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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 197 matches for " Muahmmad Jawaad Atif "
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Multivariate Based Variability within Diverse Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Genotypes  [PDF]
Noor Saleem, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Muahmmad Jawaad Atif, Haris Khurshid, Shahid Ali Khan, Mohib Abdullah, Muhammad Jahanzaib, Humair Ahmed, Syed Farman Ullah, Azhar Iqbal, Sameena Naqi, Muhammad Ilyas, Naushad Ali, Malik Ashiq Rabbani
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2017.72007
Abstract: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) germplasm consisting 167 accessions including one check cultivar was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative traits. The present study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity and correlation among studied genotypes of B. juncea L. based on agro-morphological at NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. To investigate the genetic diversity based on morphological characters, data was recorded on 20 quantitative and 12 qualitative traits. The calculated data was analyzed through two complementary methods, i.e. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and cluster analysis. Among all the studied cultivars, significant diversity was recorded for different agro-morphological characters. Among all the parameters, maximum variance was recorded for pod shattering (427.2) followed by plant height (345.6), days to 100% flowering (336.2) and main raceme length (210.0). Among all the characters, the greatest and highly significant association (0.99) was found between days to maturity 50% and days to maturity 100% followed by correlation (0.86) among days to flowering 50% and days to flowering 100%, correlation value (0.71) was calculated among leaf length and leaf width. Using cluster analysis all the genotypes were divided into five major groups. It was observed that 7 out of 20 principal components with an Eigen value of ≥1.0 calculated for 73.92% of the total diversity observed between 167 accessions of Indian mustard (B. juncea L.). The contribution of first three PCs in the total PCs was 23.25, 12.87 and 11.24, respectively. Among all the investigated accessions two genotypes 26,813 and 26,817 showed great potential for seeds/silique, 1000-seed weight and seed yield/plant, respectively, so these genotypes are recommended for future breeding programs for achieving promising results.
On Tragocerus punjabicus Pilgrim from Type Locality Dhok Pathan, Chakwak District (Pakistan)
Muahmmad Maqsood Anwar,Muhammad Akhtar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Not Available
The Dissimilarities between Graphene and Frame-Like Structures  [PDF]
Rasheed Atif, Fawad Inam
Graphene (Graphene) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2016.52007
Abstract: Modeling and simulation allow methodical variation of material properties beyond the capacity of experimental methods. Due to the hexagonal structure of graphene, it is considered as frame-like structure. In the frame, covalent C-C bonds are taken as beams joined together with carbon atoms placed at the joints. Uniaxial beam elements, defined by their cross-sectional area, material properties, and moment of inertia represent the covalent bonds. The parameters of the beam elements are determined by establishing equivalence between structural and computational mechanics. However, the bonds connecting the carbon atoms do not have physical existence as they are a compromise between attractive and repulsive forces. Also, defects at nanoscale make graphene different from frame-like structure. In addition, the topography of graphene makes it non-linear structure and even the axial loading changes to eccentric loading. Here we show that, by using basic statics principles, disparities between graphene and frame-likes structures can be highlighted.
Modeling and Simulation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Advances in the Last Decade  [PDF]
Rasheed Atif, Fawad Inam
Graphene (Graphene) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2016.52011
Abstract: Modeling and simulation allow methodical variation of material properties beyond the capacity of experimental methods. The polymers are one of the most commonly used matrices of choice for composites and have found applications in numerous fields. The stiff and fragile structure of monolithic polymers leads to the innate cracks to cause fracture and therefore the engineering applications of monolithic polymers, requiring robust damage tolerance and high fracture toughness, are not ubiquitous. In addition, when “many-parts” cling together to form polymers, a labyrinth of molecules results, which does not offer to electrons and phonons a smooth and continuous passageway. Therefore, the monolithic polymers are bad conductors of heat and electricity. However, it is well established that when polymers are embedded with suitable entities especially nano-fillers, such as metallic oxides, clays, carbon nanotubes, and other carbonaceous materials, their performance is propitiously improved. Among various additives, graphene has recently been employed as nano-filler to enhance mechanical, thermal, electrical, and functional properties of polymers. In this review, advances in the modeling and simulation of grapheme based polymer nanocomposites will be discussed in terms of graphene structure, topographical features, interfacial interactions, dispersion state, aspect ratio, weight fraction, and trade-off between variables and overall performance.
Influence of Macro-Topography on Damage Tolerance and Fracture Toughness of Monolithic Epoxy for Tribological Applications  [PDF]
Rasheed Atif, Fawad Inam
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.42034
Abstract: Influence of topographical features on mechanical properties of monolithic epoxy samples has been studied. The topographical features studied include waviness (Wa), roughness average (Ra), root mean square value (Rq), and maximum roughness height (Rmax or Rz). The Rz of as-cast monolithic epoxy samples was 13.93 μm. By treating with velvet cloth, the Rz value significantly decreased to 2.28 μm. The Rz value of monolithic epoxy sample treated with abrasive paper 1200P was 4.85 μm which was also lower than that of as-cast monolithic epoxy samples. However, Rz values significantly increased by treating with abrasive papers 320P and 60P and became 20.32 μm and 39.32 μm, respectively. It was interesting to note that although Ra, Wa, and Rq, all increased by treating the monolithic epoxy samples with abrasive paper 1200P, however, Rz decreased by abrasive paper 1200P. A weight loss of up to 17% was observed in monolithic epoxy samples after the treatment with the abrasive papers. Both V-shaped and U-shaped notches were produced on the surfaces of the samples. The mechanical properties were significantly degraded due to surface notches mainly because of the associated stress concentration effect. The topographical features also influenced the dynamic mechanical properties and fracture mode.
Fractography Analysis with Topographical Features of Multi-Layer Graphene Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites  [PDF]
Rasheed Atif, Fawad Inam
Graphene (Graphene) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2016.54014
Abstract: The stiff and fragile structure of thermosetting polymers, such as epoxy, accomplices the innate cracks to cause fracture and therefore the applications of monolithic epoxy are not ubiquitous. However, it is well established that when reinforced especially by nano-fillers, its ability to withstand crack propagation is propitiously improved. The crack is either deflected or bifurcated when interacting with strong nano-filler such as Multi-Layer Graphene (MLG). Due to the deflection and bifurcation of cracks, specific fracture patterns are observed. Although these fracture patterns seem aesthetically appealing, however, if delved deeper, they can further be used to estimate the influence of nano-filler on the mechanical properties. Here we show that, by a meticulous examination of topographical features of fractured patterns, various important aspects related to fillers can be approximated such as dispersion state, interfacial interactions, presence of agglomerates, and overall influence of the incorporation of filler on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites.
Fractography Analysis of Monolithic Epoxy with Tailored Topography  [PDF]
Rasheed Atif, Fawad Inam
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.44051
Abstract: The topographical features of fractured tensile, flexural, K1C, and impact specimens of monolithic epoxy have been studied and correlated with mechanical properties and surface features of samples before fracture. The topographical features studied include waviness (Wa), roughness average (Ra), root mean square value (Rq), and maximum roughness height (Rmax or Rz). As surface notches generate triaxial state of stress, therefore, the crack propagation is precipitated resulting in catastrophic failure. Although surfaces can be examined before fracture for any deleterious topographical elements, however, fractured surfaces can reveal finer details about the topography. It is because, as discussed in this article, surfaces with specific topography produce fracture patterns of peculiar aesthetics, and if delved deeper, they can further be used to estimate about the topography of surfaces before fracture. In addition, treating the samples with surfaces of specific topography can help improve the mechanical properties of monolithic epoxy.
Improving Healthcare Referral System Using Lean Six Sigma  [PDF]
Atif Alkinaidri, Hemaid Alsulami
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.82013
Abstract: The World Health Organization considers the referral system, begun in 1978, to be one of the primary components of any medical system. Referral is the procedure of directing a patient to an appropriate specialist or agency. This research uses King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah, Saudi Arabia as a case study to explore using Lean Six Sigma as a way to improve healthcare referral system. King Abdullah Medical City received 16,807 referral requests in 2015, a 13.6% increase compared with 2014. Over time, the process of referral unwieldy, making the process less efficient and effective. By addressing the application of Lean principles and Six Sigma methodology to improve the referral process, this study reveals implications for their use in the healthcare industry. Then DMAIC methodology was utilized to decrease the delay in physicians’ response time to the referral system. After the Lean Six Sigma project was completed, a noticeable improvement in compliance to response times was achieved and sigma improved from 2.05 to 2.2; even greater improvement is expected after all of the long term recommendations have been applied.
Pakistan Journal of Botany , 2008,
Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the influence of rooting medium application of phosphorus on mineral nutrients status of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under normal or saline conditions. There were four levels (control, 20, 40 and 60 mmol kg-1) of NaCl and three levels of phosphorus (control, 30 and 60 mg kg-1) applied through rooting medium. Imposition of varying levels of salt stress markedly decreased the plant fresh and dry biomasses due to increase in the leaf, and root Na+, and Cl- concentrations. In contrast, a significant reduction in the leaf and root K+, Ca2+ and root P was also observed in the rice plants. A non-significant effect of salt stress was observed on leaf P, and grain Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and P concentrations. Maximum increase or decrease in these nutrients was observed at 60 mmol NaCl/kg. Different levels of phosphorus applied through rooting medium inhibit the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in leaf and roots, while enhance the leaf and root K+, P along with Ca2+. Among all levels, 60 mg kg-1 of phosphorous was observed most effective in relation to these nutrients studied in rice plants.
The Rotationally Symmetric Flow of Micropolar Fluids in the Presence of an Infinite Rotating Disk  [PDF]
Atif Nazir, Sajjad Hussain, Mohammad Shafique
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.62040
Abstract: The rotationally symmetric flow of a micropolar fluid in the presence of an infinite rotating disk has been studied numerically. The equations of motion are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations, which in turn are solved numerically using SOR method and Simpson’s (1/3) rule. The results are calculated for different values of the parameter s (the ratio of angular velocities of disc and fluid) and the suction parameter a. Moreover, three different sets of the values of non-dimensional material constants related to micropolar behavior of the fluid have been chosen arbitrarily. The calculations have been carried out using three different grid sizes to check the accuracy of the results. The research concludes that the micropolar fluids flow resembles with that of Newtonian fluids when the material constants become close to zero. The comparison of these results is presented for possible values of the parameter s.
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