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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144 matches for " Motohiro Ozone "
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Factors Associated with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome under CPAP Treatment  [PDF]
Wataru Yamadera, Shintaro Chiba, Masayuki Iwashita, Ryo Aoki, Daisuke Harada, Miki Sato, Hiroto Moriwaki, Keita Obuchi, Motohiro Ozone, Seiji Nishino, Hiroshi Itoh, Kazuhiko Nakayama
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.33039
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with subjective sleep evaluation, chiefly excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) adult outpatients under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. One thousand and forty-eight OSAS outpatients (mean age: 51.4% male: 90.5%) who were treated by CPAP were consecutively collected. Age, sex, CPAP compliance (CPAP usage as their device of nights with application-time of at least 4 hours per night objectively; %usage ≥ 4 h/d), and Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) of the patients showing EDS (Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale; JESS ≥ 11) were compared cross-sectionally with those of the patients who did not show EDS (JESS < 11). Nineteen point two % of all patients showed EDS subjectively. Two hundred one patients were classified to an EDS(+) group and an 847 patients were classified to EDS(–) group. Age and global PSQI-J scores were significantly different between the two groups. Logistic regression showed that EDS was significantly associated with global PSQI-J scores, but not with age. Among PSQI-J components, overall sleep quality, duration of sleep, sleep disturbance, and day dysfunction due to sleepiness were significantly higher in the EDS(+) group. Especially, 19.4% of patient in the EDS(+) group reported actual sleep time during the past month to be less than 5 hours/day. Although functional relationship should be further evaluated, insufficient sleep is the main factor associated with EDS in the OSAS patients under CPAP treatment.
Endoscopic Surgical Procedures for Fungal Maxillary Sinusitis: How to Do It, a Review  [PDF]
Motohiro Sawatsubashi
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2018.75029
Abstract: Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) is categorized as being either invasive or non-invasive based on the histopathological evidence of tissue invasion by fungi. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become the gold standard treatment for non-invasive FRS including sinus fungal ball. It is considered to be an effective and safe procedure. It is important to keep a sufficient field of view in order to remove the fungal debris completely. ESS should also prevent damage to the nasal cavity structures including the inferior turbinate. This report mainly describes the endoscopic surgical procedures for fungal ball of the maxillary sinus (sinus mycelia) based on our methods and review of the literature, including written articles in Japanese. ESS procedures include the middle meatus approach for the maxillary sinus, the combined approach (both middle and inferior meatal antrostomy) for the maxillary sinus, and endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM).
Structural Modifications of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide that Facilitate Gram-Negative Bacteria Evasion of Host Innate Immunity
Motohiro Matsuura
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00109
Abstract: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component characteristic of Gram-negative bacteria, is a representative pathogen-associated molecular pattern that allows mammalian cells to recognize bacterial invasion and trigger innate immune responses. The polysaccharide moiety of LPS primary plays protective roles for bacteria such as prevention from complement attacks or camouflage with common host carbohydrate residues. The lipid moiety, termed lipid A, is recognized by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2 complex, which transduces signals for activation of host innate immunity. The basic structure of lipid A is a glucosamine disaccharide substituted by phosphate groups and acyl groups. Lipid A with six acyl groups (hexa-acylated form) has been indicated to be a strong stimulator of the TLR4/MD-2 complex. This type of lipid A is conserved among a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria, and those bacteria are easily recognized by host cells for activation of defensive innate immune responses. Modifications of the lipid A structure to less-acylated forms have been observed in some bacterial species, and those forms are poor stimulators of the TLR4/MD-2 complex. Such modifications are thought to facilitate bacterial evasion of host innate immunity, thereby enhancing pathogenicity. This hypothesis is supported by studies of Yersinia pestis LPS, which contains hexa-acylated lipid A when the bacterium grows at 27°C (the temperature of the vector flea), and shifts to contain less-acylated forms when grown at the human body temperature of 37°C. This alteration of lipid A forms following transmission of Y. pestis from fleas to humans contributes predominantly to the virulence of this bacterium over other virulence factors. A similar role for less-acylated lipid A forms has been indicated in some other bacterial species, such as Francisella tularensis, Helicobacter pylori, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, and further studies to explore this concept are expected.
Demazure Character Formulas for Generalized Kac--Moody Algebras
Motohiro Ishii
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: For a dominant integral weight $lambda $, we introduce a family of $U_q ^+ (mathfrak{g})$-submodules $V_w (lambda)$ of the irreducible highest weight $U_q (mathfrak{g})$-module $V(lambda)$ of highest weight $lambda $ for a generalized Kac--Moody algebra $mathfrak{g}$. We prove that the module $V_w (lambda)$ is spanned by its global basis, and then give a character formula for $V_w (lambda)$, which generalizes the Demazure character formula for ordinary Kac--Moody algebras.
Path Model for Representations of Generalized Kac--Moody Algebras
Motohiro Ishii
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We show that Joseph-Lamprou's path model for representations of generalized Kac-Moody algebras can be embedded into Littelmann's path model for certain Kac-Moody algebras. Using this embedding, for Joseph-Lamprou's path crystals, we give a decomposition rule for tensor product and a branching rule for restriction to Levi subalgebras. Also, we obtain a characterization of standard paths in terms of a certain monoid, which can be thought of as a generalization of a Coxeter group.
Antibiotic Treatment for Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Endoscopic Surgery: How Long Should Macrolide Antibiotics Be Given?  [PDF]
Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Daisuke Murakami, Shizuo Komune
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.41008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate period for macrolide antibiotic therapy, and to investigate whether this period could be shorter, for patients with chronicrhino sinusitis (CRS) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 41 patients undergoing FESS for CRS was performed. All patients underwent pre-operative computed tomography (CT). Patients with fungal sinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis, and eosinophilic sinusitis were excluded. After FESS, normalized sinus mucosa was confirmed by CT and endoscopy in all patients. Postoperative antibiotic therapy consisted of first-line and second-line regimens. Garenoxacin (GRNX), or clarithromycin (CAM, 400 mg/day) was used as the first-line regimens and low-dose macrolide therapy (CAM, 200 mg/day) was used as the second-line regimen and was prescribed at outpatient visits based on our clinical criteria. Results: Second-line antibiotic therapy (low-dose CAM) was not necessary in 12 of 41 (29%) patients, while it was prescribed in 29 of 41 (71%). The mean duration of low-dose CAM therapy after FESS was 36 days (range 7 to 122 days; median, 25 days). Patients who received second-line therapy (n = 29) were divided into two groups based on the choice of first-line therapy, a GRNX group (n = 13) and a non-GRNX group (n = 16). Those in the non-GRNX had longer periods of postoperative CAM therapy than those in the GRNX group. Conclusion: GRNX was associated with a shorter duration of low-dose macrolide therapy after FESS, and 29% of patients did not need any low-dose macrolide therapy postoperatively. Therefore, macrolide antibiotics should not be routinely prescribed after FESS.
Incorporation of Decanethiol-Passivated Gold Nanoparticles into Cross-Linked Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Films
Motohiro Tagaya,Masaru Nakagawa
Smart Materials Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/390273
Abstract: Cross-linking degree of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film was controlled, and the incorporation of hydrophobic decanethiol-passivated gold (Au) nanoparticles into the film was investigated. FT-IR spectra indicated that the hydrosilylation reaction between a vinyl group and a hydrosilyl group occurred with the cross-linking. The swelling degree of the film in toluene changed with a cross-linker concentration, indicating the control of the cross-linking degree of PDMS film. By EDX analysis, the amount of incorporated Au nanoparticles increased with decreasing a cross-linker concentration, indicating the enlarged free volume of the film. The Au nanoparticle-PDMS composite film containing a cross-linker at 6?wt% showed brown color attributed to plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles, suggesting the Au nanoparticles in the film at monodispersion state. The UV-visible absorbance of the composite film decreased without spectralshift by swelling with toluene, and the changes were reversible. The aggregation among Au nanoparticles in the composite film after calcination also depended on the cross-linking degree. Thus, the control of cross-linking degree of PDMS film successfully leaded to a simple way of fabricating the Au nanoparticle-PDMS composite film at the mono-dispersion state. 1. Introduction Metal nanoparticles are expected to have enhanced nonlinear optical properties due to plasmon resonance [1, 2], and the resonance is important in the development of optical devices [3, 4]. The production of a monodispersed nanoparitlce-matrix system with a specific cluster size would have a great impact on various technological fields such electronics and catalysis because of the electronic structure [5]. It is known that the conduction band present in a bulk metal will be absent in a nanoparticle, and instead, there would be discrete states at the band edge. The formation of metal nanoparticles in a solid support matrix by different techniques such as impregnation, evaporation, traditional melt quenching, ion implantation, ion exchange, and the sol-gel methods has been investigated [6, 7]. Development of easy formation process of the nanoparticle-matrix composite at a low temperature is required. As a nanoparticle support at a mono-dispersion, inorganic porous materials have been unique potential advantages [8, 9]. The nanoparticles are formed into the support surface by reduction of metal ion in the pore and the sintering. Although the inorganic porous supports are rigid and durable, it is difficult to prepare nonbreakable self-standing composite film. To be
Accumulation of Mast Cells in the Lesions and Effects of Antiallergic Drugs on the Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Motohiro Kurosawa,Hiroichi Nagai
Ulcers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/714807
Abstract: The pathomechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully demonstrated. However, it is well known that mast cells are present in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that mast cells may take part in it. So, we investigated the number of mast cells in IBD, such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and eosinophilic colitis, and showed that the number of mast cells was increased in the inflammatory lesions. We also presented a case of UC which was treated successfully with an antiallergic drug, tranilast. Furthermore, possible new approaches to treating the disease with immunomodulators including suplatast are introduced. However, our investigations were performed with a limited number of patients with IBD, and additional further studies are required to confirm the findings. 1. Introduction Many reports identified changes in mast cells in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is chronic inflammatory bowel disorder which shows evidence of activation of the immune system of the colorectum, with exacerbations and remissions [1–5]. However, contradicting data have also been reported regarding the distribution of mast cells in the intestinal mucosa of patients with UC; namely, the number was increased in some studies [6, 7], unchanged [8], and decreased in others [9]. One reason for the discrepancy in mast cell distribution in colonic lesions may be due to differences in the methods used for tissue preparation, such as tissue fixation, staining techniques, and methods of cell counting as described by Craig et al. [10]. In fact, conventional staining methods are inferior to the sensitive immunohistochemical techniques that use antibodies to specific mast cell proteinase such as tryptase, and some immunohistochemical studies have noted that one of the features of UC among IBDs may be a marked increase of mast cells in the affected mucosa [11, 12]. Eosinophilic colitis (EC), a subtype of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, is a disease characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and a prominent eosinophilic infiltration in the intestinal mucosa. Some reports suggested possible involvement of food allergy as the mechanism of the disease [13, 14]. Bischoff [15] reported that eosinophils and mast cells seemed to be mutually related in the allergic reaction in digestive tract mucosa. Although mast cells are thought to be critical effector cells in gastrointestinal allergic reactions [16–18], the role of mast cells in EC still remains unclear. In this paper, we investigated the number of mast cells in UC and EC using
Pressure-induced structural transitions in multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Hiroyuki Shima,Motohiro Sato
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200881706
Abstract: We demonstrate a novel cross-sectional deformation, called the radial corrugation, of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under hydrostatic pressure. Theoretical analyses based on the continuum elastic approximation have revealed that MWNTs consisting of more than ten concentric walls undergo elastic deformations at critical pressure $p_c \simeq 1$ GPa, above which the circular shape of the cross section becomes radially corrugated. Various corrugation modes have been observed by tuning the innermost tube diameter and the number of constituent walls, which is a direct consequence of the core-shell structure of MWNTs.
Multiple radial corrugations in multiwalled carbon nanotubes under pressure
Hiroyuki Shima,Motohiro Sato
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Radial elastic corrugation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated by using the continuum elastic theory. Various corrugation patterns are observed under a pressure of several GPa, wherein the stable cross-sectional shape depends on the innermost tube diameter D and the total number N of concentric walls. A phase diagram is established to obtain the requisite values of D and N for a desired corrugation pattern among choices. In all corrugation patterns, the cylindrical symmetry of the innermost tube is maintained even under high external pressure.
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