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Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India
Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Muniappan Ayyanar, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-35
Abstract: Plants were collected from Palni hills of Southern Western Ghats and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using paper disc diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.The results indicated that out of 18 plants, 10 plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more of the tested microorganisms at three different concentrations of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/disc. Among the plants tested, Acalypha fruticosa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Toddalia asiatica,Cassia auriculata, Punica granatum and Syzygium lineare were most active. The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum and Punica granatum against Candida albicans.This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the some ethnomedicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Compared to hexane extract, methanol extract showed significant activity against tested organisms. This study also showed that Toddalia asiatica, Syzygium lineare, Acalypha fruticosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.According to World Health Organization (WHO) more than 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. Use of herbal medicines in Asia represents a long history of human interactions with the environment. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases. A vast knowledge of how to use the plants against different illnesses may be expected to have accumulated in areas where the use of plants is still of great importance [1]. The medicinal value of plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. The most important of these bio
Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India
Chellaiah Muthu, Muniappan Ayyanar, Nagappan Raja, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-43
Abstract: The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years [1]. The knowledge of medicinal plants has been accumulated in the course of many centuries based on different medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. In India, it is reported that traditional healers use 2500 plant species and 100 species of plants serve as regular sources of medicine [2]. During the last few decades there has been an increasing interest in the study of medicinal plants and their traditional use in different parts of the world [3-7]. Documenting the indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources.Today according to the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 80% of the world's people depend on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. There are considerable economic benefits in the development of indigenous medicines and in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases [8]. Due to less communication means, poverty, ignorance and unavailability of modern health facilities, most people especially rural people are still forced to practice traditional medicines for their common day ailments. M
Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide
Latha Muniappan, Sabire ?zcan
BMC Physiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-7-11
Abstract: Expression of either human insulin or the beta cell specific transcription factors PDX-1, NeuroD1 and MafA in the Hepa1-6 cell line or primary liver cells via adenoviral gene transfer, results in production and secretion of insulin. Although, the secretion of insulin is not significantly increased in response to high glucose, treatment of these engineered liver cells with L-arginine stimulates insulin secretion up to three-fold. This L-arginine-mediated insulin release is dependent on the production of nitric oxide.Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can be induced by treatment with L-arginine via the production of nitric oxide.Insulin is essential in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and is produced and secreted by the beta cells of pancreas in response to increased blood glucose levels. Defects in insulin production and secretion, as observed in type 1 diabetes due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, result in chronic hyperglycemia, which is responsible for most of the secondary complications associated with diabetes. Besides insulin injections, the only other option for treatment of type 1 diabetes is islet transplantation. Because of the lack of insulin production, gene therapy using surrogate beta cells is a potential approach in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes [1-3]. Delivery of insulin by gene therapy represents an attractive alternative to protein replacement therapy by potentially providing a more convenient and cost-effective delivery strategy.Successful therapy for Type 1 diabetes requires that mature insulin be produced and secreted from surrogate beta-cells in a glucose-regulated manner. Liver appears to be an excellent surrogate organ for production of insulin, because it contains a glucose sensing machinery that is similar to pancreatic beta cells [4-7]. Liver and pancreatic beta cells both express GLUT-2 and glucokinase [7,8]. Moreover, viral gene transfer into hepatocytes is very efficien
Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats
Leelavinothan Pari, Muniappan Latha
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-4-16
Abstract: Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug.A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage.Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.The neurological consequences of diabetes mellitus in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are now receiving greater attention. Cognitive deficits, along with morphological and neurochemical alterations illustrate that the neurological complications of diabetes are not limited to peripheral neuropathies [1]. The central complications of hyperglycemia also include the potentiation of neuronal damage observed following hypoxic/ischemic events, as well as stroke [2]. Glucose utilization is decreased in the brain during diabetes [2], providing a potential mechanism for increased vulnerability to acute pathological events.Oxidative stress, leading to an
Prediction of functions for two LEA proteins from mung bean
Subramanian Rajesh,Ayyanar Manickam
Bioinformation , 2006,
Abstract: LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are associated with tolerance to water stress resulting from desiccation and cold shock. Although various functions have been proposed to LEA proteins, their precise role is not fully defined. In silico analysis of the amino acid sequence of two LEA proteins (early methionine-labeled Vigna, EMV) from the tropical legume crop, Vigna radiata identified a 20 residues motif ‘GGQTRKQQLGSEGYHEMGRK’ characteristic to group 1 LEA proteins. Structural analyses hypothesize these proteins to function like DNA/RNA binding proteins in protecting macromolecules/ membrane stabilization at the time of dehydration process.
Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences
M Ayyanar,S Ignacimuthu
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2009,
Abstract: Summary: Results of an ethnobotanical study of wound healing treatments among the tribal people of Tirunelveli hills in southern India are presented. A total of 46 plants belonging to 44 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against wounds and related injuries such as cuts, burns, bruises caused by external injury, boils, sores, abscess and wounds created during delivery. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part and most herbal remedies are prepared as paste and applied externally; in some cases medicinal preparations were also administered orally. Of the plants collected in the present study none of the plants have been reported to have such specific wound healing compounds except Areca catechu and Scoparia dulcis. The present study suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. Industrial Relevance: The study of ethnomedical systems and herbal medicines as therapeutic agents of a paramount importance in addressing health problems of traditional communities and third world countries as well as industrialized societies. Of the reported plants, Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima were studied in animal models for wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity on the basis of their use in traditional medicine as wound healers and these plants can be used to formulate drugs in pharmaceutical companies.
Minimization of Collision in Energy Constrained Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Moses Nesa SUDHA, Muniappan Lakshapalam VALARMATHI, George RAJSEKAR, Michael Kurien MATHEW, Nagarajan DINESHRAJ, Sivasankaran RAJBARATH
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.14043
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the fastest growing and emerging technologies in the field of Wireless Networking today. The applications of WSNs are extensively spread over areas like Military, En-vironment, Health Care, Communication and many more. These networks are powered by batteries and hence energy optimization is a major concern. One of the factors that reduce the energy efficiency of the WSN is collision which occurs due to the high density of data packets in a typical communication channel. This paper aims at minimizing the effects of congestion leading to collision in the network by proposing an effective algorithm. This can be done by optimizing the size of the contention window by introducing pa-rameters like source count and α. If the contention window of a node is low, it results in collision. If the size of the contention window of a node is high then it results in a medium access delay. Thus minimizing colli-sion and medium access delay of data packets conserve energy.
Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe
Senthil Kumar Muniappan,Senthil Kumar Arumugam
Thermal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tsci100805056s
Abstract: This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.
Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)
S Ignacimuthu, M Ayyanar, Sankara Sivaraman K
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-25
Abstract: A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine.We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas.Globally, about 85% of the traditional medicines used for primary healthcare are derived from plants [1]. Traditional medicine and ethnobotanical information play an important role in scientific research, particularly when the literature and field work data have been properly evaluated [2]. India is one of the twelve mega-biodiversity countries of the World having rich vegetation with a wide variety of plants with medicinal value. In many countries, scientific investigations of medicinal plants have been initiated because of their contribution to healthcare. Herbal medicines have good values in treating many diseases including infectious diseases, hypertension, etc. That they can save lives of many, particularly in the developing countries, is undisputable [3].India possesses a total of 427 tribal communities [4] and over 275 papers have been published on specific ethnic groups [5]. Interest in traditional medicine in India has continuously been increasing; recently, various ethnobotanical studies have been reported to explore the knowledge from the various tribals of Tamil Nadu [6-13].Even today many local and indigenous communities in the Asian countries meet their basic needs from the products they manufacture and sell based on their traditional knowledge. Herbal drugs obtained from plants are believed to be much safer; this has been proved in the treatment of various ailments [14]. Rural comm
Prediction of 3-dimensional structure of EMV1, a group 1 late embryogenesis abundant protein of Vigna radiata Wilczek.
Subramanian Rajesh,Muthurajan Raveendran,Ayyanar Manickam
Plant Omics , 2008,
Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) are associated with desiccation tolerance among photosynthetic organisms and have been reported in mono- and dicot plants as well as in nematodes, yeast, bacteria and cyanobacteria. Although the functional role of LEA proteins remains speculative, there is evidence supporting their participation in acclimation and/or in the adaptive response to stress. EMV1 is a Group 1 LEA protein isolated from Vigna radiata, which is speculated to impart desiccation tolerance in plants. The homology model of this protein was generated by using the LOOPP software based on available structural homologues in protein databases. The final model obtained by molecular mechanics and dynamics method was refined and assessed by PROCHECK and shown to be reliable. The generated model could prove be helpful in understanding functional characteristics of this important class of desiccation tolerance protein
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