sheep Following Controlled Breeding in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mesfin Lakew, Mussie Haile-Melekot, Getinet Mekuriaw, Solomon Abreha, Haimanot Setotaw
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.45035
Abstract: The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 187) of the Local and crosses of Dorper × Local ewes following natural controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analysed. Data were collected during 2009-2011 at Sirinka breeding, evaluation and distribution site, eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. Breed, lamb sex, birth season, birth year, birth type and ewes’ parity were considered as fixed effects. Data analyses were performed using general linear model procedures. Breed was a significant source of variation: the local sheep attained faster the age at first lambing than the crossbred ewe lambs (469 ± 8.45 vs. 555 ± 6.25 days, p < 0.0001), whereas the crossbred ewes weighed more than the local sheep ewes at the age of first lambing (32.7 ± 0.63 vs. 22.8 ± 0.43 kg, p < 0.0001). Birth year had also important influence on the age and weight at first lambing of ewes. Ewes showed better performance during the later study years, differences attributed due to the improved management advantages in later years. The crossbred and local ewes were comparable in their litter size, despite the fact that the lambing interval of crossbred ewes was longer than the local ewes (306 ± 4.62 vs. 287 ± 2.38 days). Additionally, there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two breeds. This study confirms that the local ewes had higher annual reproductive rate than that of the crossbred sheep ewes (1.49 ± 0.02 vs. 1.37 ± 0.01 lambs) under the same environmental conditions. The present results suggested that better management and breeding program probably will increase the productivity of the local sheep.
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