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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13292 matches for " Muhammad Zafarullah Khan "
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An Insight of Ecosystem Capitals and Services of the Kaghan Valley: The Himalayan Region of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Alia Naz, Salma Khalid
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.42021

The Kaghan Valley is in the territorial jurisdiction of Mansehera District, named after a tiny village Kaghan, at the end of the valley. The valley culminates in the tree-clad high mountains and glaciers in the North-East with varying altitudes from 1 to 5 thousand meters above sea level. The region is relatively active geophysically, hydrologically and biologically diverse by virtue of the altitude and aspect-driven variability in energy and moisture. In such region a better understanding of changes in land resources, production of agronomic and horticultural crops, use of timber and non-timber products, and livestock structure/composition have important implications and understanding these changes along with the indigenous knowledge of mountain people which, is key to sustainable development of the Himalayan region. Our results showed that the main causes of lowest agriculture production in the area are poor crop management in context of the mountains, drought spells, low soil fertility, land fragmentation and tenancy status of the agricultural land. Off season vegetables cultivation on the sloppy land leads to sever soil erosion and soil land degradation of this mountain ecosystem. Overgrazing during the summer season is another problem as the pastures are visited both by the Afghan and local nomads without relating with carrying capacity of the alpine meadows. The overgrazed soil is usually subject to rainfalls and severe soil erosion. Any use of resources of such fragile rare high mountain ecosystem requires a great sense of responsibility but in this case the forest resources are being plundered and are used roughly. We recommend adequate use of agricultural inputs, specific crop management practices for mountain agriculture. Local social welfare organizations should work to create awareness about the sustainable use of natural

Model Farm Services Center Approach: An Implication to Boost Farmer’s Yield  [PDF]
Rehmat Ullah, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Kalim Ullah, Tahir Munir Butt
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69092
Abstract: The instant study was conducted to estimate the Model Farm Services Center’s (MFSC) contribution in yield improvement of major crops/vegetables in district Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during the year 2014-15. Based on Sekaran sampling technique 306 respondents were selected and were personally interviewed through well prepared and pre-tested interview schedule. To find out the actual performance of yield improvement by Model Farm Services Center along with other repressors, step by step analysis was performed. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test showed significant improvement in yield of sugarcane, wheat, maize, rice and tomato by Model Farm Services Center. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed highly significant positive relation of sugarcane and wheat yield difference before and after Model Farm Services Center registration with MFSC. Ordinary Least Square Multiple-Regression Model indicates that MFSC registration duration and landholding significantly define the variation in dependent variables at 1% and 5% level of significance respectively for sugarcane yield. Whereas solely Model Farm Services Center registration duration profoundly highly significantly (P ≤ 0.01) explains the variation in dependent variables in wheat yield.
Effects of different planting systems on yield of potato crop in Kaghan Valley: A mountainous region of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Qasim, Salma Khalid, Alia Naz, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sohail Ahmad Khan
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.44025

Conversion of potato from conventional methods to wide bed planting systems may increase water and nitrogen use efficiency in commercial potato production system by reducing the amount of irrigation water and water applied nitrogen fertilizer bypassing the potato root zone. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) cv. Desiree was tested against different planting system for yield and yield components at Kaghan, a high mountainous Himalayan region ofPakistan. The experiment was carried out at Himalayan Agricultural Research Station (HARS), Kaghan during the summer season of 2005. The results showed that maximum tuber growth (88.7%), number of stems per plant (3.5), plant expansion (45.5 cm), average number of tubers per plant (10.1) and yield per hectare (12.4 t/ha) were significantly different and higher when potatoes were planted on wide bed and covered with soil from one side. Tallest plants (53.4 cm) were observed when potatoes were sown on the ridges. Maximum number of green potatoes (12.5) and injured potatoes (5.3%) were observed when the tubers were planted following local farmers’ method. Keeping in view the soil type, land slopping, we recommend sowing potatoes on relatively plain wide beds and covering it with soil from one side, for potato cultivation in the area.

Molecular targets of natural health products in arthritis
Sarah Khalifé, Muhammad Zafarullah
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3222
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) cause enormous patient suffering and economic burden. Due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)- and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor-associated ulcers and cardiovascular adverse events, novel anti-arthritis therapies are needed. Natural health product (NHP) use by patients to alleviate symptoms is rising globally. However, the quality of NHPs is poorly regulated and their efficacy, toxicity and mechanism(s) of action are not understood. Using state-of-the-art approaches, Haqqi and colleagues report in Arthritis Research and Therapy [1] that human chondrocytes expressed the p38-mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms p38α, -γ and -δ, but not p38β. IL-1β enhanced phosphorylation of p38α-MAPK and p38γ-MAPK but not of p38δ-MAPK. They showed by gene-silencing that p38-MAPK activation was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3). A standardized pomegranate extract (PE) specifically diminished IL-1-induced and MKK3- activated p38α-MAPK isoform and Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) activity. PE did not interfere with the binding of IL-1β to IL-1 receptor, thus ruling out steric hindrance as a suppression mechanism. PE also inhibited JNK-MAPK and NF- κB activity.p38, JNK-MAPK and NF-κB pathways are also major targets of drug discovery in arthritis. The p38 cascade regulates proinflammatory genes post-transcriptionally but remains a controversial target due to modest efficacy and severe toxicity in clinical trials [2]. The NF-κB pathway regulates cytokine and ADAMTS-4 genes, and is an important therapeutic target in arthritis [3]. Activated JNK and c-Jun constitute AP-1 factor, which enhances synovitis in RA and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated cartilage loss [4]. Runx2 regulates induction of collagen II-destroying human MMP-13 and aggrecandegrading, ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) genes [5], whose inhibition by PE could potential
Mithramycin downregulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in articular chondrocytes
Abdelhamid Liacini, Judith Sylvester, Wen Li, Muhammad Zafarullah
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1735
Abstract: A major pathological manifestation of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis is the degeneration of articular cartilage [1,2]. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-3 and MMP-13 are known to cleave collagens and aggrecan of cartilage extracellular matrix [3-5]. The concentrations of several MMPs are increased in cartilage, synovial membrane and synovial fluid of patients with arthritis [6,7]. Indeed, cartilage-specific overexpression of active human MMP-13 causes OA in mice [8]. Proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are also increased in arthritic joints and are known to induce catabolic pathways leading to an enhanced expression of MMPs [9-11]. Inhibition of these proteases is regarded as an important approach for reducing damage in arthritic tissues [12].AP-1 binding sites found in the promoter regions of the genes encoding MMP-3 and MMP-13 are essential for the expression of these genes [13,14]. Sp1 transcription factor is a zinc-finger type transcription factor whose binding sites are found in numerous housekeeping and inducible genes [15]. Human MMP-13 promoter has one putative Sp1 consensus site [16]. Mithramycin is an aureolic acid anti-neoplastic antibiotic that is used for treating cancer-related hypercalcemia [17]. Previous work has revealed that it inhibits bone resorption in vitro, possibly by interfering with bone cell lysosomal enzymes [18]. It also prevents the binding of Sp1 transcription factor to its cognate site in DNA by modifying the CG sequences [19]. Here we have studied the impact of mithramycin on proinflammatory cytokine-induced MMP expression. We show for the first time that mithramycin potently suppresses MMP induction by IL-1, IL-17 and TNF-α in chondrocytic cells without impairing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).Human cartilage was acquired from the femoral heads of OA patients who underwent hip-replacement surgery at the Notre-Dame
Effect of Optimum Harvesting Dates (OHD) on the Quality of Red Delicious Apple
Javid Ullah,Nasir Khan,Tariq Ahmad,M. Zafarullah
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Apple fruits (Cv. Red delicious) were picked at Ist, 6th, 11th, 16th and 21th September, 2001 in village Ronial (1360 m elevation at sea level) Tehsil Matta, District Swat. The data on different parameters were recorded during pre-storage. The effect of dates of picking on the fruit quality of apple were evaluated. The flesh firmness (Kg cm-2) and strief index decreased significantly (P<0.05), while starch iodine index and total soluble solids (TSS) increased significantly (p<0.05) with the delay in picking.
Modeling the Parking Pricing of Multiple Parking Facilities under Different Operation Regimes  [PDF]
Fan Wenbo, Muhammad Babar Khan
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2012.23028
Abstract: To explore the parking pricing of multiple parking facilities, this paper proposes a bi-level programming model, in which the interactions between parking operators and travelers are explicitly considered. The upper-level sub-model simulates the price decision-making behaviors of the parking operators whose objectives may vary under different operation regimes, such as monopoly market, oligopoly competition, and social optimum. The lower level represents a network equilibrium model that simulates how travelers choose modes, routes, and parking facilities. The proposed model is solved by a sensitivity based algorithm, and applied to a numerical experiment, in which three types of parking facilities are studied, i.e., the off-road parking lot, the curb parking lot, and the parking-and-ride (P&R) facility. The results show in oligopoly market that the level of parking price reaches the lowest point, nonetheless the social welfare decreases to the lowest simultaneously; and the share of P&R mode goes to the highest value, however the total network costs rise also to the highest. While the monopoly market and the social optimum regimes result in solutions of which P&R facilities suffer negative profits and have to be subsidized.
Therapeutic Effectiveness of Hijama in Sciatica Pain  [PDF]
Muhammad Bilal, Rafeeq Alam Khan
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.78040
Hijama is an alternative mode of treatment also known as cupping therapy. It involves removal of subcutaneous stagnant blood through suction cups after making superficial incisions at particular area of the body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of hijama in sciatica pain at Aligarh Shifa hospital. 92 patients with the history of sciatica were selected randomly between 18 - 75 years of age and hijama cups were applied generally at C7, T2 and L5/S1 vertebrae, while two cups were also applied bilaterally on L4/L5 vertebrae, four cups were additionally applied on hip joint, back of thigh, knee and calf muscle, all cups were applied thrice at an interval of 15 days between each session. The decrease in sciatic pain was assessed after three sessions of Hijama by numeric pain rating scale there was overall significant reduction in pain with 67 percent patients showing relief in pain up to varying degree. Present study suggests that hijama has been found to be effective in relieving pain and improving quality of life in majority of the patient’s, hence may be used as effective alternative tool to alleviate pain.
Shale Gas Characterization of Sembar Formation, Khipro Area, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Zainab Bibi
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.78076
Abstract: This study pertains to the evaluation of shale gas and rock physics properties of this area with respect to its total organic content of Sember Formation, Khiproarea, Pakistan. We use well logs data for this study. The Khipro area is prominent in the Lower Indus Basin for its hydrocarbon (oil and gas) structural traps. In shale gas evaluation, TOC of Sember Formation is estimated. The analysis has been done with the help of the wire line data of the well Bilal North-01. The presence of shale gas in the study area is analyzed with the help of different techniques. Rock physics and petrophysical analysis have been done in order to get the properties of the area related to the shale gas evaluation.
Design of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System  [PDF]
Naseer Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Faisal Mehmood, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Arif
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.58001
Abstract: This paper presents a grid connected photovoltaic system (PV) with a proposed high voltage conversion ratio DC-DC converter which steps up the variable low input voltages of photovoltaic module to the required DC link voltage. This voltage is applied to an H-bridge inverter which converts DC voltage into AC voltage and a low pass filter is used to filter the output. By adjusting the duty ratio of switches in DC-DC converter, the magnitude of inverter’s output voltage is controlled. The frequency and phase synchronization are ensured by a feedback signal taken from the grid. In this way, inverter is synchronized and connected with the grid to meet the energy demand. The PV system has been designed and simulated.
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