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Case Report: Mediastinal Ganglioneuroma Presented as Chronic Diarrhea in a Young Saudi Girl  [PDF]
Khaled I. Alqoaer, Muflih Albalawi, Mohammed S. Alnoaiji, Amjad Khan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.57057

Ganglioneuromas (GN) are rare, benign neurogenic tumors that arise from sympathetic ganglia. They are often asymptomatic. However, in rare cases, they may secrete catecholamines, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides (VIP), or androgenic hormones and manifest with flushing, symptoms of catecholamine excess or chronic diarrhea. We report a young Saudi girl with chronic secretory diarrhea, severe hypokalemia and abdominal distension. After an extensive work up, a well-defined hypodense heterogeneous mediastinal mass was noted in radio imaging. A complete recovery was seen after surgical removal of that mediastinal mass which turned to be a ganglioneuroma.

Potential of Rooftop PV Systems on Weekly Peak Load Shaving in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Hani Albalawi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.92003
Abstract: In recent years, high annual increasing load demand in Saudi Arabia has led to large investments in the construction of conventional power plants, which use oil or gas as the main fuel. The government is considering a large deployment of renewable energy for its 2030 vision plan. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the best potential candidates for harvesting solar energy because of the country’s geographical location, clear sky, and vast land area. A recent energy policy announced by the government involves harvesting solar photovoltaic (PV) energy to reduce the country’s reliance on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Using rooftop PV systems can help to shave the peak load and lead to a significant savings in the power sector through the reduction of annual installation of conventional power plants and standby generators. Employing solar PV at the end user level helps to reduce the overloading of transmission and distribution lines as well as decreases power losses. This paper will provide ratings for different rooftop PV systems that are being considered for installation for customers with various needs. The distribution of PV installation among the customers is as follows: 5% residential, 10% commercial, and 20% government. The effect of PV output power on weekly peak demand has been evaluated. The paper has also investigated the impact of the temperature on PV output power, especially during the summer. The PV power contribution is analyzed based on the assumption that weekly peak power production of solar PV coincides with weekly peak load demand. The PV model is implemented in Matlab to simulate and analyze the PV power.
Power Quality Study of an Isolated Northwest Grid of Saudi Arabia with PV and Storage  [PDF]
Hani Albalawi, Elham Makram
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.36006
Abstract: One main concern of power quality is harmonics because the distorted waveforms of current and voltage have a huge effect on electrical equipment. Due to the continuous increase of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) and nonlinear loads, as a result of the fast development and growth of power electronics application, power quality becomes more important since it introduces harmonics to the power system. This paper presents a power quality study to the isolated northwest grid of Saudi Arabia in presence of PV system and battery storage. Moreover, the study includes nonlinear loads for more analysis regarding harmonics penetration and the design procedure for passive filters to eliminate the harmonics.
A Multi-Model Approach to Design a Robust SVC Damping Controller Using Convex Optimization Technique to Enhance the Damping of Inter-Area Oscillations Considering Time Delay  [PDF]
Abdlmnam Abdlrahem, Hani Albalawi
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.912047
Abstract: This paper introduces a multi-model approach to design a robust supplementary damping controller. The designed fixed-order supplementary damping controller adjusts the voltage reference set point of SVC. There are two main objectives of the controller design, damping low frequencies oscillations and enhancing power system stability. This method relies on shaping the closed-loop sensitivity functions in the Nyquist plot under the constraints of these functions. These constraints can be linearized by choosing a desired open-loop transfer function. The robust controller is designed to minimize the error between the open-loop of the original plant model and the desired transfer functions. These outcomes can be achieved by using convex optimization methods. Convexity of the problem formulation ensures global optimality. One of the advantages of the proposed approach is that the approach accounts for multi-model uncertainty. In contrast to the methods available in the literature, the proposed approach deals with full-order model (i.e., model reduction is not required) with lower controller order. The issue of time delay of feedback signals has been addressed in this paper for different values of time delay by applying a multi-model optimization technique. The proposed approach is compared to other existing techniques to design a robust controller which is based on H2 under pole placement. Both techniques are applied to the 68-bus system to evaluate and validate the robust controller performance under different load scenarios and different wind generations.
The Relationship of Age and Clinicopathologic Pattern to the Aggressiveness of Thyroid Cancer  [PDF]
Ibrahim Altedlawi AlBalawi
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.99062
Abstract: Objective: To study the relation of age and clinicopathologic pattern to the aggressiveness of thyroid cancer cases and the treatment results of patients from western region of Saudi Arabia with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for treatment in King Abdulaziz Hospital and Oncology Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective review of 174 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, treatment protocol and results were performed. Results: Analysis of the clinicopathologic pattern showed no statistically significant difference between patients in the different age groups except for extrathyroid extension and lymph node involvement. Patients older than 45 years had a statistically significant lower incidence of nodal involvement and a higher rate of extrathyroid extension (<0.02). In this study, we used a high dose method (Radioiodine-131 dose 75 - 100 mCi) for thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy (total or near total) in 134 patients. An Iodine-131 dose of 200 mCi was used in 8 patients with distant metastases. In 24 patients with radioiodine-avid cervical lymph nodes and six patients with a gross residual tumor, an Iodine-131 dose of 150 mCi was used. For the whole study group, the 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were
Primary Surgery Compared to Post Chemotherapy Surgery for Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Ibrahim Altedlawi AlBalawi
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.910064
Abstract: Purpose: To compare primary surgery and surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Methods: Between January 2011 & December 2015, 112 patients with LABC were treated at KAAH & OC-Jeddah-KSA, Of whom 42 were treated by NCT followed by surgery either mastectomy or conservative surgery, then adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The rest patients (70) were treated by primary surgery (mastectomy or conservative resection) and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. All patients received adjuvant antiestrogen. Patients were followed for a median duration of 33 months. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OAS) were studied for all patients, compared between both groups and related to the extent of surgery and menopausal status. Results: median age was 46.5 years for all patients; 48 years, and 46 years for NCT and primary surgery groups respectively. Median DFS was 15 months for all patients, 16 & 15 months for NCT and primary surgery groups. Median OAS was 24 months for all patients, 22 & 24 months for NCT and primary surgery groups. Difference in DFS & OAS were highly significant in favour of postmenopausal patients (p = 0.05 for DFS & p = 0.03 for OAS) while in primary surgery group the differences between pre and postmenopausal patients in DFS & OAS were statistically insignificant (p = 0.4). NCT followed by surgery group patients showed significant improvement in DFS & OAS in patients performed conservative surgery while in primary surgery group the difference was insignificant. Freedom of disease was seen in 28.6% in the NCT group and 37.1% for the primary surgery group.
Secure Operation and Optimal Generation Scheduling Considering Battery Life for an Isolated Northwest Grid of Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Hani Albalawi, Karthikeyan Balasubramaniam, Elham Makram
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.51004
Abstract: Maintenance schedule of generators in an interconnected power system presents multifaceted challenges, two important ones being optimal operation cost and secure operation. When a generator is scheduled for maintenance, achieving optimal generation scheduling for the committed generators is necessary but it is not sufficient for secure operation of power systems. This problem is decomposed into two subproblems: i) Finding the optimal set points for the generators; ii) Validating secure operation with those set points from i). Both these subproblems [i) and ii)] have been studied extensively in the literatures. However, the research here focuses on incorporating battery energy storage systems (BESS) in power operation, a renewable generation that can provide smooth and flexible reserves of power, an area that has not yet been fully explored. In addition, incorporating BESS while considering both the cost implications and addressing secure operation has not yet been addressed in previous literatures. The purpose of this paper is to present both secure and optimal operation besides improving the longevity of the BESS. Feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated on Tabuk region—an isolated northwest grid of Saudi Arabia.
Assessment of Levels of Knowledge towards Hormonal Related Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Qurayyat, Northern Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdelbaset Mohamed Elasbali, Elyasa Mustafa Elfakia Mohammed, Ziad Alonzi, Rania Abdeen Hussain Abdalla, Azizah Mazi Aldaham, Diem Fayez Aljubab, Naif Muflih Alsharari, Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.93038
Abstract: Background: Continued exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen is a critical risk for subsequent breast cancer. Thus the present study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge towards hormonal related breast cancer risk factors in Qurayyat, Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This descriptive study included 737 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Qurayyat, Northern Saudi Arabia. For females, only those agreeing to participate in the breast self-examination workshop were included, and non-respondents were included in the questionnaire. Results: For the question apropos “Inheritance as a risk factor for BC,” 405/607 (66.7%) females signposted certainly “Yes,” as well as, 70/130 (54%) males signposted certainly “Yes.” The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were not statistically significant, but the level of knowledge was relatively higher among females OR (95% CI) = 1.4321 (0.9597 to 2.1370), P = 0.0786. Are early puberty and late menopause risk factors for breast cancer?
Transferable skills of undergraduates of sciences and arts at Taibah University, El-Ula Branch, Saudi Arabia
S Albalawi, S Zalat, S El-Akkad, Z Deghash, S Ramadan
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2011,
Abstract: Transferable skills constitute a principle element in the curriculum of all educational programmes. Some human skills are transferred with birth in genetic factors, but these skills need to be discovered and developed: university teaching programmes are the main source to teach and develop these skills. This study is designed to explore the skills abilities of undergraduates as they see themselves and their abilities. Students showed great variation in skills abilities in the seven studied skills; they showed high ability for teamwork, communication, personal and development skills. Second-year students seemed more skilful than those of the first year. Women were highly skilled relative to men, the difference mostly being how wide the gap is between women and men in the seven categories of skills. When we compared Arts and Science students in these skills, there were significant differences between them, mainly in that science students were more skilful in information technology and numerical skills. These data reflect the impact of social traditions on skill development rather than as a part of the teaching process, which means that effort should be put into creating courses which will develop the skills of students.
Generalized Lymphadenopathy as the First Presentation of Granulocytic Sarcoma: A Diagnostic Challenge
Ghaleb Elyamany,Mohammed Khan,Imad El Hag,Maha El-Zimaity,Mohamed Albalawi,Abdulaziz AL Abdulaaly
Case Reports in Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/483291
Abstract: Introduction. Granulocytic sarcoma (GS), also known as chloroma or extramedullary myeloblastoma, is a solid tumor composed of primitive precursors of the granulocytic series that include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, and myelocytes. Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare tumor that may develop during acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but less frequently may precede its presentation. Although generalized lymph node enlargement is a presentation for malignant lymphoma, it can also rarely be the early presenting sign of GS. Methods. We present a case of GS mimicking lymphoma in a 45-year-old male. The patient presented with bilateral neck masses and had widespread, prominent lymphadenopathy secondary to AML as the first presenting manifestation of GS for the last 4 months with concurrent marrow AML. Result. A clinical diagnosis of lymphoma was suspected; fine needle aspiration cytology findings were also suggestive of lymphoma. However, peripheral blood and bone marrow examination reported as acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation and histopathology of excised lymph node confirmed it to be a GS not lymphoma. Conclusion. GS is often misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma because of cytomorphologic and histologic similarities of the blasts to large cell lymphoma. A careful search for immature myeloid is a useful clue to the diagnosis accompanied with appropriate immunophenotyping. 1. Introduction Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) or myeloid sarcoma is a unique rare entity. In early reports, GS was known as chloroma, because of its rich myeloperoxidase content that appeared green. GS is a solid tumor composed of immature cells of the granulocyte series [1, 2]. Most GS present with multiple masses involving any part of the body [3]. These tumors may develop during or as a presenting sign of myelogenous leukemia but may precede acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) by months or years or represent the initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML in remission [4, 5]. GS may herald leukemic transformation in myelodysplastic disorders or myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia rubra vera, myelofibrosis, and chronic eosinophilic leukemia [6, 7]. The incidence of myeloid sarcoma is 2.5 to 9.1% of the patients with AML and it is five times less frequent in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. There is predilection for males with male and female ratio of 1.2?:?1 [8]. Skin, lymph node, gastrointestinal tract, brain, bone, soft tissues, and testis are more frequently affected. The major differential diagnosis is with malignant
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