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The effects of air pollution on vitamin D status in healthy women: A cross sectional study
Farhad Hosseinpanah, Sima pour, Motahare Heibatollahi, Nilufar Moghbel, Saeed Asefzade, Fereidoun Azizi
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-519
Abstract: In this cross sectional study 200, free-living, housewives, aged between 20 to 55 years, from Tehran (high polluted area) and Ghazvin (low polluted area) were included. The Tehranian women were selected randomly from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) and the Ghazvinian females from patients who came to public health centers. Participants were excluded for disease and drugs which affect vitamin D status and also if they were pregnant or breast feeding. We measured the ground level of UVB using a Haze meter as a surrogate of air pollution. In order to calculate the adjusted mean difference of 25-OH-D, ANCOVA analysis was used. Moreover, Binary logistic regression model was developed to determine the odds of living in Tehran for having serum 25-OH-D less than 20 ng/ml.The mean ± SD of serum 25-OH-D was significantly higher in Ghazvinian women ((18 ± 11 vs. 13 ± 7), P-value < 001). The prevalence of 25-OH-D less than 10 ng/ml, and 25-OH-D between 10 and 20 ng/ml were higher in Tehranian group (36% and 54% vs. 31% and 32% in respectively). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was also significantly higher in Tehranian women (47% vs. 32%). In ANCOVA analysis, after adjustment, the mean of 25-OH-D in the Ghazvinian group was still statistically significantly higher than Tehranians (13 vs. 17 ng/ml P-value = 0.04). In addition, in binary logistic model, the odd of living in Tehran for having serum 25-OH-D less than 20 ng/ml was 5.22 (95% confidence interval 2.2-12.2, P-value < 0.001).We found that living in a polluted area plays a significant independent role in vitamin D deficiency and hence, residence can be one of the main reasons of vitamin D status of the women.Skin synthesis of vitamin D, under the influence of UVB, includes about 90% of all the body's requisites. Meanwhile, dietary sources of vitamin D (e.g., fish liver oils, egg yolks, and vitamin D fortified foods) are only responsible for a small portion of body requirements. Hence, inadequate rad
Evaluation an in–house IgM-ELISA for the diagnosis ofhuman leptospirosis
Hamidreza Honarmand,Motahare Nezafat Tabalvandi,Abtin Heidarzadeh,Bahram Soltani
Koomesh , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Leptospirosisis a very common zoonosis in the world. Culture is low sensitive withhigh rate false negative. So, serological assays are best alternative way for its diagnosis. Microscopicagglutination test (MAT) is gold standard but performing it requires a panel of some standard strainsand need periodic subculturing of them, and also requires double sera with at least two weeks intervalto investigate seroconversion. Furthermore, other serological methods should be investigated. The aimof this study was to evaluate an in-house IgM-ELISA developed by using antigen extracted fromendemic isolates.Material and Method: I4 endemic isolates belonged to the serogroups: Icterohaemorrahgia,Pomona, Hardjo, and Gripotyphosa, were inoculated in EMJH to take well grown cultures. Wholeantigen was extracted from each culture by Freezing-Thawing method in distilled water. Same amountof extraction of each culture with same OD number in 550nm were mixed together and were used forcoating Elisa plates. Antihuman IgM conjugated with alkaline phosphatase were used in this assay. Weused a commercial quantitative IgM-ELISA (SERION ELISA classic) for cut off determination. MATwas used for confirmation positive and negative cases. Sera with titer ≥ 1:100 in MAT and positivecriteria in commercial quantitative IgM-ELISA were considered as positive cases.Results: 98 positive cases and 54 negative cases were chosen by screening 200 sera of patientssuspected to leptospirosis by using MAT and commercial quantitative IgM-ELISA. We also used 30sera of patients affected by hepatitis B, salmonelosis, and brucellosis as control cases. 88 of 98 positivecases were positive (false negative=10), 1 of 54 negative and all control case were negative (falsepositive =1) in the test. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the test were evaluated:99.0% , 89.1% , 90.75 , 98.8% , and 94.25 , respectively.Conclusions: ELISA for measuring specific IgM to leptospires antigen(s) could be a goodalternative to MAT, which is not a routine diagnostic assay to perform in clinical diagnosticlaboratories and only is reliable when there is paired sera. Sensitivity and specificity of the assay isdependent to several factors, especially to the type of antigen coated on plates, quality of assaymaterials, and also to the time of sampling. Sera of days ≥ 6 of the disease has enough antibodies tomeasure and a common antigen extracted from several common pathogenic leptospires, especiallyfrom endemic isolates, could be more helpful to increase accuracy of the assay.
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment
Sayede Maryam Naghibi,Mahmoud Hosseini,Fatemeh Khani,Motahare Rahimi,Farzaneh Vafaee,Hassan Rakhshandeh,Azita Aghaie
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/494367
Abstract: In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1) control, (2) morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5) three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450?mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7) the two other groups received 150 and 450?mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01). Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450?mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Administration of both 150 and 450?mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01). The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment. 1. Introduction Crocus sativus L. is a plant with green and hairy leaves and funnel-shaped reddish-purple flowers, which is cultivated in some countries including China, Spain, Italy, Greece, and especially Iran. It is commonly known as saffron or “Zaaferan” in Iran and is added to food for its color and taste [1, 2]. The part used for medication is the central part of the flower or the female sexual organ which is also called stigma or style. The main active constituents of this plant are picrocrocin and its derivatives include safranal, flavonoid derivatives, and crocin [3]. Safranal is the main aromatic component of saffron which comprises about 60% of the volatile ingredients in saffron [4]. Crocus sativus is used in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, eupeptic, anticatarrhal, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue gingival, and sedative [3]. It has been reported that extracts of Crocus sativus prevent from scopolamine and ethanol-induced memory impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. It also protects against ethanol-induced inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) [5, 6]. In addition, it has been reported that crocin counteracts the ethanol inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated responses in rat hippocampal neurons [7]. It has been also shown that saffron attenuates cerebral ischemia [8] and
Relationship between Cell Compatibility and Elastic Modulus of Silicone Rubber/Organoclay Nanobiocomposites
Motahare Sadat Hosseini,Mohammad Tazzoli-Shadpour,Issa Amjadi,Nooshin Haghighipour
Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Substrates in medical science are hydrophilic polymers undergoing volume expansion when exposed to culture medium that influenced on cell attachment. Although crosslinking by chemical agents could reduce water uptake and promote mechanical properties, these networks would release crosslinking agents. In order to overcome this weakness, silicone rubber is used and reinforced by nanoclay..Objectives: Attempts have been made to prepare nanocomposites based on medical grade HTV silicone rubber (SR) and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nanoclay with varying amounts of clay compositions..Materials and Methods: Incorporation of nanocilica platelets into SR matrix was carried out via melt mixing process taking advantage of a Brabender internal mixer. The tensile elastic modulus of nanocomposites was measured by performing tensile tests on the samples. Produced polydimetylsiloxane (PDMS) composites with different flexibilities and crosslink densities were employed as substrates to investigate biocompatibility, cell compaction, and differential behaviors..Results: The results presented here revealed successful nanocomposite formation with SR and OMMT, resulting in strong PDMS-based materials. The results showed that viability, proliferation, and spreading of cells are governed by elastic modulus and stiffness of samples. Furthermore, adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on PDMS and corresponding nanocomposites could retain differentiation potential of osteocytes in response to soluble factors, indicating that inclusion of OMMT would not prevent osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, better spread out and proliferation of cells was observed in nanocomposite samples..Conclusions: Considering cell behavior and mechanical properties of nanobiocomposites it could be concluded that silicone rubber substrate filled by nanoclay are a good choice for further experiments in tissue engineering and medical regeneration due to its cell compatibility and differentiation capacity.
Polymorphisms in PPAR Genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese: Cross-Sectional Data from the J-MICC Study
Asahi Hishida,Kenji Wakai,Mariko Naito,Takashi Tamura,Sayo Kawai,Nobuyuki Hamajima,Isao Oze,Takeshi Imaizumi,Tanvir Chowdhury Turin,Sadao Suzuki,Motahare Kheradmand,Haruo Mikami,Keizo Ohnaka,Yoshiyuki Watanabe,Kokichi Arisawa,Michiaki Kubo,Hideo Tanaka
PPAR Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/980471
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known as a strong risk factor for both end stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the PPAR genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association among the Japanese subjects using the cross-sectional data of J-MICC (Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort) Study. The subjects for this analysis were 3,285 men and women, aged 35–69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants; genotyping was conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3–5 (defined as eGFR <?60?ml/min/1.73?m2). Participants with CKD accounted for 17.3% of the study population. When those with PPARD T-842C T/T were defined as reference, those with PPARD T-842C T/C and C/C demonstrated the OR for CKD of 1.26 (95%CI 1.04–1.53) and 1.31 (95%CI 0.83–2.06), respectively. There were no significant associations between the polymorphisms in other PPAR genes and the risk of CKD. The present study found a significantly increased risk of CKD in those with the C allele of PPARD T-842C, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future. 1. Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recently attracting attention as a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of CKD is increasing over time in Japan, reaching about 22% of the adult population in 2002 [1–4]. Although the prevalence of CKD is shown to be specifically higher in Japan compared to those in other countries [5], it is also reported that about 10–15% of adults are affected by this disease in the developed Western countries [2], suggesting that CKD is becoming a general major public health problem worldwide, making its prevention a pressing universal issue. Meanwhile, metabolic disorders are shown to play an important role in the genesis of CKD mainly through the mechanisms of insulin resistance, resultant hyperinsulinemia, and subsequent increase in plasma renin activity and plasma level of the renal vasoconstrictor angiotensin II [6]. While recent reports suggest that the MetS is an independent predictor of CKD development and progression [7], there are some other possible pathogenic factors causing CKD, such as smoking, hyperuricemia, and homocysteinemia [8]. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the firstly identified genetic sensor responsive to fatty acid
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