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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461994 matches for " Musa A. Bukar "
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Simulation Using Sensitivity Analysis of a Product Production Rate Optimization Model of a Plastic Industry  [PDF]
Mala Abba-Aji, Vincent Ogwagwu, Bukar Umar Musa
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.23018

This study analyzes the sensitivity analysis using shadow price of plastic products. This is based on a research carried out to study optimization problem of BOPLAS, a plastic industry in Maiduguri, North eastern Nigeria. Simplex method of Linear programming is employed to formulate the equations which were solved by using costenbol software. Sensitivity analysis using shadow price reveals that the price of wash hand bowls is critical to the net benefit (profit) of the company.

Infection of Wounds by Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Resistogram  [PDF]
Isyaka M. Tom, Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Askira M. Umoru, Jidda B. Umar, Musa A. Bukar, Ali B. Haruna, Abdullahi Aliyu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105528
The major innate barrier to the establishment of infections in internal tissues is the skin, the disruption of which leads to wound formation. Such wounds can be contaminated by bacterial pathogens thereby hampering the healing process and its management becomes resource demanding. Here, we assess the diversity of potential bacterial pathogens in the infection of different types of wounds among hospitalized patients. Three hundred and twenty wound swab samples were collected and processed via microscopy, and cultured on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate Agar. Isolates were further confirmed using biochemical tests and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. 87.5% of samples collected yielded bacterial growth comprising of single bacterial isolates (52.17%) and polymicrobial/mixed growth (47.82%). Staphylococcus aureus (32.61%) was the most prevalent bacterial specie identified. Gram-negative bacteria (62.33%) were the most pervasive group, chief among which were E. coli (23.64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.13%). Rate of infection was highest among Wound sepsis and Burns wound where Enterobacter spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent respectively. Differences in wound type in relation to rate of infection with Gram-negative bacteria was statistically significant (f = 5.9592; df = 29; p-value = 0.001645; p < 0.01; Mean ± SD = 7.633 ± 6.3706). Resistivity profile of isolates has shown that the most significant resistance rate was against Amoxicillin and Ampicillin, among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. This suggests that wounds can be infected by potential bacterial pathogens which can exacerbate the progression of the wound and complicate the healing process.
An Approach to Energy Saving and Cost of Energy Reduction Using an Improved Efficient Technology  [PDF]
Abubakar Kabir Aliyu, Abba Lawan Bukar, Jamilu Garba Ringim, Abubakar Musa
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2015.44007

The electricity consumption in commercial places like universities has tremendously increased recently. Modern and advanced energy efficient appliances are highly needed to substitute the conventional ones. Energy saving is of great important instead of its wastage, as utilizing the energy efficiently reduces the cost of energy. Energy consumption varies for commercial building due to several factors such as electrical appliance usage, electrical appliance type, management, etc. Due to the advancement in technology, there are new emergence appliances that are of high efficiency and have less energy consumption. A case study is conducted on selected five tutorial rooms, level 4 buildings in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering 19 A, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The paper proposes new emergence equipments with high efficiency and less power consumption to replace the existing ones. A survey is conducted on the number of electrical appliances used for each of the tutorial rooms, time table for each tutorial room and the Tenaga Nasional Berhad pricing and tariff are taken into consideration in the analysis of the energy consumption and the cost of energy. This paper aims at reducing the amount of energy consumption by replacing the existing electrical equipments with high efficient electrical equipments; it also tends to reduce the cost of energy paid to the utility. By observing the results, it shows that the proposed efficient electrical equipments are more efficient, less power consumption and less cost compared to the existing electrical equipments.

Anti-plasmodia activity of leaf extracts of Calotropis procera Linn
SY Mudi, A Bukar
Biokemistri , 2011,
Abstract: The leaves of Calotropis procera were air dried, grounded and soaked with ethanol. The extracts obtained (29.79g, CP1) was fractionated sequentially using aqueous methanol with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate respectively. The residue of ethanol extract (marc) was extracted with 5M HCl, basified and extracted with chloroform. These were labeled as CP1-01 to CP1-05 for the plant. Each of these fractions was phytochemically screened to detect the class of secondary metabolite present. The fractions obtained from the plant were found to be selectively active against brine shrimp larvae. These fractions were also subjected to antimalaria parasites bioassay. Fractions CP1, CP1-04 and CP1-05 were found to be active against tested organisms, withCP1-04 being the most active. CP1-04 was further subjected to activity guided column chromatography that led to the isolation of two pure compounds CP1-04-1 and CP1-04-61. Compound CP1-04-61 was found to be active against the malaria parasite. This was further purified and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax application on tomatoes, oranges and peppers
AM Magashi, A Bukar
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour plate techniques and compared prior to and after 4 days of treatment with buffer (pH 9, 10) and wax for 3 min using dipping method. Reduction in bacterial and fungal count indicates antifungal and antibacterial activity. A bacterial count reduction of 84.3 (control), 63.4 (pH 9) and 78.2% (pH 10) and fungal count reduction of 53.6 (control), 43.4 (pH 9) and 73.5 (pH 10) were achieved after 4 days of treatment respectively. The study shows that the control (unwaxed) had similar antibacterial and antifungal effect as waxed fruits at pH 9 and 10, except for pH 10 that had higher reduction of fungal counts than the control, showing prospect of higher activity with wax at higher pH than 10.
Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus among HIV-Infected Patients at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ibrahim Musa Kida, Ballah Akawu Denue, Bukar Bakki, Baba Goni Waru, Mohammed Abdullahi Talle, Ibrahim Ummate, Salisu Aliyu Kwayabura, Ibrahim Shettima Kuburi, Haruna Yusuph
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2014.42008

Although the distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a wide regional variation, it is more common in Africa and Asia with high prevalence approaching 100% in some communities. CMV is a frequent opportunistic infection and major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV patients with severe immunosuppression. It can be contracted from body fluid, including saliva, urine, blood, cervical secretions, and semen. CMV seropositivity is considered the best laboratory measure of past infection. We determined the prevalence of CMV and the risk factors associated with its acquisition in a population of HIV positive patients. Anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence was 100% among HIV infected subjects and 98.6% among controls. Having multiple sexual partners and traditional practices were identified as risk factors associated with risk of contracting CMV infection.

A Personal Reflection on the History of Renal Medicine in the Sudan
A Musa
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation , 2008,
Abstract: No
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Senna siamea (LAM) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A Bukar, M Mukhtar, A Hassan
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The anti-pseudomonal activities of aqueous, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of leaf of Senna siamea (LAM) were evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. This was with the aim of substantiating the ethnomedicinal use of the plant as anti-bacterial. All the extracts were not active to Ps. aeruginosa at the concentration levels of 100μg/disc and 200μg/disc, however the extracts were active at high concentration levels of 500μg/disc and 1000μ/disc revealing a dose – dependent antibacterial activity. Aqueous extract was the most active with zone diameter of inhibitions of 16mm and 30mm followed by ethanolic extract which had zones of inhibition of 10mm and 16mm and the least was chloroform extract which has zone diameter of inhibitions of 08mm and 14mm, all at 500μg/disc and 1000μg/disc concentrations respectively. Ciprofloxacin (oxoid) as positive control had zone diameter of inhibition of 35mm in all the test plates. The antipsedomonal potential of the leaves of Senna siamea Lam leaf may be due to the phytochemical compounds present in the leaf extracts, which were found to be tannins, saponnins and steroids. However aqueous extract proved to be a more suitable candidate for use in the treatment of diseases cause by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hence, antimicrobial evaluation and biotechnological study of the whole plant are thus recommended.
Antimicrobial profile of moringa oleifera lam. Extracts against some food – borne microorganisms
A Bukar, A Uba, T Oyeyi
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The chloroform and ethanol extracts of seeds and leaf of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antimicrobial activity against some selected food – borne microorganisms as a first step in the screening of the extracts for preliminary sanitizing/preservative properties on foods. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assay were carried out using standard procedures. The results of the phytochemical analysis revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in all the extracts while tannins were only detected in Moringa oleifera leaf chloroform extract. The antibacterial assay results show that M. oleifera leaf ethanol extract exhibited broad spectrum activity against the test organisms with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes susceptible. The MIC values ranged between 2.0 and >4.0mg/ml for all the organisms. M. oleifera seed chloroform extract was only active against E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The MIC values ranged between 1.0 and >4.0mg/ml for the tested organisms respectively. Antifungal activity result revealed 100% inhibition in growth of Mucor and Rhizopus species by M. oleifera seed chloroform extract at concentration of 1mg/ml. Standard Ketoconazole (control) inhibited the test organisms by 100% at 0.5mg/ml concertration. The result of this study have shown the potentials of M. oleifera extracts as sanitizers/preservatives by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food – borne pathogens to spoilage causing organisms in foods.
Isolation and Identification of Postharvest Spoilage Fungi Associated with Sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis) Traded in Kano Metropolis
A Bukar, MD Mukhtar, S Adamu
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Mycological studies on fungi in apparently diseased sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) sampled from retailers at Na'ibawa Yan Lemu market in Kano Metropolis was carried out between August and September 2006. The samples were surface sterilized using 85% ethanol and homogenates were cultured on potato Dextrose Agar and incubated aerobically at room temperature for 7 days at 30°C. Pure cultures of the resulting fungal colonies were obtained from the subcultures of the primary plates. These were identified morphologically and microscopically. The investigation revealed that up to 90% of the samples were infected with one or more fungal species. The most predominant pathogenic fungus isolated from the samples was, Aspergillus sp (32.5%); others include Mucor sp. (25%), Penicillium sp (15%), Rhizopus sp (15%), Fusarium sp, (7.5%), and Alternaria sp. (5%). Proper handling from the farm as well as during storage and the avoidance of mixing of diseased ones with the healthy ones were identified as important factors in preventing loss. The use of suitable chemical treatment of the orange is also recommended as means of reducing economic loss due to fungal pathogens.
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