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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1283 matches for " Mureithi Marianne "
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Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates at Kenyatta National Hospital  [PDF]
Jane Njeri Karuitha, Odera Susan Akinyi, Maina Anne Njeri, Mureithi Marianne
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811059
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given it’s resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to aztreonam, 58.6% were resistant to levofloxacin, 55.6% were resistant to cefipime, 65.7% were resistant to ceftazidime, 68.7% were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, 72.2% were resistant to meropenem, 64.9% were resistance to imipenem while 86.4% of urine isolates were resistant to ofloxacin. Of the isolates resistant to imipenem 87.3% were found to be MBL producers. In conclusion, P. aeruginosais highly resistant to the drugs currently is used for treatment and resistance to carbapenems is largely due to MBL production.
A Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Wall in a Porous Medium, with Exponentially Varying Fluid Viscosity  [PDF]
Eunice Mureithi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.28087

This study investigates a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical wall embedded in a highly porous medium. The fluid viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a non-similar form using an appropriate non-similar variable ξ and a pseudo-similar variable η. The non-similar equations are solved using an efficient local non-similarity method. The effect of viscosity variation parameter on the heat transfer, skin friction and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer is investigated. The viscosity variation parameter, the viscous dissipation parameter and non-simi-larity variable are shown to have a significant effect on velocity and thermal boundary layer and also on the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer at the wall.

On the Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Surface in a Fluid with Temperature-Dependent Viscosity  [PDF]
E. W. Mureithi, J. J. Mwaonanji, O. D. Makinde
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32017
Abstract:  This paper examines a boundary layer flow over a continuously moving heated flat surface with velocity\"\"  in a streaming flow with velocity\"\"  and with temperature dependent viscosity\"\". The momentum and the energy equations are coupled through the viscous dissipation term. The coupled boundary layer equations are transformed into a self-similar form using an appropriate similarity variable. An efficient numerical technique is used to solve the self-similar boundary layer equations. It is shown that at low enough values for the velocity ratio\"\" , an increase in viscous dissipation enhances greatly the local heat transfer leading to temperature overshoots adjacent to the wall. The viscosity variation parameter is shown to have significant effects on the temperature dependent viscosity and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer.

Effects of Over-Harvesting and Drought on a Predator-Prey System with Optimal Control  [PDF]
Alanus Mapunda, Eunice Mureithi, Nyimvua Shaban, Thadei Sagamiko
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.88028
Abstract: In this paper, a two species predator-prey model is developed where prey is affected by over-harvesting and drought and predator is affected by drought. The intention is to investigate the impact of over-harvesting and drought on predator-prey system, and suggest control strategies to alleviate the problem of loss of prey and predator species due to over-harvesting and drought. The control strategies suggested are creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting for controlling over-harvesting and construction of dams for mitigating drought effects. The results obtained from theoretical and numerical simulation of the predator-prey model with harvesting and drought without control strategies showed that, both harvesting and drought affect the predator-prey population negatively. However, the results obtained from numerical simulations of the model with control measures showed that, the use of control strategies one at a time encourages the increase of the prey and predator species to the optimal population size. Furthermore, the best result is obtained when control strategies, creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting and construction of dams are applied simultaneously.
Leadership Ideas—A Study with Prospective Nursing Leaders  [PDF]
Marianne Frilund
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.55054
Abstract: Introduction: The study is based on P. Kostenbaums theory about leadership as greatness. His theory distinguishes four interdependent leadership “orientations”: ethics, vision, courage and reality. People with qualities have developed greatness and wisdom in their mind, as well as competence to act ethically. The leadership research has shaped a leadership figure that can be described as a picture of a hero. Aim: The aim of this paper is to find out the idea of leadership based on earlier research and analyse their relevancy for nursing-management. Method: The study is a qualitative study based on earlier studies with focus on the basic idea of leadership with relevancy for nursing management and leadership. Sex students, from a master degree program in Finland, collected data based on earlier research. Findings and Interpretation: The ideas of leadership consist of three basic ideas: leadership as greatness, leadership as interactions and relations, and leadership based on the idea of shared leadership. Discussion: The prospects for leading others are to master the balance between the degree of freedom and control, to build trust, and to provide directives and control until confidence. To lead without “meeting” makes that the employers never give desired results. The purposes of the ideas of leadership are to create trust, confidence and understanding of where the other person is located. Being seen and being confirmed is fundamental to pace an individual and create opportunities to lead within nursing care.
Mapping Trajectories of Attention to Drug Related Issues in Estonian Main Dailies  [PDF]
Marianne Paimre
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.32005
Abstract: Illicit drugs have been a burning social issue in Estonia over the last fifteen years. Estonia has taken the lead in Europe with regard to drug-related deaths and prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users. Experimental drug use among Estonian students is more widespread than the European average. It is important to study press coverage, because according to agenda setting theory, the media plays an important role in influencing the salience of social issues on the public agenda. The aim of this article is to map fluctuations in attention received from Estonian two major dailies to different drug related issues during the last 25 years. The author focuses on issues highlighted in national and international drug reports such as drug addiction, drug related crime, spread of HIV among addicts, drug-induced deaths, drug problem in schools etc. Content analysis of almost 1000 press articles reflecting drug problems in Estonia was carried out from 1990 to 2014. The study revealed that since 1995, attention received from the major newspapers to drug related crime has been high and quite stable compared to other drug issues. Press interest with regard to problem drug use and HIV was notice a bleat the turn of the millennium and in the beginning of the new century, but almost lost by 2014. More intense periods of coverage were triggered by specific events. Only a few articles have reflected drug induced death despite the fact that Estonia is the undisputed leader in the EU regarding this indicator. This reflects that the coverage was not been in line with the drug situation in Estonia. It seems that the attention of the press depends rather on newsworthiness of the issue and the agenda setting processes.
Multicultural Working Teams and Safety Awareness: How Effective Leadership Can Motivate Safety Behaviour  [PDF]
Marianne Starren
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.77102
Abstract: This empirical study focuses on the diversity of cultural values and leadership preferences in multicultural working teams and how this interaction makes it difficult to guarantee and motivate safety at the workfloor. It is often hypothesized that when employees from different national identities have to work together in one team, their different cultural backgrounds make a common mental state of safety awareness very complex. In managing this diversity of cultural values, the role of leadership style could be crucial. The results show that a cultural value as uncertainty avoidance clearly has its influence on safety awareness and that this outcome is mediated by the motivating leadership style.
Management of Business Challenges Among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi-Kenya
M Bowen, M Morara, M Mureithi
KCA Journal of Business Management , 2009,
Abstract: Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) play an important economic role in many countries. In Kenya, for example the SME sector contributed over 50percent of new jobs created in 2005 but despite their significance, SMEs are faced with the threat of failure with past statistics indicating that three out five fail within the first few months. This study sought to understand how SMEs manage the challenges they face. These challenges seem to change (evolve) according to different macro and micro conditions. This study employed stratified random sampling to collect data from 198 businesses using interviews and questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively and presented through figures, tables and percentages. The findings indicate that SMEs face the following challenges; competition among themselves and from large firms, lack of access to credit, cheap imports, insecurity and debt collection. Credit constraint seems to be easing up when compared to previous researches. Relevant training or education is positively related to business success. The SMEs have the following strategies to overcome the challenges; fair pricing, discounts and special offers, offering a variety of services and products, superior customer service and continuously improving quality of service delivery. The research concludes that business success is a consequence of embracing a mix of strategies.
Why Provide an Opinions Section in PLoS Pathogens?
Marianne Manchester
PLOS Pathogens , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0010013
On Vulnerability: Probing the Ethical Dimensions of Comparative Theology
Marianne Moyaert
Religions , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rel3041144
Abstract: Though the notion of vulnerability regularly pops up in Clooney’s reflections on comparative theology, he does not develop a systematic account of it. What precisely vulnerability is and how it influences interreligious dialog do not receive enough theoretical grounding. In this article I will probe the complexity of this notion and how it plays out in comparative theology. This will not only enable us to grasp the true originality of Clooney’s project, it will also allow us to uncover its deeper ethical dynamics. For, as I will seek to show, at its core, comparative theology is moved by an ethical concern to enable a just relation between the one’s own tradition and the foreign one. It is my intention to unfold the deep moral dynamics of this particular interreligious approach and to conceptualize the ethical conditions for interreligious learning as present in comparative theology.
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