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Anthelminthic Activity of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts Evaluated in Vitro on Four Developmental Stages of Haemonchus contortus from Goats  [PDF]
Gertrude Mbogning Tayo, Josué Wabo Poné, Marie Claire Komtangi, Jeannette Yondo, Alidou Marc Ngangout, Mpoame Mbida
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511185

Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal helminth of small ruminants responsible for major economic losses to small farmers worldwide. Widespread resistance to synthetic anthelminthics has stimulated a need for alternative strategies of parasite control, among which is the use of medicinal plants with natural anthelminthic properties. This study assessed in vitro the efficacy of infused and macerated aqueous extract as well ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera against fresh eggs, embryonated eggs, L1 and L2 larvae of H. contortus. For this purpose, five different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 mg/ml) were prepared from dry extracts via serial dilutions with distilled water. Fresh eggs obtained from artificially infected goat feces were exposed to these different concentrations for 48 hours, while embryonated eggs and larvae were exposed for 6 and 24 hours respectively. Distilled water and 1.5% DMSO were used as negative control. The results were expressed in terms of mean inhibition percentage of egg embryonation, mean inhibition percentage of egg hatch and mean percentage of larval mortality. An overview of results revealed that ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera was most efficient on eggs by inhibiting 60.3% ± 8.2% and 92.8% ± 6.2% eggs embryonation at 3.75 and 5 mg/ml respectively with a significant difference (P < 0.05), which contributed to obtaining the lowest LC50 value of 0.985 mg/ml. This extract also inhibited 99% ± 2%

A Cross-Sectional Study of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Children in Ghettoed, Diverse and Affluent Communities in Dschang, West Region, Cameroon  [PDF]
Catherine Fusi-Ngwa, Eveline Besong, Josué Wabo Pone, Mpoame Mbida
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101081
Abstract: Background: There is a paucity of knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic diseases which remain rampant in the Dschang municipality. Three communities around Dschang town—Ngui (slummy), Paidground (heterogeneous) and the Administrative Quarter-AQ (wealthy) were investigated to highlight the aetiology of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in children in order to enhance health policy intervention priorities. Methods: Between July and November 2009, 31 stools amples were collected from children aged six months to 18 years (mean 9 years) in 295 households across the three communities. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, source of water supply, deworming practice and treatment history. Stool samples were screened for ova/larvae of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount, brine floatation and formol-ether sedimentation methods. Results from stool tests and information obtained from questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. Results: In total, 223 (26.8%) children had single (19.9%) and multiple (7%) infections from seven parasites: the overall pre- valence was 34.7%; helminthes 19.3% and protozoa 15.4% (χ2 = 4.3, P < 0.0380); corresponding to Entamoeba histolytica 8.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.5%, Trichuris trichiura 6.8%, Entamoeba coli (5.8%), hookworm 4.6%, Giardia lamblia 0.8% and Vampirolepis (Syn: Hymenolepis) nana 0.4%. Infections were more severe and rates significantly higher in Ngui (45.9%, χ2 = 86.83, P < 0.0001) than in the AQ (17.7%) and Paidground (16.7%), and in the oldest children above 15 years (55.3%, χ2 = 111.97, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Regular sustained synchronized deworming alongside antiprotozoaics, periodic diSagnostics for all children and slummed residents which lend to intestinal protozoa; sanitary inspection of homes and water supplies; adequate drainage and community wastes disposal; and prevention education on hygiene, sanitation, safe water and health were desirable.
The In Vitro Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) on Three Life Cycle Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae)
J. Wabo Poné,Olivia Fossi Tankoua,Jeannette Yondo,Marie Claire Komtangi,Mpoame Mbida,C. F. Bilong Bilong
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/140293
Abstract: A comparative in vitro study was carried out to determine the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) leaves on the eggs (unembryonated and embryonated), first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. Four different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75?mg·mL?1) of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested. Distilled water and 5% tween were used as negative controls in the bioassay. In fact, they did not affect development of eggs, hatching, and larval survival. The extract activities were dose dependent. The ethanolic extract was more potent against embryonation (39.6 ± 2.9%) than the aqueous extract (53.3 ± 10.9%) at the highest concentration (3.75?mg·ml?1). Both types of extracts killed larvae. Mebendazole proved more lethal (EC50 of 0.745 and 0.323?mg·mL?1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The aqueous extracts were the least lethal (EC50 of 4.76 and 2.29?mg·mL?1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The ethanolic extracts showed intermediate activity (EC50 of 1.323 and 1.511?mg·mL?1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). It is concluded that the ovicidal and larvicidal properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides leaves are demonstrated in this work. 1. Introduction Helminthiases are worldwide and constitute a major health issue. More than 1 billion people are infected with gastro-intestinal helminths. Helminthiases are more common in the tropics where poor hygienic conditions and poverty increase the risk of infection. In addition, these diseases are responsible for mortality in human beings and affect especially children of school age, thus, compromising their growth, intellectual, development and their school performance as well as increasing their vulnerability to other infections. On the other hand, in domesticated animals, helminth infections impair health, welfare, and productivity. Worm infections result in increased death rate and poor growth and reproduction. To control verminosis, patients and likewise farmers use synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Unfortunately, these substances are not only less available in the countries of the South but also their cost in local markets is relatively high. Moreover, for more than two decades now, new anthelmintic molecules have not been discovered. Also, the misuse of these drugs for many years had led to the development of resistant worm strains. Some side effects are noted and the use of disinfectants to control free stage of parasites is harmful to the environment [1]. This has motivated investigation into
Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon
Timoléon Tchuinkam, Frédéric Simard, Espérance Lélé-Defo, Billy Téné-Fossog, Aimé Tateng-Ngouateu, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Mbida Mpoame, Jean-Claude Toto, Thomas Njiné, Didier Fontenille, Herman-Parfait Awono-Ambéné
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-119
Abstract: Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula.Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR) of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude significantly extended the duration of gonotrophic cycle and reduced: the EIR, their preference to human blood and consequently the malaria stability index.Malaria epidemiological rooting in the outskirts of Western Cameroon highlands evolves with increasing altitude, gradually from stable to unstable settings. This suggests a potential risk of malaria epidemi
Mbida Mohamed,Ezzati Abdellah
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) grow to be one of the dominant technology trends; new needs are continuously emerging and demanding more complex constraints in a duty cycle, such as extend the life time communication . The MAC layer plays a crucial role in these networks; it controls the communication module and manages the medium sharing. In this work we use OSC-MAC tackles combining with the performance of cooperative transmission (CT) in multi-hop WSN and the Wi-Lem technology
Essai comparé de production d'asticots dans les fientes de poule et dans la bouse de vache
Mpoame, M.,Téguia, A.,Nguemfo, EL.
Tropicultura , 2004,
Abstract: Comparative Trials on Maggot Production in Chicken Droppings and Cow Dung. Between the months of August and October 1999, trials on maggot production in fowl droppings, and in cow dung were conducted in Dschang, in western Cameroon. A completely randomised design comprising 2 treatments (substrate types) with 5 replicates each was used. Chicken droppings performed better than cow dung. The mean daily biomass was 0.12 g of maggots/kg of substrate in chicken droppings as compared to 0.037 g/kg in cow dung. The substrates were no longer productive after the 19th day. The maggots belonged to two sub-families of Muscidae: the Anthomyinae and Muscinae.
Evaluation de l'efficacité anthelminthique des extraits éthanoliques de graines de papaye (Carica papaya L.) contre l'ascardiose aviaire à Ascaridia galli chez le poulet de chair
Mpoame, M.,Komtangi, MC.,Djitie Kouatcho, F.
Tropicultura , 2008,
Abstract: Evaluation of the Efficiency of Ethanolic Extracts of Papaw Seeds (Carica papaya L.) against Ascaridia galli Ascaridiasis in Broiler Chicken. A study was carried out to study the efficiency of ethanolic extracts of papaw seeds against Ascaridia galli ascaridiasis in broiler chicken. Fifty-four 7 days old ISA 15 VEDETTE broilers raised in the Practical Training and Research Farm of Dschang University in Cameroon were inoculated with 1 ml of suspension containing approximately 100 embryonated A. galli eggs per bird. The broilers, divided into 3 groups of 18 birds, after 47 days, received either 0 g/l, 1.5 g/l and 3 g/l of ethanolic papaw seeds extracts administered one time only and corresponding to Do, D3/2 and D3 treatments. The reduction rates of number of eggs per gramme of faeces were 2.4%, 72.7%, 82.1% for treatment Do, D3/2 and D3 respectively. The reduction rates of parasitic load were 49% and 76% respectively for treatment D3/2 and D3 compared to parasitic load obtained from control Do at autopsy. Average weight gains a week after treatment was 108 g, 297 g and 400 g in Do, D3/2 and D3 treatment respectively. Ethanolic extracts of papaw seed appear to be efficient in the treatment of A. galli ascaridiasis at the doses of 1.5 g/l and 3 g/l in broiler.
环境工程 , 2012, DOI: 10.13205/j.hjgc.201203035
Abstract: 实验考察了影响双碱法再生过程的主要操作参数,包括搅拌速率、再生时间和pH值变化、反应温度、n(Ca(OH)2)/n(Na2SO3)等。使用XRD验证产物成分,用扫描电镜分析了再生CaSO3的形态。实验结果表明Na2SO3浓度0.3和0.4mol/L时,保持搅拌速率500r/min、再生反应时间1min、温度50℃能够取得最好的再生效果,一次再生后未反应的Ca(OH)2含量大约是34%;降低n(Ca(OH)2)/n(Na2SO3)能提高Ca(OH)2利用率。实验结果能够给再生系统的工程设计提供一定的指导。
Evaluation de l'efficacité des extraits aqueux de graines de papaye (Carica papaya L.) dans le traitement de la coccidiose caecale à Eimeria tenella chez le poulet de chair
Mpoame, M.,Téguia, A.,Akoa Etoa, JM.
Tropicultura , 2003,
Abstract: Evaluation of the Efficiency of Aqueous Extracts of Papaw Seeds (Carica papaya L.) for the Treatment of Caecum Eimeria tenella Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken. A study was carried out to study the efficiency of aqueous extracts of papaw seeds for the treatment of caecum Eimeria tenella coccidiosis in broiler chicken. Eighty eight 37-day old caged ISA15 VEDETTE broiler chickens were inoculated with a suspension of 3500 ± 1050 E. tenella oocysts/ml. The birds then divided into 4 groups of 22 birds received 10 days later either 0 (D0 dose), 10 (D10 dose), 20 (D20 dose) or 40 g/l (D40 dose) of aqueous extracts of papaw seeds. Mortality rates of 45.5%, 34.8%, 18.2% and 9.1% were recorded for D0, D10, D20 and D40 groups respectively. As compared to infestation rate before treatment, the reduction rate of the number of oocysts/g of faeces was respectively 6.6%, 42.8%, 73.6% and 91.8% for D0, D10, D20 and D40. Average daily weight gain was 42.7 g, 47.8 g, 69.8 g and 86 g for treatments D0, D10, D20 and D40, respectively while average weekly feed efficiency ratio values of 3.9, 4.1, 2.4 and 1.9 were respectively recorded for D0, D10, D20 and D40 treatments. Aqueous extracts of papaw seeds seemed to be efficient in the treatment of caecum E. tenella coccidiosis in broiler chickens.
The Production Performance of Broiler Birds as Affected by the Replacement of Fish Meal by Maggot Meal in the Starter and Finisher Diets
Téguia, A.,Mpoame, M.,Okourou Mba, JA.
Tropicultura , 2002,
Abstract: The effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal in the starter and grower-finisher diets on the production performances of broiler chickens was studied. For both the starter and the grower-finisher periods, total weight gain in the control group receiving exclusively fish meal was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than that of birds receiving the diet containing the largest amount of maggot meal. No significant difference (P> 0.05) was detected among treatment groups for feed conversion ratio for both the starter and grower-finisher periods. No significant difference was detected among treatment groups for either hot carcass yield or proportion of different parts of the carcass, although increasing the amount of maggot meal in the diet tended to increased proportion of liver and gizzard. Although no significant difference was recorded among treatment groups for the feed cost for the production of one kg of live weight, there was a 4 to 16% reduction in cost of production as compared to the control group for both the starter and the grower-finisher periods. It was concluded that from the technical and economic point of view, maggot meal could replace fish meal, but that the earlier should be analysed for toxicity before it could be widely used for broiler chicken feeding.
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