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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7149 matches for " Muhammad Siddique "
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Simulation of Diode-Pumped Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Generating Eye-Safe Signal in IOPO Environment  [PDF]
Mian M. Ashraf, Muhammad Siddique
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2012.23025
Abstract: Numerical simulation of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser leading to the generation of eye-safe signal in singly resonant Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator (IOPO) is presented. Starting from rate equations, the time dependent laser equations have been solved numerically, whereas the space-dependent OPO equations analytically. Our results show that 1.4 J diode laser (810 nm) pulse with 200 msec width, delivers 30 mJ Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) pulse with 5 n-second width. This Nd:YAG laser further generates 9 mJ eye safe signal (1570 nm) pulse with 2.5 n-second width.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Thrombocytopenia is a well known complication in the surgical intensivecare unit (ICU) patients. The influence of thrombocytopenia on patient’s mortality is difficult to assess.Thrombocytopenia results in increased mortality and transfusion requirement of platelets and other blood products, hasnot been confirmed by previous studies. We performed a case control study in surgical intensive care unit of CombinedMilitary Hospital Rawalpindi in which 119 critically ill surgical patients developed thrombocytopenia of less than 50x109platelets/L. These patients were carefully matched with control patients for the severity of underlying disease andimportant variables. Purpose of study was to evaluate attributable mortality and transfusion requirement inthrombocytopenic patients at that unit.. Fifty-two (44%) cases died versus forty (33%) control patients. Eighty one (76%)matched pairs had a concordant outcome and in 25% of those pairs, the cases died (exact binomial probabilities0.036). The estimated attributable mortality rate was 18.4% (95% confidence interval 3.12-11.8) and the estimated oddsratio was 2.6 (95% confidence interval 1.02-7.10). The estimated attributable transfusion requirement was 23% (95%confidence interval 5.3-43.5) and the estimated odds ratio was 1.51.This study suggests that thrombocytopenia of lessthan 50x10 /L seems to be a marker 9 of severity the illness and increases risk of death. Thrombocytopenia also leadsto more blood product consumption.
Tax Shield and Its Impact on Corporate Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Stock Market  [PDF]
Akhlaq ul Hassan, Mubashar Tanveer, Muhammad Siddique, Muhammad Mudasar
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.54023

The problem: what is the taxation impact on dividend policy? While much optimal taxation research focuses on the economic effects of taxation, the purpose of this study is to add a new dimension by investigating the relationship between taxation and payout ratio and some other variables of dividend policy. These relations are tested using the data from financial statements of KSE listed companies. The results show that tax shield has no significant relation to the dividend payout ratio but mostly dividend policy is due to the size of the firm and its profitability.

NGO field workers in Pakistan
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Economia : Seria Management , 2009,
Abstract: NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan
NGOs and poverty issues in peri-urban areas
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Economia : Seria Management , 2010,
Abstract: Poverty reduction is the top-most element in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the United Nations those have provided a broad way for the development planning professionals on the globe to assess their past performance in the important aspects of development planning as well as to plan their strategies for the design period of 2000-2015. The United Nations sees the nations as members of a global family and expects them to work for the fellow-beings setting some guidelines, for instance, ‘The millennium Development Goals can be achieved if immediate steps are taken to implement existing commitment.
Seasonal Changes in the Abundance of Bandicota bengalensis in Irrigated Croplands, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique,Mohammad Arshad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: In wheat-sugar-cane-fodder agro-system the pattern of abundance and movement of the bandicoot rat (Bandacota bengalensis) was studied. The area was divided into six blocks each of 25 acers in size. Each month 8 acers of land under wheat, sugar-cane and fodder crops was randomly selected and sampled for the rat, using snap traps. Sugar-cane was found to be the most preferred crop by the bandicoot rat; the average trap success being 4.10%. This crop provide shelter to the rats almost throughout the year. Fodder crops were next to the sugar-cane in order of preference crop having an average trap success 1.35%. This crop also provide shelter to the rats throughout the year. The bandicoot rat started moving into the wheat crop in February and started feeding on wheat plants in booting stage. The rat attained peak abundance in the wheat crop in March and April. The average trap success for this crop was noted as 0.82%. The fall season is the best time and the sugar-cane and fodder crops are the best sites for applying the rodenticides.
Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Hydroquinone in Skin Whitening Cosmetics  [PDF]
Saima Siddique, Zahida Parveen, Zeeshan Ali, Muhammad Zaheer
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23042
Abstract: Hydroquinone has been used for decades as a skin lightening agent. Its use in cosmetics has been banned as a result of skin problems including contact dermatitis and ochronosis. A total of 22 samples of different skin whitening cosmetics were collected from local market. They were analyzed by using thin layer chromatography and HPLC for qualitative and quantitative determination of their hydroquinone contents. The hydroquinone was extracted from samples by using 96% ethanol and was subjected to TLC analysis. Eleven out of 22 samples were found to contain hydroquinone. The HPLC analysis showed the concentration of hydroquinone ranged from 0.002% to 0.092% in the cosmetic samples.
Dynamics of Drainage of Power-Law Liquid into a Deformable Porous Material  [PDF]
Javed I. Siddique, Forrest A. Landis, Muhammad R. Mohyuddin
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.44030
Abstract: In this study we explore the one-dimensional drainage of a power-law fluid into a deformable porous material. Initially, the fluid is imbibed into the dry undeformed material due to capillary suction which in turn deforms the porous material and forms liquid and solid interfaces. Mixture theory is employed to study the movement of the liquid and solid phases. The zero-gravity model contains the similarity solution that is solved numerically. The stress gradient within the deformable porous material is induced from a pressure gradient that produces an evolving solid fraction and hence deformation. In the absence of gravity effects, the deformation of the solid seems in the same direction of imbibition. This is because of attraction of gravity. Note that these liquid and solid dynamics depend on both the power-law indexes n and μ. We performed the experiments to measure the drainage and deformations of deformable porous materials for two samples of silicon oil (polydimethylsiloxane) in a polyurethane foam. Our experiments show that the silicon with high viscosity drains slower than silicon oil with low viscosity. The theoretical and experimental results show the same qualitative trend.
Measurement and Analysis of PDDs Profile and Output Factors for Small Field Sizes by cc13 and Micro-Chamber cc01  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamran Rasheed Nasir, Nauman Amjad, Aasia Razzaq, Tariq Siddique
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2017.61005
Abstract: Small radiation fields are abundantly used in modern radiotherapy techniques like in IMRT and SRS. In order to commission these techniques, dosimetric data for small fields is required. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric measurements with two different ion chambers cc13, and cc01 for smaller fields. Dosimetric measurements are beam profile, output factor, pdds, and collimator factor. Dosimetric data is acquired in water phantom for two different photon beam energies 6 MV and 15 MV with zero gantry angle. In beam profiles cc13 chamber, measure wider penumbra as compare to cc01. And this wider measurement of penumbra occurs for smaller as well as for larger field sizes. Accumulated relative error in the measurement of penumbra for number of field sizes and 6 MV at dmax, and at 10 cm depth are 34.32% and 27.72% respectively. Accumulated relative error in the measurement of penumbra for number of field sizes and 15 MV at dmax, and at 10 cm depth are 28.49% and 23.92%. In case of output factor for smaller fields cc13 underestimates the output factor relative to cc01, with non-linear increase for smaller fields. But for larger fields, this increase in output factor is almost linear difference of two chambers is decreased. For very smaller fields <2 cm × 2 cm, relative error in output factor of cc13 and cc01 is greater than 5% and rapidly increases with decreasing field size. But for lager fields, this relative error is negligible. In measurement of pdds after the buildup region difference occurs in the response of two chambers cc13 and cc01 for smaller fields. For field sizes ≤2 cm × 2 cm average cc13-cc01 at various depths 30 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm, 70 cm, and 80 cm is almost greater than 0.5 cm. And similarly as output factor, this difference (cc13-cc01) increases with field size decreasing.
Relative Density of Porcupine (Hystrix indica) Population in Forest Plantation by Food Station Transect Method
Mian Muhammad Siddique,Mohammad Arshad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Relative density of Porcupine (Hystrix indica) was recorded in forest plantation near Lalian, Tehsil Chiniot, District Jhang from March 1990 through March 1991. The objective of the study was to correlate the relative density of Porcupine with the density of active porcupine burrow systems. Three transect lines having 10 food stations spaced 100 m apart were operated for four consecutive days during the months of March (1990), May (1990), July (1990), November (1990), January (1991) and March (1991). The index values calculated (average of the four days of operation) varied greatly from month to month. In transect line 1 visitation index varied from 18 to 53%, in transect line 2 from 10 to 58% and in transect line 3 from 23 to 60%. The monthly indices of all the three transect lines varied from 18 to 53%. The average distance recorded between the food stations of transect line 1 and live burrows of Porcupines was 340.70 60.10m and the similar averages for transect line 2 and transect line 3 were recorded i.e. 324 29.09 and 655.20 27.61 m, respectively. So far as the active porcupine burrows present in the forest plantation are concerned, in the March (1990) survey, 7 simple and 11 complex burrows, in November (1990), 6 simple and 12 complex and in March (1991), 6 simple and 13 complex burrows were recorded.
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